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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jackie F. on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MGT 480 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Christine Hagan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Organizational Development in Business, management at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
MGT 480 Test 2 Chapter 6b & 7: feeding back diagnostic information Designing Interventions Intervention = action we’re going to take in order to improve situation or solve problem Feeding back diagnostic information : • perhaps the most important step in the diagnostic process • What are the possible effects of feedback o Need 3 Yes-es to have effective result : § 1. Is energy created by the feedback? (is it motivational) § 2. What is the direction of the energy? (problem solving or blaming, to fight data or use data?) § 3. Do structures and processes exist to turn energy into action? (can you access people) • Goals of Feedback o 1. arousing organizational action o 2. to direct energy toward organizational problem solving • Feedback success depends on both content (what you tell people) and process (how you go about providing feedback) Feedback Content (i.e. What information is fed back) Properties of effective feedback content don’t need to memorize just know themes • relevant content (meaningful & been analyzed properly) o people need to find the information meaningful • understandable (easy to interpretà charts, graphs tables) • descriptive (gives examples à linked to real organizational behaviors) • verifiable (does it have credib ility à valid and accurate, e.g questionnaire with number of people and group can verify its true and make sense to them) • timely (asap) • limited (target information) • significant (about things they can actually do something about) • comparative (data is ambiguous à frame of reference historically and where we stand in relation to others ) • unfinalized (starting point à giving them opportunity to use data and decide for themselves ) Feedback Process (i.e. How is information fed back?) • Primary goal = to encourage client ownership of information • 5 Ways to facilitate ownership: o 1. motivation to work with data o 2. feedback meeting needs structure (agenda because it’s a formal, frame) o 3. appropriate attendance (choose people carefully) o 4. appropriate power (let recipient know how much power they have) o 5. consultant should provide “process help”(m aking sure that things on track, work with them to understand it, facilitate discussion) Surveying as a diagnostic instrument • survey feedback = using questionnaire or survey • as a primary focus or as supplement to other data o diagnostic instrument (use to look at organization) o supplement to another od intervention o measure od goal achievement (across time, in general, taking organization’s temperature) • five steps involved in survey o 1. Preliminary Planning (establish universe for inquiry) § how big, how broad, who to talk to, what focus on § why are you giving the survey o 2. Survey Administration § administer the survey and make sure you sample correctly o 3. Analysis of data by change agent § provide overview and information about it o 4. feedback is top down ( start with top of organization seeps downward) o 5. feedback meetings • potential pitfalls of surveying o ambiguity of purpose (unclear and don’t read organization really well) § don’t do it until you are clear about it o distrust (people won’t believe its anonymous) § may make survey not effective o unacceptable topics (don’t survey about the unacceptable ones) § topics they have no power over e.g. do we ask student about feedback about professors but do we ask about them who should be chairman o organizational disturbance § survey creates behaviors and actions that p eople aren’t used to doing Designing od interventions intervention = sequence of activites intended to help firm increase effectiveness and may focus on what or how or both. • Intervention is…. what follows diagnosis o a set of pre-planned actions or events o intended to help firm increase effectiveness o may focus on what or how we do • Effective interventions o 1. does it fit needs of organization? § based on valid information about organization’s function? • did we diagnose system correctly? § Is there an internal commitment to assume responsibility? o 2. Is it based on causal knowledge of intended outcomes? § What specific evidence is there that this intervention is going to solve problems? § about understanding what intervention is and how it works § evidence question o 3. does it transfer competence to manage change to the client system? § co-learning, transfer technology Types of Change Interventions • Know which interventions aim at which problems and examples for each : • 4 general categories: o 1. Human Process Interventions = how we do what we do § e.g. how we communicate, solve problems, make decisions, interact, and lead § team building, third party interventions, organization confrontation meetings, large group interventions § When an OD consultant is working with a manager to impro ve communication skills what kind of intervention? HP intervention o 2. Technology/ Structure Issues = how we organize § how to divide labor and coordinate departments and produce products or