FINAL STUDY GUIDE
FINAL STUDY GUIDE MGT 308
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jackie F. on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MGT 308 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Christine Hagan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Training and Development in Business, management at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
MGT 308 final Chapters 9-‐10,12-‐13 Chapter 9: Skills and Technical Training Know what the “skills gap” is and why it’s occurring at this time (pp 289-292; slide 3) • Skils gap = the difference between the skills requirements of available jobs and the skills possessed by job applicants. o about job readiness, do you have the skills to step into entry level job, if not the case then need to create training programs • Why the skills gap occurs: o 1. declining level of basic skills in high school and college grads in US o 2. Immigration issue and language barrier § growing number of non-english speaking immigrants and racial minorities end up in school that aren’t performing well o 3. technology is making skills more aggressive, more competitive (allows us to go global to find workers) • basic competency skills = raw materials of productivity, lies under performance effectiveness Know the 3 broad categories of literacy (p 290; slide 6) • (1) Prose = can you read text material, understand it, and apply it • (2) Document = skill of reading nontext material (graphs and charts and forms) • (3) Quantitative = add/subtract, multiply/divide, can you balance a check book Know the general trends in basic skills programs (pp 291-292; slides 6-7) • 60% of US firms conduct basic skills programs • 4.8% of $ spent by organizations on learning is used to conduct basic skills programs • most common approach o Aptitude test (find out what people know and don’t know) o develop individual learning strategy o small group plus one-on-one instruction • WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW FOR SLIDE 7 à don’t need to know advantages • finish this part Generally know the US government’s role in addressing basic skills problems. Know the problems that have been associated with JTPA programs and the passage of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) (pp 292-294; slide 8) • Federal support for basic skills/ literacy programs: • Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA, 1970-1985) = block money granted to community based organizations; know it’s the oldest o worked to get people trained for entry level jobs o community programs that want to do training, apply for money, and say what you need it for, and the government then hosts training • Job Training and Partnership Act (JTPA, 1983-2000) o greater invement, $4 a year § structure est. private industry councils § membership appointed by office holders (key ppl that ran cities) o format: classroom training (theoretical fundamental learning), OJT training, organization had to agree to hire you in advance o problems § 1. fraud involved • a problem with the definition of job-readiness § 2. budget declined mid-80’s leftover from 70’s § 3. poor results § 4. poor integrations across programs • Workforce Investment Act (WIA, 7/1/00) passed in 2014 o 1. “block grants” approach = an organization in federal governemtn situation, look over your proposal, give you block of money but not breathing down your back for it § has block grant life cycle to it so money can be shifted to new programs (wiggle room), more of a partnerships o 2. increased focus on “customers” § can individually define who qualified for each grant § guidelines: organization that is sponsoring creates application and whoever wants into the program must complete application § youths, adults, and other workers at risk. o 3. gave greater local control to people in the community who were going to be directing who gets the money § less federal oversight o 4. increased accountability for results § must have collection of reports: who comes into program, what kind of skills are you giving them, curriculum Know generally about Apprenticeship Programs (what they are, how they are run, positive outcomes and problems) (pp 294-296; slides 9-10) • Apprenticeship training = the goal is to provide trainees with needed skills o model used to make certain the skills of technical people continued so people continue to have and develop industrial craft types of work o one on one, not OTJ or classroom but in between o unique partnership § involves 4 prongs: business, labor unions, schools, government agencies § largest involve the construction trades o typical features § 2000 min hours of OJT experience, working with skilled tradesman to learn what they do • for the test, know that they’re more focused on the job than classroom • theres not a certification requirement on how well they can do it, that’s a problem § 144 hours classroom training • vocational tech school or community college o regulated by Office of Apprenticeship Training, Employee and Labor Services (OATELS) of