Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide HUN 1201
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tyler Murphy on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HUN 1201 at Florida State University taught by Zhao in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see Science of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
Study Guide for Final Exam (Test 4) Chapter 1 1. What is nutrition? Why is it important? The scientific study of food and how much it nourishes the body and influences health. It identifies 2. Explain the different types of nutrients 1. organic vs. inorganic organic: substance or nutrient that contains the elements carbon and hydrogen inorganic: substance or nutrient that does not contain carbon and hydrogen 2. macronutrient vs. micronutrient macronutrient: body requires in relatively large amounts to support normal function and health ex. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins micronutrient: needed in relatively small amounts to support normal health and body functions. Ex. Vitamins and minerals 3. fat soluble vs. water soluble vitamins fat soluble: not soluble in water ex. Vitamins A, D, E, and K water soluble: soluble in water ex. Vitamin C and B vitamins 4. energy yielding nutrients ‒ kcal/g for each. -Carbohydrates: 4 kcal/g -Protein: 4 kcal/g -Fat: 9 kcal/g -Alcohol: 7 kcal/g 3. DRI’s apply to which population of people? Explain the components of the DRI (EAR, RDA, AI, UL, EER, AMDR). Apply to healthy people only; do not apply to people with diseases or those who are suffering from nutrient deficiencies. They identify the amount of a nutrient needed to prevent deficiency diseases in healthy individuals, but consider how much of a nutrient may reduce the risk for chronic diseases. EAR (Estimated Average Requirement): the average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of ½ of healthy individuals in a particular life stage or gender group RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance): average daily nutrient intake level that meets the nutrient requirement of 97% to 98% AI (Adequate Intake): average daily nutrient intake level based on observed or experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake UL (Tolerable Upper Intake Level): highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals EER (Estimated Energy Requirement): average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy individual AMDR (Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range): range of intakes for a particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients Chapter 2 1. What are the useful tools for designing a healthful diet? To read and understand food labels 2. Define nutrient density. Relative amount of nutrients per amount of energy (# of calories) 3. What are the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and MyPlate? Balance calories to maintain weight, consume fewer foods and food components of concern, consume more healthful foods and nutrients, follow healthy eating patterns, increase physical activity 4. What is a chronic disease? Cancer and cardiovascular disease Chapter 13 1. How to evaluate if a person’s body weight is healthful? BMI, measuring body comp., assessing the pattern of fat distribution 2. What are the components of energy expenditure? Basal metabolic rate (BMR), thermic effect of food 5-10%(TEF), and energy cost of physical activity 15-30% Can be measured using direct or indirect calorimetry Chapter 13.5 1. Know the different eating disorders. Anorexia nervosa: self-starvation, leads to a deficiency in the energy and essential nutrients required by the body Bulimia nervosa: binge eating and recurrent inappropriate compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain Night eating: not hungry during the day but eating at night. depressed mood and insomnia. Binging: after stressful events, not purging Chapter 4.5, 7‒alcohol 1. What are the problems associated with alcohol abuse? craving, reduced brain function, alcohol poisoning, loss of function, increased risk for chronic disease, fatty liver, hepatitis, fetal & infant health problems, physical dependence 2. What are the steps in alcohol oxidation? What does ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) do? Occurs primarily in the liver, but first pass metabolism occurs in the stomach via the ADH pathway. Most alcohol consumed is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, the ADH pathway dominates for low to moderate intake while MEOS is more important as the amount of alcohol increases. ADH converts ethanol to acetaldehyde.- reduces alcohol absorption 3. Define moderate alcohol consumption Alcohol consumption of up to one drink per day for women and up to 2 drinks/day for men; raises good HDL, lowers bad LDL 4. Define Metabolic Tolerance, Functional Tolerance Metabolic tolerance: the liver becomes more efficient in its breakdown of alcohol Functional tolerance: chronic drinkers show few, if any signs of impairment or intoxication Chapter 3 1. Define hunger. Define appetite. What is the difference between the two? Hunger: physiologic sensation that prompts us to eat; nonspecific Appetite: psychological desire to consume specific foods; specific 2. How do hormones regulate appetite? Act as regulators of physiologic processes at sites remote from the glands that secreted them. Insulin and glucagon maintain blood glucose levels. When we have not eaten, blood glucose levels fall which is relayed to the hypothalamus, prompting us to eat. 3. What does CCK (cholecystokinin) do? Released in the small intestine in response to the presence of proteins and lipids-signaling the gallbladder to contract. Contraction of the gallbladder sends bile into the duodenum, emulsifying the lipids and disperses them to make more accessible to digestive enzymes 4. List the accessory organs of digestion. Salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas 5. Define absorption, digestion, elimination, and segmentation. Absorption: molecules of food are taken from the GI tract into the circulation Digestion: foods are broken down into their component molecules- mechanically or chemically Elimination: undigested portions of food and waste products are removed from the body Segmentation: rhythymic contraction of circular muscles in intestinal wall 6. What are the differences between the 4 types of absorption? Passive diffusion: ions and molecules cross the cell membrane without the use of a carrier protein or the requirement of energy Facilitated Diffusion: ions and molecules are shuttled across the cell membrane with the help of a carrier protein Active transport: requires the use of energy to shuttle ions and molecules across the membrane with a carrier protein Endocytosis: ions and molecules are engulfed by the cell membrane, folds inwardly and releases in the cell interior Chapter 4 1. The smallest molecules that make up carbohydrates are called monosaccharides. 