services § e.g. reengineering, downsiz ing, EI, and TQM § e.g. When considering re -engineering? o 3. Human Resource Interventions = how we manage the human factor and do it effectively § how to attract competent people, set goals, and reward people, and develop talent § e.g. performance management, coa ching, management and leadership development, and career management § org is looking at who to hire o 4. Strategic Change Interventions = dealing with what marketplace opportunities we serve § what functions, products, services, markets, and how to gain competit ive advantage, how to relate to environment, and what values will guide organizational functioning § e.g. traditional change § org is looking at industry it is in Chapters 8-9 Managing Change: Evaluating Intervention Change Forces Forcefield Analysis Driving forces: • dissatisfaction with the present • external pressures • momentum toward change • motivation by consultant Sources of Resistance • uncertainty about change • loss of existing benefits • threat to position power • conformity to norms and culture KNOW THE MODELS Types of Resistance to Change • (1) Individual Resistance to Change o 1. Habit § great sorting mechanisms • people rely on habits to organize their daily world § we’re habitual people, allows us to go on autopilot, works well for us § change messes with our habits a nd can make us feel uncertain and ambiguous o 2. Security § Maslow’s need theory § people rely on safety and security to make us feel safe § change threatens our sense of security o 3. Economic Factors § change may lower ability to earn income à concern may apply to broad sector of people but it may be especially salient for those with dependents relying on them for financial support o 4. Fear of the unknown § change substitutes ambiguity and uncertainty for the known § some my not like current system but survived it and under stand it o 5. Selective Information Processing § this is a form of personal inertia § people shape their world through developing perceptions about reality then they avoid information that tends to threaten those perceptions § e.g. in class: do we need to spend million on election technology in the US? of course not, until 2000 election and we’re still arguing about who won.. without types of big data a lot of people are oblivious as to why we need change • (2) Organizational Resistance to Change o 1. Structural Inertia § entities resistance to change § organizations are purposely constructed and use hiring practices that screen certain people in and others out § they train workers to engage in certain behaviors § when change is introduced, mechanisms may push back to maintain stability o 2. Threat to expertise § expertise can be source of power, prestige, and status § these groups will resist change that means their expertise isn’t useful § e.g. the advent of personal computer at many co. strongly resisted by those who operated huge mainframe computers o 3. Threat to established resource allocations § some groups control sizable resources and don’t want anyone messing with it § change often redistributes decision -making authority § e.g. work supervisors and middle managers put up some strongest resistance when employee involvement programs are institutes o 4. group inertia § groups norms constrain people o 5. limited focus of change § easier to change small organizations § large organizations have many lines of business § changed subsystem coming in contact with the larger unchanged system there will be a tendency to revert back § e.g. people who quit smoking and being around smokers Leadership Issues in Creating Effective Change • (1) Motivating Change o a. creating readiness for change § 3 Issues: • 1. Is the organization sensitized to why we need to change • 2. Talk about discrepancy between where we are now and where we need to be • 3. Explain the credible expectations for the change o b. overcoming resistance to change (slide 7) • (2) Creating a vision o a. descrbing the core ideology o b. constructing the desired future state • (3) Developing political support o a. assessing change agent power o b. identifying key stakeholders § where are the powerbases and who needs be there o c. influencing stakeholders § gaining support • (4) Managing the transition o a. Activity Planning = creating roadmap o b. Commitment Planning = ongoing, whose commitment do we need o c. Assessing management structures for change = look at politics in organi • (5) Sustaining momentum = keeping things moving in right dire o a. providing resources for change § going to need extra people money co -learning o b. building a support system for change agents o c. developing new skills and competencies o d. reinforcing new behaviors o e. staying the course Overcoming Resistance to change Strategies Hierarchial order from least effective to most effective • (1) Provide empathy and support = least effective o Active listening = two way communication § tend to them, ask questions, have discussion • (2) Provide communication and education o prevent rumor mill § Why? counterproductive § occurs when not enough information out there to prevent it by honest information o differentiate from other communication § make recognizable § commit to specific timetable § make website with special head • (3) Encourage participation = allow them to actually be part of it o first hand involvement