DOL § previously Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training (BAT) o Problems § 1. time focused not competency focused § 2. these programs are isolated from other educational programs § 3. tend to be concentrated on blue-collar work § 4. once the apprenticeship program is over, it stops • no dev. once they get into the job o positive outcomes of well-structured programs § attract adequate number of highly qualified and motivated applicants § reduce absenteeism and turnover § increase productivity § ↓ cost of traiing § facilitate compliance with federal/state EEO requirements § ensure availability of related technical instruction § enhance problem-solving ability of craftsworkers § enhance versatility of craftworkers § address industry’s need to remain competitive by investing in the development and upgrading of the skills of its workforce Know the basic types of Technical Training programs (pp 294-306; slides 11-12). In particular, know the issues and models of Quality Training (pp 303-306; slide 12) • 5 Technical Training Programs: apprenticeship, computer training, technical, safety training, quality trainig o Computer Training types don’t worry about it o Technical skills/ knowledge training don’t worry about it o Safety Training don’t worry about it o Quality training à get notes § occurred b/c of aggressive drive for more prouctivity and better quality of goods and services § TQM is model used • most popular form of quality training • = set of principles aimed at continually improving organization § typically, two fundamental skills of TQM • 1. effective teamwork o work effectively with teams • 2. collection, analysis quantitative data § early stages most critical • first step = getting statements from top mgt about quality § typically two phases • quality awareness = how it is and going to affect work here • in-depth quality process and skills training = about resolving problems, resolving conflict § other factors for successful TQM • visionary leadership • upper mgt support • employee involvement • integrated reward programs § ISO 9000 family of standards Know the trends in and basic types of Interpersonal Skills Training programs (pp 306-312; slides 13-14). In particular, know the goals of Customer Service Training and the Team Building models get notes sales training not on it team building is customer service training • training goals = foster positive attitude, effective communication, c • Customer relations/service training o Common skills § Interpersonal relations § Problem-‐solving § Leadership § Teamwork o Goals • Positive attitude • Effective communication • Courteous, respectful interaction • Ability to remain calm, and in control o Four elements relate to effectiveness § Introduce Customer Service (CS) training as an organization-‐wide program § Make special investments in front-‐line CS workers § Convert CS supervisors to coaches and monitors § Structure incentives for CS effectiveness (e.g., pay, promotions, recognition) • Team building/training o teams = see self as social entity and work together on things o 2 types of team related skills § Task skills = in order to do work § Process skills = skills they need to work well together as team, collaborating, etc o “Effort to unify varied energies, direct energies toward goals, and link efforts to organizational results” o Training models: 4 key issues § Goal setting § Interpersonal relations § Problem-‐solving § Role clarification Chapter 10 (Coaching and Performance Management) Know the definition of coaching, why it is a difficult term to define with precision, and general trends (pp 325 -327; slide 3) • tough term to define because the coaching profession has not clearly identified a single definition of who they are • The definition: Coaching is a process used to • Encourage employees to accept responsibility for performance • Enable them to achieve and susta in superior performance • Treat employees as partners • Put away power distance and talk about reciprocal relationship What is the HRD role in coaching? (p 328; slide 4) do t&d ppl make best coaches ? no we have no idea • Performance shortfalls are also a problem • Doing okay, not nec. Poor performance, but not as well as they could be doing. • Key manager roles • deal with poor performance in a constructive manner • Create conditions that enable high performance • Situational constraints • What is given to you in ord er to make it happen • Hrd role • 1. Provide specific training related to coaching • 2. ensure people with good training skills have good interpersonal skills • The best aspect of coaching is good interpersonal skills • 3. encourage culture in organization that embraces supportive management • Mgt doesn’t have to be aggressive and powerful • Open-door policy Know the 3 steps in coaching performance (pp 328 -329; slide 4) • 3 Steps: • 1. Defining poor performance • What is it? • 2. Coaching analysis • Sort out information fr om definition of poor performance and perceptions and decide what it means • 