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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jackie F. on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MGT 480 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Christine Hagan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Organizational Development in Business, management at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
MGT 480 Test 1 CASES The General Model of Planned Change 4 major change activities 0 entering and contracting diagnosing planning amp implementing change 0 evaluating amp institutionalizing change Chapter 1 Intro to organizational development What is Organizational development 0 organizational development is a systemwide application and transfer of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development improvement and reinforcement of the strategies structures and processes that lead to organization effectiveness 0 A QUESTION WILL BE OD IS FOCUSED ON ALL OF THE FOLLOWING EXCEPT od s target organization effectiveness 0 elements of effectiveness problem solving and continuous improvement high financial and technical performance capable engaged satisfied and learning workforce 0 What s OD s relation to 0 change management initiatives 0 management consulting o technological innovation initiatives Why is od important 0 globalization of business 0 transformation of work and learning due to advances in information technology 0 rise of information technology 0 execution and innovation increasingly critical parts of managers 0 being able to translate into real world terms toolbox The Changing Organization of the let Century Competitive Uncertainty New Competitors Prices Iomestic quotalucquotQuality Multinational Reputation ilobal The Organization of the 2 1 st century Faster Quality Conscious Ernployee Involvement C ustomer Oriented Smaller Changing Technology Consumers 39ew Products Lifestyles ew Technologies Tr db 0 Continuing Evolution of CD practice the second generation Major contributions from academics Lawler Cummings Kantor Major contributions from organizations General Electric IBM Major contributions from consultants Peters Hammer amp Champy Collins amp Porras Shift in focus Satisfaction human relationships to Productivity performance effectiveness Major global push Saab Sweden Imperial Chemicals England Orrefors Sweden AkzoNobel The Netherlands Neusoft China Air New Zealand Vitro Mexico Expansion to public sector Communities Schools Governments Chapter 2 The Nature of Planned Change Change planned or unplanned response to pressures and forces 0 Internal new CEO drastic changes in business results v External Pressures Planned Change deliberate attempt to create a new different state of things 0 stronger than just ad hoc change 0 chance as Opportunitv not threat 0 change as tool to improve effectiveness Comparison of Planned Change Models Lewin39s Planned Action Research Positive Change Model Model Model l Problem Identi cation I Unfreezung I I Consultation with Behavioral Science Expert Inquire into I 39I Best Practices Data gathering Preliminary dlagl39IOSlS Discover 1 themes Feedback to key 0 client or group I Moving I 1 Joint diagnosis of problem 1 Envision a Joint action preferred future planning 1 i I Data gathering Design and deliver Refreezmg ways to create after action the future 3 General Models of planned change 1 Lewin s Planned Change Model unfreezing moving refreezing institutionalization 0 defined change as being 2 sets of forces operating in organizations 1 striving for stability maintaining status quo 2 rest of org calling for change when equilibrium 0 to ch situation 1 of forces needs to be stronger Which is more peaceful turning up pressure for stability and down pressure for change 0 process orientation 0 a deficit model focus on weakness 0 2 Action Research Model 8 steps also by Lewins a process AND content orientation 0 best change efforts occur when action or doing and researching studying are combined together has no refreezing cyclical ongoing process a deficit model focus on weakness steps 1 Problem Identification where the shortfalls occur 2 Consult w beh science expert someone who is an expert at change 3 data gathering preliminary diagnosis what we think problem is 4 feedback to key client groups sharing data to stakeholders 5 joint diagnosis of problem 0000 6 joint action planning 7ac on 8 data gathering after action see if plan hit mark 0 3 Positive Model newest model draws on appreciative inquiry find strengths and see how you can use it more often uses highly collaborate no institutionalization o cyclical model 0 draws on internal strengths eg organizational story telling Walmart 0 steps 1 inquire into best practices hist w superb results 2 discover themes what we re good at 3 envision a preferred future 4 design and deliver ways to create the future Comparison of Planned Change Models Models are similar 0 emphasis on action to drive organizational change 0 action orientation 0 change preceded by diagnosis or preparation 0 first unfreezing 0 2 problem identification 0 3 where are we strong change followed by closing stage weak similarity apply behavioral science knowledge 0 involve organization members participative recognize the OD practitioner role change manager The key differences 0 level of participant involvement 0 1 doesn t talk about content and participation 0 2 does talk about it 0 3rd appreciative inquiry 0 change in consultant role 0 focus on change 0 1 process model o 2an and 3 process and content model 0 colearning o 1 light on it o 2 strongest on it o fixing problems v leveraging strengths 0 