o power to influence results (ask) o time factor (ask) Evaluating OD Interventions • What is OD Evaluati on? data gathering to provide information about the progress and impact of OD interventions o IS is a data based science and art o when diagnosing, gather data o What we’re interested in: § 1. Progress: how’s it going • as it is going on § 2. Impact: Is it having the effect we hoped or expected it would have? § 3. is it doing what we thought it would do • Steps o 1. Collecting data = gathering information about what you did, how you did it, and how system performed along the way o 2. Analyzing data o 3. providing feedback • Why evaluate? o Did we implement the right intervention? § is the intervention we chose the appropriate intervention that is likely to influence what is going to happen next the way we thought it would? o did we implyement the intervention right? o Is it having the desired effect? • Two types evaluation efforts: o 1. During-implementation efforts § about the progress of how it is going § taking a series of snapshots metaphorically § how its working along the way • why do we care? that information allows us to make sure we’re on the right track and gives early warning to intervene if needed. • unique to organizational development o 2. after-implementation efforts § did we achieve what we thought we would achieve? § before and after standard evaluation model in use Measurement Issues in Evaluation • designing good measures = necessary because it is a data -based process o choose variables that are based on theory underlying the intervention § make sure the criteria you’re going to collect matches up with the intervention § approaches we’re going to take o clearly define operational measures and agree to them in advance § don’t start intervention until you understand measures you’re going to look at o use valid (accurate) and reliable (consistent) measures § rigorously define key operational measures § ask colleagues/clients if proposed measure is accurate • content validity § use multiple methods to measure variable § use multiple items to measure each variable • e.g. specific, ask focused questions to get dimensions § use standardized instruments, where possible • e.g. jdi, database • JDS (Hackman and odum) = job descriptive index o structure jobs that are satisfying (autonomy, feedback, etc.), individual diagnostic model • utilizing “particularly powerful” quasi -experimental research designs o longitudinal measurement § do same survey once a year and track changes § how does satisfaction compare in same unit over time o comparison units § e.g sales and servicing § how does satisfaction in this unit compare with other units o statistical analysis § significance test • shifting from attitudinal to behavioral measures o see examples pg. 213-214 o are we worried about soft stuff? o attitudinal = how satisfied they are o behavioral = how likely to leave, recommend, stay § tougher and better measures in general • Types of Behavioral measures for measuring od interventions: o absenteeism = each absence or illness over 4 ho urs o tardiness = each absence or illness under 4 hours o turnover = behavior o satisfaction IS NOT BEHAVIORAL, its attitudinal o aggrievenses = behavioral o only 1 question on this o other types of behavioral outcomes: internal employment stability, strikes and work stoppage, accidents and work-related illness, grievances, productivity, production quality, downtime, and inventory, material, and supply variance READ PACKET Chapter 10: Indiv idual, Impersonal, and Group Process Approaches • Intervention = a set of sequenced planned or activities designed to help organization improve its effectiveness • human process interventions = process on social processes that occur between organizational members focusing on developing skills o oldest interpersonal approach o kurt lewins said people will benefit, human process asking to be taken care of , how we improve the w ay we do things so we can work better together • in first stem of OD practice à lab training Goal of OD process intervention = to help individuals and groups improve the quality of what they do and how they do it • how can we help you work better with others and improve the quality of what you do in general • helping thing • 3 types: o 1. Process Consultation o 2. third party intervention o 3. team building Type 1: Process Consultation (PC) • process consultation = general framework for carrying out helping relationships o helps people understand, diagnose, and improve their own behavior § co-learning piece o helps people help themselves § gives them guidance and direction • how things get done • general areas of PC: o 1. Communication: § two tools: • 1. Johari Window = 2x2 table with four types communication used to make me more effective in the communication with others o a prescriptive model: want to get to open communication window o open = candid, clear communication o hidden = communication with element communicator doesn’t want to share o blind = the person who is doing it doesn’t understand, called “double messages.” § e.g. people who have hot temper and don’t realize it o unknown = theoretical box, unknown to either • 2. Sociogram = patterns of interactions within teams visualized by plotting exchanges that occur during working. o stars = most direct interaction o isolates = outsiders, contribute but are