3. Coaching discussions • Employee with performance shortfall and manager come together and talk about it, action planning, follow-up Know what is involved in defining poor performan ce (pp 329-332; slide 5) most ambiguous of the 3 steps • have established standard What specific behavior constitutes unacceptable performance? • Specific agreed-upon deviations from expected behavior • Be careful of this definition • Misleading • “agree-upon” doesn’t mean its negotiated • Means its known to them and they accept its legitimacy • Depends on established standards • standard = detailed information about what is supposed to be done • Absolute v. relative standard: Two types of standards • Absolute standard = specific and particular number • E.g. a person may be absent no more than 2 days per quarter • Need to know where the standard is and where the wiggle room is • Relative standard = relative to other performers • E.g. jack welsh example he used to say we’re going to drop the bottom 10% of performers every year and we’re going to higher better performers, called continuous improvement • Need to know where the standard is and where the wiggle room is • parameters • Task behaviors v. deviant workplace behavior: two types of behaviors • Task behaviors = how well you do the things you’re employed to do • what people are expected to do in order to do their job effectively • Deviant workplace behaviors = significant violation of organization policies or norms • e.g. punching in time clock for people who aren’t there, sexual harassment Generally know what a supervisor does during the Coaching Analysis phase (pp 332 -336; slides 6-7) process of analyzing factors don’t need to memorize Fournie’s 9 step process but understand conceptually à does someone know they’re not doing a good job? preliminary questions Generally know the 2 models for conducting Coaching Discussions. Know Kinlaw’s 3 -Stage Approach and Fournie’s 5 - Step Process. Know also how the 2 models are similar and h ow they are different (pp 336 -340; slide 8) kinlaw’s model is super psychological Founrnie’s 5 step model don’t need steps but know differences and similarities Similarities: 1. get employee to accept verbal responsibility for short fall 2. Include them; participation at its highest 3. Both rely on goal-setting 1. Neither specifically say setting goals difference • Kinlaws is highly emotional aspect, need training as psychologist, open ended questions: • Fournie: More rational model; If you present information, most people will be motivated to fix it especially if oyu include we will work together does coaching fix all problems? no How can managers maintain effective performance? (pp 340 -341; slide 9) look for themes; look at slide Is coaching effective? What does the research say? (pp 344-347; slide 10) • Not much direct research – new and not a lot of good broad scoped well conducted studies – anecdotes and case studies • Indirect support from other research – Employee participation research stream • if you empower employees, they’re going to do better – Managerial supportiveness • partnering with people – Constructive criticism • talk to people about problems without becoming deconstructive – Goal-setting • strongest theory we have – Training to improve superviso r feedback skills – Organizational support Know the ways effective Coaching may be promoted (slide 11) • Need effective performance management system • Managers, supervisors need training in coaching skills • Thorough coaching analysis performed before discussion with employee • Supervisors prepare for discussions • Supervisor comments are constructive, helpful and supportive • Supervisors provide specific and behavioral feedback concerning employee performance • Employees are involved in coaching discussion • Specific goals are set during discussion • Action plan jointly established • Follow up after coaching • Incorporate coaching discussion and action plan into individual development plan to foster long-‐ term employee growth Chapter 12 (Career Management & Development) Know the definitions of career, career planning, career management, and career development systems (slide 2) • Career = the pattern of work-related activities and behaviors that span the course of one’s life • Career planning = deliberate process through which individuals • 1. become aware of their own skills, interests, values, opportunities, constraints, choices, and consequences • 2. identify career-related goals • 3. identify work, education, and related development experiences to provide direction, timing, and sequence of steps for goal achievement • looks at it from individual perspective • Career management = process through which organizations prepare, implementing, and monitor career plans undertaken by individuals alone and in concert with organization • E.g. succession planning • looks at it from organization perspective • Career development system = formal, planned, organized effort to achieve balance between individual career needs and organizational workforce