study guide final
study guide final ANTH 161 001
Popular in Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydney Miller on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 161 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. De La Cova in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
Darwin’s Postulates: Variation is present and heritable in populations More individuals are born than can survive to reproduce. Those who don’t survive will die & their traits will die with them. Populations grow faster than their food supply which leads to competition Influences on Darwin: Lyell’s principles of geology o Change is the only constant Malthus’ essays on competition for survival o “struggle for existence” Artificial breeding o Someone hand picks those who survive preferentially Variation on finches Catastrophism: The idea that change results from catastrophic events occurring in catastrophic zones Associated with Cuvier Uniformitarianism: Idea that there is a gradual change from the process (gradualism) that occurred in the past that are still occurring today & will continue on in the future Heterozygote advantage with disease: For malaria when people have the sickle cell gene & are heterozygous they do NOT suffer from the disease but are instead protected from Malaria giving them advantage & thus a higher chance at survival & allowing for continued presence of sickle cell gene. Also true for Tay-Sachs & Tuberculosis Lamarck’s Theory of Change Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics Organism’s adaptations through life are passed on to offspring Four processes of evolution: Mutation o Random & spontaneous generation of a new allele Gene flow o Interbreeding o Transfer of alleles from population to population Genetic drift o Change in allele frequency due to random chance Natural selection o Characteristics that are advantageous & allow an individual to survive & reproduce will be passed on to the next generation & continue in a higher number. Dodo Bird: Their extinction contradicted the Great Chain of Being Fitness: Individuals reproductive success Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium: Assumes no gene flow, mutation, genetic drift or Natural Selection Not in equilibrium unless actual frequency is equal to expected & this is very rare P⌃2 + 2pq+ q⌃2 = 1 o P= frequency of A o Q= frequency of a o Frequency of AA= P*P o frequency of aa= q*q o frequency of Aa= 2pq Homologies: traits which are similar in form in two species due to common ancestry Growth increase in mass or number of cells “Natural Selection acts on individuals causing evolutionary changes at the population level” Thomas Hunt Morgan: 1908 Nobel Prize research on fruit flies demonstrated Mendalin pattern of inheritance & revealed that genes were found on chromosomes & transmitted during meiosis. 3 Patterns of Natural Selection stabilizing o birth weight directional o increase in hominid brain size over time disruptive o no example in humans Evolution: changes in allele frequencies has no goal is driven by natural selection Microevolution: changes in allele frequencies in a population from 1 generation to the next Georges Cuvier: proponent of catastrophism believed in immutability of species o created by God & could never change Contribution of Darwin & Alfred Russell Wallace: demonstrated a viable mechanism for evolutionary change Mendel’s Law of Segregation: variants did NOT blend together with each other but remained separate like they were different particles 2 alleles from each parent Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment: inheritance of 1 trait does not affect the inheritance of other traits James Hutton: the 1 to propose the concepts of uniformitarianism & gradualism Race: cultural construct used to separate people not biological Development: progressison of changes that lead from an undifferentiated or immature state to a highly organized, specialized, mature state Growth Charts: distance curve o measures height vs. age velocity curve o measures rate of growth vs. age o shows peak height velocity around age 12-14 o at each age there is a different rate of growth important because it allows us to look at nutritional status of a child & if they’re not growing properly there may be something wrong Great Chain of Being: ranked, non immutable continuum originally based on divinity with the highest divinity at top said everything that could exist did & there is no change Darwin abandoned this theory on HMS Beagle studying finches & he noticed variation, also saw evidence of extinction which proved GCB was incorrect. Periods of Rapid Growth: Infancy Adolescence Occipital Bone: Back of cranium Foramen Magnum: Hole in bottom of skull Connects skull to spine Center=bipedal Lower to back = quadrupedal Mandible: Lower part of jaw Sacrum: Center of pelvis Triangle with holes Innominate: Sides of pelvis Flat curved Clavicle: Collar bone Scapula: Shoulder Blade Sternum: Breast Bone Humorous: Upper part of arm Largest bone in arm Femur: Thigh bone Tibia: Inner larger bone of lower leg Fibula: Outer smaller bone of lower leg Male & Female Growth Spurts: Males-14 Females-12 Males grow taller and longer than females because of higher testosterone levels Adulthood: Characterized by the completion of sexual maturity at around age 20 Begins reproductive age until senescence Also signaled by fission of growth plates Secular Trend: Trend in the growth of populations Recently people are becoming taller
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