first 2 fixing problems 0 3 looks at strength Contingency Variables in Change Efforts organizational characteristics or dimensions that tell you how difficult it is to change 0 1 magnitude of change 0 a Size and complexity how big large and historic company is the larger and more complicated the harder it is to change 0 b Degree of change how much change is needed i Developmental easiest most simple fine tuning 0 change becomes alterations that occur within context of organization 0 incremental improvements o improvement on what already exists 0 baby step model ii Transitional old state 9 transitional state 9 new state 0 diff from dev bc at some point et goes of old state trapeze artist 0 implement new state we already know clear about what needs to be done 0 the challenge is the transitional state iii Transformational most difficult orgs that have been around for a while but at some point plateau which gives way into chaos period and re emergence eg IBM model GE Apple even 0 Managerially need to help employees feel safe Three Types of Change Degree of Change Description of Leadership C hallenges Description of C hunge Enmve weruxs until1 Lumen t bpeeztleuJ idezmlj slumtlalls urgunmatmn euntext Developmental Deteet uppetuxzitzes lzieieinenml elzdlzue Change r lacuna action p42 hue tuning u Junie Innlgt11ipiu39einen Bub step ellunge l mxnie eledx zsiunuf xnpxnzetzluumz u a kizzmzi r V5116 3H are ULM new stale m er a ei39xulle1 penm1 l lune P l 1 v mute 39 an v51 m u Transmonal L unen39 my ut dulng 111211115 39 39 39 39 39 L L L quot Ch i 1 dr39 I T I T l S AhL39IL m need to be new a 1u39 iznemiuuu m emu v me l mtmmmm muquot Manage the ntezizn L edte math Major te tumxnig 39 lL 39 39 1 39 39 to were er um 4 Metaphor lzdpeze an 39redle imlui ux LIUIL Must ludzeul L39lldlLL39C r 39 I JPL I AILUHBAIUL 39 mun Ul39iU tzinemenee ul new state Jzikxzmsn 1 l detailed uehux plan 111 1 1139an 5 mm Transformational L m numbquot Chaos itam will u mJL L L39h 5 I Hel 1 mm ile lee 5811C Ch ngc Business sun nu is a stake F 39 f l gizeall elxuxeetexized by Gromh 139 Reemergence fundamental slzi in I ezixzmnznenl 39 39 Death Birth 2 degree of organization within client system 0 overorganized v underorganized continuum which you want to be in between Overorganized 0 highly mechanistic bureaucratic firms 0 not a lot of movement in their change 0 the opposite of mechanic is organic which means humanlike rigid charac inhibit task performance 0 leadership style job design org structure policies 0 employeemgt communication is suppressed machinelike system 0 conflict avoided employees apathetic and stop caring underorganized entrepreneurial firms 0 performance constrained by too little structure fragmented communication not presented to the right people 0 ambiguous lines of responsibility udk who you report to 0 ambiguous job responsibilities dkjob tasks 0 Employee energies limited by lack of specific direction 0 3 domestic v international settings 0 harder globally Chapter 3 The OF Process Who is the OD Practitioner 0 most practitionaers are OD specialist or related field 0 model a specialist career is consultant 0 model b related fields may not know overall od field but have a lot of pieces of it 0 model c internal 0 Internal from inside the organization 0 External from outside the organization 0 InternalExternal Consulting Team know characteristics of each Advantages of External vs Internal Consultants by OD Stage 011m External onsuliams InmmalLonsnliams Lawn 0 Time consuming Ready relationships 0 Select projecti39client according 0 Know company jargon 0 0quotquot mm 0 Understand root historical 0 More objective causes 0 Time etl39iment Tough to turn down assignment o Contracting C an tenninate prolect at will 39 1155 1 01quotquot339 agreements 0 Maintain thirdparty role 39 3quot 5403391191 3tc PTOJCC S assigned 0 Diagnosis Has relationships with many organization members Prestige determined by job rank and client stature Meet most organization members for the rst time 0 Prestige from being external lntervening con ne mm mmquot Can run interference for bound quot5 0t Chem client across organizational organization lines to align support 0 Access to informal organization Evaluation Seldom see longterm results can sec quotand evaluate long term results 0 Will be with organization alter change eg external take more time early in internal people have ready relationships external seldom see long term results internal are there long term Wthical dilemma in od 0 why they occur person with high knowledge and power ie change experts working with person with low knowledge and power that creates ethical dilemma The 5 ethical dilemmas o 1 Misrepresentation a sit in which a consult doesn t provide all the info lack cander isn t honest about what s going to happen if you do something eg tgroups lab training model going on and CEO didn t know they were going to do it until they saw it not telling them what hap at outward bound 0 2 Misuse of data two biggest issues Anonymity and confidentiality a anonymity identifying who the data is about 0 b con dentiality protection of identity because only highest person knows who is who who owns the data and who gets access to it o 3 Coercion should people be forced to participate or penalized option to opt out o 4 Value and goal conflict about withholding services do you owe services to someone aka KKK or can pick and choose who you deny services to 0 industry is split 12 and 12 o 5 Technical Ineptness people who have limited skills in od but frame situations to require exactly the same skills they have eg Oh I think you have a team building problem