requirements • People want growth and dev. opportuniti es à cd system finds balance • Matching process betqwn indiv needs and org realities • In most org today • Organizations have opportunities where they’re going business plans, people in organization have goals and objectives, have to find the match between what organization is offering and what people are looking for Why do companies invest in career management programs, particularly given such unpredictable times? (pp 395 -396; slide 3) look at slide downsizing and reorganizing • Traditionally • One occupation • Stayed with organization foreva • Decisions made while young • “irreversible” choices • Interests more important than skills • Upward direction • Today’s environment • “few, if any, promises…” • Success = Continual learning and identity changes • Rapidly changes, restruct ured organization • Less stationary • High rate of technology changes • Team-based organizations • About lateral relationships, limit mobility and promotions • Key question • Does concept or organizational career development systems still make sense? • Many companies st ill want long-term relationships • Critical importance of effective “core” staff • Recruitment, retention issues • But… good program must focus on “mutual” needs, responsibilities, and realities • High performance workers want career development programs Know the common change and restructuring initiatives that are driving organizations to re -think the nature of employment relationships and job design (slide 4) • Downsizing = getting rid of excess employees to make the unit smaller, reduce the size of the organizati on • Delayering = pull structure out, broader and pull layers out, lateral relationship • Decentralizing = moves people away from corporate headquarters, outsourcing • Reorganization = the restructuring of business org • Cost-reduction strategies = don’t reduce workload but allocates workload around the new set of resources • IT innovation = how jobs change based on technological changes • Competency measurement = look at skill set and competencies that people hold and redefine them from time to time Know the implications of workplace changes for individuals and their career plans (slide 5) 1. What should individuals do? Advice…. • Focus on “employability” • Worrying less about specific job and more about competitive capability • Take control • It’s up to you, you have to look out for yourself • Self assessment skills critical • You need to be brutally honest about what your strengths and weaknesses are • Ask other people who you trust • Importance of clear, defined goals • Short and long term goals • “Technical specialty” • Knowing how you add value to org in your current job such that you can demonstrate and how you can carry that to different areas going forward • Investments in reputation building • Branding, what your job is, who you are • Collaboration skills • Networking and peer learning relationships • Solicit feedback • If you don’t get it regularly, go ask for it • Commit to lifelong learning • Keep your skills relevant and up to date Know the contemporary and emerging career models: the Boundary -less career, the Protean model, and the Multip le Career Concept model (Bottom of pp 406 -408; slide 7) Career planning models with focus on individual learner • 1. boundary-less careers= one that’s not bound to one organization or single occupation • 2. protean career = adapting to different situations, people need to reinvent themselves several times • proteus was son of Poseidon and could transform himself • continuously curious and reinvent myself • 3. multiple career concept model = four patterns of movement or career development • Linear = old-fashioned, incremental model • Progression is upwards • Each experience builds on the last one, cumulative effect • traditional career path • move up through organization over time • Expert = merges as a devotion to a particular occupation • Not upward particularly • Metaphorically like master craftsman and apprentice • one occupation, specializing • Spiral = lifetime sequences of different jobs, in 7 -10 year ranges, jobs related to each other • HR à PR à political relations • Related somehow, transferrable • What drives them? Need for creativity and personal growth • goal = creativity and personal growth • Transitory = more frequent 3-5 year jobs that have no relation to each other • Why? Variety and some level of independence What is “psychological success”? (notes on slide 7) • 4. psychological success • About a sense of pride, how well you feel you have achieve your life goals including your career goals Know three “career development systems models” (pp 411 -413; slide 8) • 1. The pluralistic approach = not on it?? • 2. The systems view of career management = not on it • 3. the team-based approach = not on it Know the elements of effective career management systems (slide 13) • Positioned as response to business need • Employees and managers participate in development • Employees encouraged to take active roles in career management • Evaluation is ongoing and adjustments are made • Business segments can customize • Includes access to career information sources • Top management supportive of system • System is linked to other HR practices • System creates a large, diverse talent pool • Information about career plans and talent evaluations is accessible to all managers Chapter 13 (Management Development) Know the definition of management development and general trends (pp 440 -442; slides 2-3) one of 2 most popular hrd programs. 