not sought out o mutual choice = choose one another o one-way choice = choose others but are not chosen in return o clique = three or more within larger group select one another o 2. functional roles of group members § 1. group task functioning = how well they handle task • member behaviors designed to directly help the group solve the problems • initiating and suggesting (what is our goal) • seeking options (what do you think of that idea) • asking questions (can you explain that) • summarizing • testing for consensus § 2. group maintenance = help group become more cohesive • behaviors that help group grow, i mprove its interpersonal relationships • harmonizing & compromising • encouraging • gatekeeper (everyone has had chance to be heard) • following (accepts ideas of others) § 3. problem-solving = how we work together o 3. decision-making = how decisions are made in the group (is a group way of making decisions more participation) o 4. group norms = the way group members should behave o 5. the use of leadership and authority = the difference between leader and manager , some leadership styles more effective than others • common individual and interpersonal interventions : o observations = sociogram watch people and map interaction o diagnostic questions and probes = asking questions describe what you do, what worked, etc o “historical reconstruction ” = asking people to think back at a time in which they had good communication patterns with coworker o giving feedback = information to people about the way their efforts are perceived by other people o individual coaching = working with people, plan of action, h elping along the way • common group interventions o process interventions = how group carries out role § sensitive the group to its own internal processes and generate interests in analyzing them § process consultant is not to take on role of expert but to help di agnose its own process o content interventions = internally what does group do § help group determine what it works on: comments, questions, observations, agenda, etc. o structure interventions = externally what does group do § examine stable and recurring methods uses to accomplish tasks § e.g. developing strategies, levels of intimacy etc. • most common situations o Target is motivated and capable of change (has energy & ability to change) § classic case ability to move from A to B o someone who wants change but doesn’t know how to • PC research results o “mental task” elements (decision-making) § difficult to evaluate real outcomes § inconsistent but generally positive o PC is often combined with other interventions § tough to pull apart precise contributions § isolating the impact of process consultations from other interventions is hard o perception as key measurement tools § hard way to evaluate a lot of problems in research Type 2: Third Party Interventions • about conflict resolution (positive constructive conflict can energize people) o Substantive v. Interpersonal Issues § Substantive = related to your own employment relationship • e.g. how well your supervisors work with you; not usually an OD issue more managerial, e tc. asking how you feel about work § Interpersonal = things about people not getting along or needing to be productive but can’t. • 4 Strategies Relating to Conflict : o 1. Prevent Ignition = understand the issues that make I t happen and have conversations with people § cyclical model about triggering event o 2. Set Limits on form = acceptable behavior § e.g. first person who throw punch is wrong o 3. Help Parties Cope = sometimes people need to vent o 4. Eliminate Basic Issues = stop the cycle, but that’s the hardest thin g to do • Tactics in Resolving conflict : o 1. data gathering = interview on both sides o 2. context issues = don’t hold meeting on one side’s domain, mutual place o 3. consultant’s role = facilitator, setting agenda, act referee A cyclical model of interpersonal conflict: • • Underlying Conflict is often latent and below the surface and then announcement is made and out in open for everyone to hear; this triggering event triggers behavior and may involve consequences and may then go back under surfaces • How do you stop conflict from happening over and over?: prevent it from occurring and deal with fundamental things to approach Conflict Management Styles : • • tend to fall in one of four blocks o 1. obliging = high concern for others, low for self § I don’t matter o 2. avoiding = low and low, avoid conflict all costs o 3. dominating = high self concern, low others § zero sum game o 4. integrating = high and high, everyone matters Type 3: Team Building • team building = broad range of planned activities o Goal of team building = impro ve performance of team as whole and improve relationships with each other o Team Building focuses explicitly on helping groups perform tasks and solve problems more effectively. Process consultation is concerned with establishing effective helping relationsh ips. Team Building consists of process consultation plus other more task -oriented interventions. • team = group of interdependent individuals o 1. common purpose o 2. share leadership o 3. common work methods o 4. problem-solving focus o 5. shared accountability (semi-autonomous) • What matter about teams ? • Hard stuff v. soft stuff o hard = how long has group been together, how much does their work overlap § may make team building not necessary o soft = how willing to examine what goes on among themselves, and how open t o change, degree to which hold themselves accountable § answering those q are good when you’re entering group • two “entrance” issues for individuals o 1. determine self-identity = where do I fit in o 2. determine how to use power so that (1) meet own needs (2) achieve group goals • team functioning o task-related activities = to get goal o group maintenance activities = things they do to support each other • effective teams do 3 things per Hackman o 1. Satisfy External Stakeholders o 2. Constantly Improve their functioning o 3. Have members that are learning • Types of Teams o Ad hoc v. ongoing § 1. ad hoc = temporary for particular project § 2. ongoing team = no start end date, semi autonomous, work related teams, cross functional, ability to make dec internally • problem solving teams may be ad hoc or ongoing. • semi-autonomous = shared accountability holding each other accountable o traditional v. virtual teams § virtual = use internet to mitigate conversation § traditional = face to face o increasingly popular applications § team building activities are many and varied, depending on needs • new teams • problem-solving o may be ad hoc or ongoing • new member integration = someone coming in new to team, transfer outsider à insider • revitalizing complacent teams = together for so long and hig h performing but also need to be doing other things but don’t know • Classic Case for team building = committed to change, motivated, someone believed team not operating as well as it could o better cohesion o improved communication, internal interaction • Steps = most common approach o 1. gather data § OD is a data-driven field (questionnaires, observations, interviews) o 2. hold feedback meeting § facilitator holds meeting with whole group to tell everyone what they saw o 3. develop action plane § consultant be facilitator o 4. follow-up • importance of building future capability: taking today’s team model and make it globally o meta analysis is when we take a bunch of studies on team building and analyze them • Research results o inconsistent but generally positive o meta-analysis reported positive results § team building correlated with successful work results § 4 Key Activities • 1. goal setting = one of most potent resources, it works, especially important (#1) • 2. interpersonal relations = how well they work with other people around them • 3. problem-solving • 4. role clarification = also especially important, what we do and how (second most *) o research problems: § attitudes and satisfaction v. behaviors • neglecting information and this means self reports talking about data § short time frame • do exercise one time, ask them, and don’t look back • don’t do things longitudinally § team building mixed with other interventions • this makes it hard to say what team building did • use assessments to help highlight people with strengths and weaknesses • diagnose how team is doing • take in information about how effective you are from multiple perspectives o contemporary opinion = a lot of teams & interventions designed and launched badly. Chapter 11: Organization Process Approaches Organization Process Approach is a Hum an Process Approach • range 50-3000 participants, looking at total organization either organization -wide or group-to-group Types: 1. confrontation meetings 2. intergroup interventions: microcosm groups 3. intergroup interventions intergroup conflicts 4. large group interventions Type 1: Organization Confrontation Meetings • Classic OD intervention o oldest and largest o sitting down and having conversation about what the problem is • purpose: o 1. mobilize resources = get everyone in room together to solve problems o 2. set priorities = rank issues o 3. set action targets = what we need to specifically do and when o 4. begin work = when meeting is over, change starts now • when they are used? • Application stages o Stage 1. before meeting § schedule a group meeting incl. all those involved in issue • anyone who can influence outcome o Stage 2. during meeting § appoint problem identification groups representing all organizational departments • articulate range of problems, document them, and present them and look at what we are doing to fix them. § provide instructions • groups should be open, honest, hard working at identifying problems § groups work while od practitioner circulates § reconvene groups and each group fully reports • information sharing on largerr scale § master list of problems created then broken down into categories • participants re-formed into problem-solving groups o may cluster organizational groups together • thematically § problem solving state • each group ranks problems and develops a tactical plan • identifies timetable • group leaders appointed § overall group is reconvened to discuss priorities plans and timetables o Stage 3. after meeting § group leaders provide progress reports in scheduled periodic meetings § make sure on track and right direction and why • results: o promising effects § seem to make a difference getting everyone together and give responsibility o needs more systematic studies that isolate effects Type 2 and 3: Intergroup Relations interventions • Intergroup relations interventions underlying assumptions o 1. groups work together