says team building expert Starting a Planned Change Process Step 1a of model Organizational Entry 0 one of trickiest areas of od the quality of the relationship that is originally forged in entering and contracting will effect how problem will be solved and if it will be solved 0 bringing in new change agent when org thinks its not functioning as well as it needs to be 0 3 Activities of Entering o 1 Clarifying the organizational issue start with presenting problem symptoms v underlying issues 0 eg team isn t working effectively symptom 0 or revenues are low symptom 0 look at why symptoms are happening role of client perceptions their beliefs about what problem is 0 change experts should come to their own conclusions because client isn t an od person may need to collect preliminary data in a very short time frame 0 interviews are good for this five or six 12 hr interviews 0 2 determining the relevant client who needs to be here anyone in the system that is going to influence the outcome consider unions even if you don t agree with them size and complexity of system increases challenge 0 3 Selecting an ad practitioner who is the right person Key credential How effective has the person been in the past with what types of orgs and with what techniques a really good consultant of change knows when to walk away Step 1b of model Contract development 0 natural extension of ent rocess clarifies how the od process will proceed d to make good decisions 0 Typically establishes three areas that should be established early in the relationship 0 1 expectations of both parties focus on outcomes eg want to improve team performance be specific 0 2 time and resources that will be expended circumstances eg pay of change agent access to key people essential requirements deal breaker v desirable requirements nice to have 0 3 ground rules under which the party will operate eg anonymity v confidentiality v open if and how change leader will get involved with IP stuff going on role the change agentwill have how terminate the relationship degree of colearning 0 low colearning when the change leader solves the problems themselves 0 high colearning the change leader coaches the manager on how to do it Chapter 5 Diagnosis at the Organizational Level Organizations as Open Systems 0 systems set of interrelated and interdependent parts designed to achieve some goal 0 open system open to environment take something from external environment resource inputs 9 transform it to something else 9 and send it back into environment Resource Transformation Outputs Inputs Processes Information Equipment Facilities 39 Organization Products Materials Social Component Money Services people Processes Technology TCChmlo icaJ Ideas Component l l 1 Feedback 0 Resource inputs information equipment facilities materials money people and technology 0 Transform Processes organization social component and processes technological component 0 must be a valueadding process 0 about sociotechnical systems social component people technical component machines 0 Outputs products services and ideas Properties of Systems 0 Environment everything outside where org exists 0 orgs rely on them for resources they need which creates dependencies o reliance on others can create difficulties 0 sits in inputs and outputs 0 Inputs Transformations and outputs boundaries where a system begins and ends in light of environment 0 organizations spend time trying to decipher where boundaries are 0 important because 1 boundaries are usually areas where there are sources of conflict 0 insiders and outsiders 2 they re areas with incredibly rich information 0 Feedback 0 Equifinaitymore than 1 way to achieve effectiveness 0 principle of systems theory that says there are multiple ways to effectiveness 0 the theory is not a prescriptive one 0 Alignment how well the systems fit together 0 external alignment degree to which org fits with its environment look at providers and customers having the right resources 0 internal alignment pieces of system fit well together What is diagnosis 0 diagnosis collaborative process between org members and the OD consultant to collect pertinent information analyze it and draw conclusions for action planning and intervention 0 1 collaborative model have to work well together colearning not an expert model inside org 0 2 collecting pertinent information goal is to correctly describe the current state of the organization factfinding datadriven process 0 3 action planning amp intervention result you are looking for goal is to uncover where our problems are what we re good at and how we can use that information 0 key purpose 0 1 the what to specify the nature of the problem obtain valid information o 2 the why to identify underlying causal forces 0 3 the how to provide a basis for selecting effective change strategies and techniques OrganizationLevel Diagnostic Process Model broadest model Inputs Design Components Outputs General linnronment Organization 39l39echnology Structure liti39ectlveness Task linnronment 0 Strategy q cumquot eg performance Human Management pmdumvm inath Resource Systems Processes Sukcmmcr innronment satisfaction Feedback 0 Input 0 Environment Types general environment factors in general environment that affect all businesses the same way 0 eg unemployment rate availability of people w certain credentials inflation state of economy task environment industry structure 0 forces in your environment that affect you because of the business you are in 0 Porter s five factors 0 1 threat of entry entry barriers how easy it is to get into business how much money it costs 0 2 customer power more