91% provide management development, the other popular one is socialization. Management development = an organization’s conscious efforts to provide its managers (and potential managers) with opportunities to learn, grow, and change, in hopes of producing over long term, a cadre of managers with the skills necessary to function effectively in that organ ization. • What is it? • Conceptual underpinnings: • Organization-specific • “to provides it’s managers” • Focus on learning, growth, change opportunities • “with opportunities to learn, grow, and change” • Consciously performed • “conscious efforts” • Purposely set out to create management dev program • Needs structure • Closely aligned with firm strategy • Investment • Requires time and risk • Why important? • Perceived importance of high -quality, adaptive management team to firm success • Management as source of competitive advantage • E.g. general electric top managers, competitive advantage, can make a huge difference in terms of success • Most firms do it at considerable expense Know the components of management development plus general information from the chapter about each area (pp 441- 442; 454-465; slides 4, 12-17) • History of management development • Nature or nurture? • 1. looked at smart people • 2. collection of traits or characteristics (30s) • Manager is collection of Traits: tall, well -dressed, John F. Kennedy type, commanding • Not many theories that stuck for long time • 3. contingency theory • Theory that argued against “one best way” management • Leader has to be good match • It depends • 4. today general belief that management theory can be learned • Components of management development • All fall under rubric • 1. management education • 2. management training • 3. on the job experience (OJE) • Why do it • 1. succession planning • Create a viable collection of tallent • 2. broadening indiv knowledges and skills • Training piece • 3. rewarding performance Know the general approaches we’ve used to deciphering what a manager does and examples of each approach (e.g., know that Mintzberg’s “Ten Management Roles” is an example of the “Assigned Roles” approach to understanding managerial positions) (slide 5) What is a manager • Gen 1: Characteristics approach = what its like to be a manager • Earliest: 1920 • What is it like to be a manager? What is management work like? • Leader, organized, long hours, high levels of activity, fragmented work • Found they weren’t “reflective planners” • Didn’t have time to do that stuff • Not specific enough to become a model • Gen 2: Assigned roles approach • Look at clusters of tasks (roles) instead of tasks (like leader, etc.) • Macro instead of micro • 1. Fayol’s 5 functions • Managers essentially do 5 things: plan, organize, command, coordinate, control • 1. plan = defining goals • Who are we and who do we want to be • 2. organize = creating structure • Flow of work • 3. commanding = providing leadership • 4. coordinating = making sure things get done correctly • Trouble shoot • 5. controlling = • 2. Mintzberg’s 10 roles = don’t need to know the roles but need to know its an assigned roles… • Process models: KSAs = think about how things get done , competencies and capabilities that people bring • 1. Integrated competencies models • Competency = underlying capability to do something effectively • 2. Four dimensional model • 3. globally competent managers model • holistic view • Managers are people who perform work… not collections of competencies • Job of managing is multi-dimensional, complex, integrated effort Specifically, how can management development programs be “connected” to business strategy? Know the “three linkages” theory. Why is the key linkage so often missed? Know the benchmarking approach (pp 453 -454; slide 11) • Two schools of thinking (2 models) • (1) 3 necessary linkages • 1. connect Business environment to business strategy • 2. business strategy to mgt dev strategy • Hardest to do: • 1. mgt dev focused to inwardly • 2. too much classroom than OTJ • 3. mgt dev strategy to mgt d ev activities • (2) “what world-class firms do…” • Strategy-management development linkage • Seamless programs • Global orientation • Individual learning – organizational learning linkage • Development design fits firm culture • Career development focus • Focus on empirically-developed core competencies • Look back at most successful managers you had Know the techniques commonly used for OJE (On -the-Job Experiences) and how to use OJE