often to achieve goals in conjunction with each other o 2. one group can create problems for another group § groups can create problems if don’t work well together o 3. quality of relationship between the 2 groups can affect team effectiv eness Type 2: Microcosm Groups • representative groups to solve problems o small number of people that represent all elements of problem o about who needs to be involved like sampling. o about change in environment and need to respond to environmental changes • parallel process theory o only relates to microcosm groups, says with two groups different agendas come in contact with each other and if engagement occurs people can unconsciously agree with people they didn’t agree with before o e.g. Stockholm syndrome • Application stages o 1. Identify Issue = what’s problem and what it’s going to take to solve it o 2. convene group = bring people together § group membership must reflect appropriate mix of stakeholders • choose § convention provides status, legitimacy • announce to organization o 3. provide group training § team building o 4. address the issue § solve the problem and implementing solutions o 5. dissolve group § ad hoc group • results: o very little research: usually case study § anecdotal o Alderfer’s contribution: ERG levels existence, relatedness, and growth Type 3: Intergroup Conflict • have two groups in conflict • typically interdepartmental or interdivisional • goal = to reduce the misperceptions each group has of the other groups o sometimes conflict is good. • Application stages o external facilitator is needed initially because there’s polarization : no outreach or attempt to engage in other group § consultant will obtain agreement from the parties involved o group meets on neutral ground o facilitator will give overview and set of q. § see if they want job § questions: • 1. what qualities best describe us • 2. what qualities best describe others • 3. how do we think they’ll describe us o groups separate and write response to q.; facilitator available to help each group o groups reconvene and representative of each group presents written re sponse § establish ground rules e.g. listening and respect § not about right or wrong o each group dev specific action plan for improving rel o together groups decide on plan o follow-up meeting to discuss progress • results o positive findings: relationship improves o more work neded § behavioral v. attitudinal results § cross-cultural conflict § functional v. dysfunctional conflict Type 4: Large Group Interventions • one of fastest growing interventions, also called business retreats and boondoggles. • Issues affecting entire organization o assembling large numbers of stakeholders • four dilemmas of large group meetings o 1. voice § how will we achieve participation with so many people o 2. structure § how much and what type § how heavily structured with agenda, roster, e t c § continuum in structure • organic ß à mechanic o underorganized to overorganized o 3. egocentric § will people give up their personal views § big five personality test says openness about the degr ee to which an individual is able to listen and alter perspectives o 4. emotional contagion § swept away in excitement or group think? • Application stages o preparation § themes, goals, participants, tasks, follow-throughs o conducting the meeting: § 3 distinctive structures • (1) Open system methods = strategic, focus on external environments o most structured, business strategy sessions o examines environment and assesses organization’s response § Issues: • our perception of environment plays major role in decisions we’re going to make • we have to agree on perceptions • if action is going to work our perceptions need to be right • we can effect environment, two way street enacted environment o typically about search conferences o has agenda • (2) Open space methods = no structure at all, accept any idea o highly creative o operate based on norms since there’s not structure § 1. law of the two feet • participants should go to meetings and sessions o that interest them o where they can make contributions o where they can learn • butterflies and bumblebees o it’s ok to move from group to group etc o butterflies = a form of empowerment, attract others into spontaneous conversations o bumblebees = move group -to-group sprinkles knowledge info and new ideas as they go; usually interesting people § 2. the four principles • whoever comes is the right people o encourages spontaneous discussions and ad hoc gatherings • whatever happens is the only thing that could have happened o infuses responsibility o flexibility • whenever it starts is right time o encourages creativity and natural energy • whener it’s over it’s over o no time limits • (3) Positive methods = a model that doesn’t buy into concept that org are places with a lot of problems o appreciative inquiry summits § appreciate inquiry = look at what org does well § additional ways to use strengths o steps: § 1. research best practices § 2. identify underlying themes § 3. spread strengths to other situations applications and uses § 4. assess positive core, envision how things can be different o follow-up on meeting outcomes • results o prolific practices § growing quickly o little systematic research on improved effectiveness § all case studies
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