customers less customer power o 3 supplier power more suppliers more choices 0 4 thread of substitutes how easy can I change my beh when something becomes expensive how much sticking power do customers stick with you o 5 rivalry how heated is the competition 0 Environmentdimensions 1 rate of change how quickly ext env is altering who it is and what it is 0 static environment 6 dynamic environment silicon valley 2 complexity about the number of issues in the external environment that affect the organization 0 role of information uncertainty ambiguous environments hard to read 0 design components thing org level that are important to look at 0 Intermediate lnput Strategy the way a firm uses its resources human economic technical etc to gain competitive advantage 0 mission goals and objectives strategic intent functional policies 0 first thing org is going to decide to do 0 4 Components Technology the way a firm converts inputs into products and services 0 2 important features 1 technical interdependence about how many diff parts that may rely on each other but are sep from one another 0 how much overlap there is in transformation process 0 a pooled easiest mult ppl side by side doing same work eg consulting firms 2 cashiers working next to each other 0 b sequential assembly line 0 c reciprocal toughest go back and force between different people integrated eg healthcare 0 2 technical uncertainty 0 how much information processing and decisionmaking is required 0 where do u need to get info from and can u use it to make good decisions Structure the way the firm divides work then ties it back together using coordinating mechanisms 0 how you organize eg by function hr department etc 0 why divide up work one person can t do it all 0 2 step process 0 1 decide what things go together and what don t 0 2 decide how you re going to connect the piece again coordinating mechanism Management processes methods for processing information making decisions and controlling 0 measurement systems what you look at to find how we re doing 0 database Human Resource Systems mechanisms for attracting selecting developing appraising and rewarding firm members 0 who you re hiring are you bringing right people 0 intermediate output culture culture how things are done around here 0 sensemaking variables 0 1 widely shared 0 2 use to guide behavior 0 make environment predictable outputs 0 key output organizational effectivenss can be identified in ways 0 financial outcome productivity 0 stakeholder satisfaction 0 feedback loop key alignment questions external alignment 0 do design components fit with the inputsoutputs 0 internal alignment 0 are design compoenents internally consistent 0 do they fit and mutually support each other do tech structure and management processes enable strategy are outputs culturally sensitive Grouplevel diagnostic process model lnputs Design Components Outputs Goa Clarity Organization Damn Task Team Team component 039 Structure Functioning Effectiveness Culture c39gquot Group Group Performance quality of Composition Norms work life performance Feedback 0 design components 0 goal clarity how clear goals are how well group understands its objectives 0 task structure how work is designed for group 1 coordination of member efforts 2 who regulates group outside or selfregulation 0 team functioning the way members relate to each other effectively work together 1 taskrelated activities directly related to getting work done 2 task maintenance activities how you build group adhesion instrumental support each other 0 group composition demographic and psychological characteristics of group 0 group performance norms the way things are in group culture is to organization as norm is to group 0 outputs 0 key output team effectiveness performance and productivity quality of work life 0 feedback loop Individual JobLevel Diagnostic Process Model Inputs Design Components Outputs Organization Defm nu tin Vuncly Individual L m Ii cctireness 1mm Tag Autonomy 0 ldcmitv 39 cg mu new job satisfaction I p 5 perfommnce Task feedback absenteeislm er39 ma Personal Signi cance bum de cgpmem Characteristics RCSUhS A Feedback Inputs organizational design components 0 culture 0 group design group they are in 0 personal char age and skills design components 0 skill variety degree to which a job involves a range of activities and abilities to perform the work 0 enriching job 0 more refreshing to do something different 0 task identity degree to which a job involves completion of relatively who identifiable piece of work 0 when job is complete can you point to which part you did 0 task significance degree to which job has significant impact on operations 0 how important and personal attitude 0 autonomy degree to which a job provides employees with direct and clear information about the effectiveness of task performance 0 feedback about results degree to which a job provides employees with direct and clear information about the effectiveness of task performance 0 can I see ifl do job well 0 Traditional model 9 everyone has specialty and only do that each specific person does only 1 thing eg clean windows swaps 9 new model generalist someone who cleans a room 0 The one cleaner can step back and see they cleaned a room 0 Now hotels have little notes with who cleaned the room 9 task signi cance 0 Added closet of stuff and cleaner can choose which products 9 autonomy 0 output 0 key output individual effectiveness 0 feedback loop Chapter 6A Collecting amp Analyzing information Diagnosing describing the present state of an organization 0 core of OD depends on diagnosis 0 necessary to solve right