systematically (pp 461 -465; slide 14) • Goal: Provide opportunities to gain self -knowledge, new skills or information within the context of day -to-day activities • Enlargement = increasing responsibility over time • Major Assumption • Development requires mismatch between employee’s skills/past experiences and those required for the assignment • 3 formats of: “Enlargement of current job experiences” • (1) Job rotation = have series of job assignments in various key areas • Promotion, Demotion, Lateral Move • Stretch job rotation • Most widely used • Benefits: • Slide 14 • Externships • Sending one of your employees out of organization on assignment • Common in consulting agency • Employee Exchanges • Job swaps • Three approaches to using OJE systematically (formally) on quiz • (1) use behavioral events viewpoint • Whoever is designing it Interview and spend time with top mgt and ask them what experiences they felt were critical to their ultimate development • Work analysis using experience of top mgt team • (2) Action learning • European approach to learning • Simulation • 4 step process • 1. mgt trainees select org problem • 2. write case study describing problem • 3. meet with managers who have had problem to get insights aobut why it happened • 4. solution • Learning by doing • Hands on • Interpersonal relationships • Mentoring & coaching • “Lessons learned from on-the-job events are hard-won, involving emotion, reflection, and assistance from others to extract their meaning.” Know Job Rotations as an OJE tool: what they are; advantages and disadvantages; characteristics of effective rotations (slides 14-16) what do we need to know for slide 15, 16 Know Interpersonal Relationships as an OJE tool (slide 17) Generally know the key decisions that need to be made in designing and implementing management development programs (slide 19) get notes on slide 19 Know the characteristics of effective and successful management development programs (slide 20) • Tied to organizational strategic plans • Based on needs assessment • Utilize specific objectives • Involve senior management at all phases • Use variety of developmental opportunities • Motivated participants • Formal evaluation designed and utilized • Modify, update, change Using the grid on back slide, be prepared to “slot” a selection of management development techniques on a blank grid. The most important type s of programs are behavioral modeling, sensitivity programs, educational programs (BBA, MBA, EMBA), on-the-job experiences, role playing, and assessment centers (slides 21 -22) WILL BE ON TEST Will be given description • Sensitivity training = approach to increasing peoples awareness of how they behave as viewed by others what do we need to know for slide 22 get more notes on slide 21 KNOW WHICH GOE SINTO QHICH QUADRANT boxes are going to be empty she gave most important ones, top left quandrant • Sensitivity Training o An approach to increasing people’s awareness of how they behave as viewed by others. Usually conducted in small groups (8 to 14), each individual examines the way others perceive their personal style. Can be very confrontational. Programs must be carefully managed. Very controversial technique • Transactional Analysis (TA) o Based, largely, on the book “I’m OK -‐ You’re OK,” TA focuses on understanding human behavior based on 3 ego states: Parent, Adult, Child. Highly psychological approach to managing relationships and performance. Also controversial as management development approach • Other Self-‐Awareness Efforts o … include inventories and paper and pencil “tests” to provide insights about attitudes, behaviors, etc. • Educational Programs o BBA, MBA, EMBA, etc. • Corporate Classrooms o Organizational “universities,” think-‐tank settings, etc. (Examples, Target U; Macdonald’s U; GE’s Crotonville) • Assessment Centers o Small groups of employees perform a variety of standardized exercises while being evaluated by a group of trained assessors. The In-‐basket exercise we did in class is a common Assessment Center exercise (although that particular example was a simplified example) • Junior Boards o A junior board is generally composed of a dozen or so management trainees or young executives from diverse areas of the company, selected for 6 months or longer. The junior board is expected to study any major problem facing the organization and make recommendations to the senior board of directors (i.e., the official board elected by the stockholders in a publicly-‐traded company) • Understudy Assignments o Distinguishable from mentoring, the understudy (management trainee or young executive) actually relieves an executive of certain responsibilities, thereby giving the trainee the hands-‐on opportunity to learn aspects of the job in somewhat of a controlled environment boxes will be blank sensitivity, mba, behavioral modeling, role playing, assessment ceners, she starred the important ones don’t need to know definitions actually nmemonics
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