problem Diagnostic relationship 0 need two things 0 1 good data about problem and good understanding 0 2 high quality relationship with the people the information is about 0 relationship strongly influences quality and usefulness of diagnostic information available 0 diagnostic contract facilitates relationship and data gathering o 1 clarifies expectations 0 2 specified conditions ground rules 0 ideal situation diagnostic relationship part of original contracting probably not realistic Questions that help create an effective diagnostic contract When you go to people and want to have discussion about what you discovered and what hypothesis you have you should be prepared to provide Aka introduce yourself Who am Why am I here and what am I doing Who do work for What do I want from you and why expect How will I protect your confidentiality Who will have access to the data What is in it for you Can I be trusted When you re going to interview someone or focus group provide these answers about yourself first 3 Goals of Diagnostic data collection 1 obtain valid information accurate data collection and org functioning 2 rally energy for change make people think diff about the way things are 3 to develop a collaborative relationship a colearning relationship b organizational development is not expertdriven model i a lot of collaboration four methods for collecting data 0 1 questionnaires surveys quantitative 0 issue make sure you touch on everything you need because you can t go back to get more information 0 one way o advantages member beliefs and attitudes can be quantified easily can gather lg amt of data from many people inexpensive on a perperson basis 0 disadvantages relatively impersonal mechanistic and rigid assumes all the right questions were asked 0 2 interviews qualitative content analysis interpersonal communication 0 two way 0 can always go back with more questions 0 most commonly used technique 0 advantages very flexible can adapt to interviewee and data collection subject rich data interview process builds rapport and empathy o disadvantages rel expensive timely 3 observations qualitative 0 force field analysis one way Tom peters in search of excellence MBWA management by wondering around watching real time not getting history of something advantage 1 collects data on actual behavior rather than reports of behavior disadvantage sampling may be inconsistent observer bias and reliability can be questioned 4 unobtrusive measures quantitative o archival in someones file 0 which case did we look for profitability Exley case we looked at organizational chart 0 truth 0 advantage 1 no response bias disadvantage 1 difficult to code and interpret O O O O O 0 Sampling 0 sampling whose opinion gets counted 0 sampling becomes a problem when information is to be collected from only some organizational members behaviors or records 0 typically done when diagnosing organizationlevel systems 0 sample size is a function of 0 size of population 0 confidence desired in data quality confident you feel you have right data 0 available resources time and money 0 sample selection 0 random sample randomly pull names wo any preknowledge of who is who eg choose every second name 0 stratified sample identify certain groups to make sure you sample at UM create buckets of people then choose randomly in each 0 convenience sample not what you want to do eg ask who is around you cause its easiest Techniques for Analyzing Data Qualitative Tools 0 nonnumericnonequation 0 Content Analysis 0 3 steps 1 review responses to identify universe of possible answers 2 generate general themes 0 eg working conditions etc 3 catalogue reponses into thematic areas 0 put people s responses into those themes 0 usually have 2 or 3 people independently doing it o eg metric division casel could have been content analysis but instead he put quotes of what people did instead he organized it by answers quotes organizing them thematically forcefield analysis 0 two bars current level performance where we are not higher level of performance where we want to be 0 driving forces forces for change left side look at slide restraining forces right side state of equilibrium quasistationary state analysis of forces determines which force to increase or decrease to bring about change the length of arrows is how serious the driving force is adding numerical values to the arrows makes it quantitative not qualitative O 0000 I39mcu fur lung hurt for Maintaining hi Status Jun lulu hutch Renaming 39ltungnl tinup TI39Ill39vflf JllA39I mmm cu technvingx gt lur Mutant Vi7 147 tquot4lx39739 39 31137153 39nnprquotll39om 39 nu7u3939tr from nine quotm 7r I ll11mmmils chr39 1w T Ii39l39xsllhf unml Luquot cl Uighur Lu cl ul l urluxmuncc uf l crlumtuncc 3qu Techniques for Analyzing Data Quantitative Tools 0 done more often esp with surveys and questionnaires 0 mean stdev freq distr 0 mean artithmetic average appr center 0 frequency distribution how many times an answer is given or theme is raised 0 snattemrams and nnrmlatinn coefficients o scattergrams two dimensional relationships 2d average mult variables eg positive relationships 0 job satisfaction and period of time in job 0 job satisfaction and salaries 0 family unionization eg negative relationships 0 the higher you are in org the less likely you are to join union 0 the older you are the less likely you are to leave firm eg shotgun salary and performance 0 difference tests significant testing to see whether two things are related and to see how strong the difference is o surveys and questionnaires o if you score stuff
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