2. Where does carbohydrate digestion occur, and what enzymes are involved? Begins in the mouth-salivary amylase, as food enters stomach, carbs ceases because of the acid in the stomach. Majority occurs in the small intestine- pancreatic amylase 3. What type of diet causes ketosis? Low carbohydrate intake--- fasting 4. Define hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia. Hyperglycemia: blood glucose levels are higher then normal Hypoglycemia: blood glucose levels are below normal fasting levels 5. What dose insulin do? What does glucagon do? Insulin is transported in the blood to the cells of tissues throughout the body, where it stimulates special carrier proteins (glucose transporters)- stimulating glucose transporters to travel to the surface and assist in transporting glucose Glucagon causes the liver to convert its stored glycogen into glucose then secreted into bloodstream and transported to cells. Also assists in the breakdown of body proteins to amino acids, to stimulate gluconeogenesis 6. What are the differences between type I and type II diabetes? Type 1 diabetes: pancreas cannot produce enough insulin Type II diabetes: body cells become less responsive to insulin Chapter 5 1. Name some foods sources of saturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, monounsaturated fats, and trans fats. Saturated: coconut oil, palm kernel oil, butter, cheese, whole milk, cream, lard, and beef fat Polyunsaturated: cottonseed, canola, corn, and safflower oils Monounsaturated: olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, cashew nuts Trans fats: hydrogenated oils 2. Trans fats are not good for health. Why? Raise blood cholesterol levels and change cell membrane function and how cholesterol is removed from blood, + risk of cardiovascular disease 3. Name to two essential fatty acids (EFAs). Linoleic acid (omega 6) and alpha- linoleic acid (omega 3) 4. What compound secreted during digestion emulsifies fats? What organs make and store this? Lecithins (phospholipid) + bile salts and electrolytes= bile. Bile emulsifies lipids. Produced by liver and stored in gallbladder 5. What is a phospholipid? Type of lipid where a fatty acid is combined with another compound that contains phosphate; soluble in water 6. What transports fats into the enterocyte during digestion? Micelles. What is the difference between a micelle and a chylomicron? Micelle transports lipid into mucosal cell. Chylomicron: lipoprotein that transports lipid from a meal; soluble in water 7. What is the difference between a monoglyceride and a triglyceride? Triglyceride: 3 fatty acids+ 3 carbon glycerol molecule; classified by chain length, saturation, and shape Mono Chapter 6 1. The smallest molecules that make up proteins are called amino acids. 2. What are the essential amino acids? Define limiting amino acid. -Histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine -limiting amino acid: essential amino acid that is missing or in the smallest supply 3. What is complete protein? Sufficient amounts of all 9 essential amino acids (animal and soy protein) 4. What are the functions of mucus in the stomach? Helps protect stomach from acid 5. What does HCl activate in the stomach? pepsin 6. What compound neutralizes stomach acid? What organ secretes this? Bicarbonate, secreted from pancreas 7. Intrinsic factor is needed to absorb which nutrient? Which cells in the stomach secret this? B12, secreted by parietal cells 8. Which hormone triggers the stomach to release digestive juices? What is this digestive juice called? Gastric juice, gastrin stimulates release of gastric juice 9. What is nitrogen balance? Determines protein needs (positive: consumption>excretion) (negative: consumption<excretion) 10. Define marasumus, kwashiorkor, and sickle cell anemia. Marasmus: grossly inadequate energy and nutrient intake Kwashiorkor: disease from low protein intake Sickle cell anemia: cells become crescent shaped causing them to be hard and sticky (genetic) 11. Define denaturation, transamination, and deamination. Denaturation: proteins uncoil and lose shape; function is lost Transamination: transfer of an amine group from an essential amino acid to a different group& side chain Deamination: amino groups are removed from excess proteins Chapter 7 1. Describe a hydrolysis reaction. Describe a condensation reaction. Give an example of one. Hydrolysis: catabolic process; large molecule is broken down with the addition of water Condensation: anabolic process; small, chemically simple units combine to produce a larger molecule, water is released as a byproduct ex. Synthesis of disaccharides from indiv. monosaccharides 2. What is the starting molecule in the TCA cycle? Pyruvate What two compounds combine to form citrate? Oxaloacetate and acetyl coA 3. Define anabolism and catabolism. Anabolism: making larger more complex molecules from smaller ones Catabolism: breakdown of larger complex molecules to more basic- releases energy 4. Aerobic environment means that pyruvate will be converted to what molecule? Acetyl CoA 5. In the anaerobic environment, pyruvate will be converted into what molecule? lactate 6. What is the difference between a ketogenic amino acid and a glucogenic amino acid? What is their destination? Ketogenic: degraded to acetyl coA to enter the TCA cycle or to synthesize fatty acids Glucogenic: degraded to pyruvate to be used to synthesize glucose or converted to acetyl CoA to enter the TCA cycle Chapter 14 1. Can glycogen released from the muscle raise your blood glucose? yes 2. How can you restore glycogen in muscle? Consistent CHO consumption, high GI foods, high carb intake 3. How do you determine protein requirement? Increased protein needs for competitive, endurance, and resistance athletes. Most people already consume enough. Chapter 7.5, 8 1. What is the primary role of B-complex vitamins? Assist energy metabolism and act as coenzymes 2. Which vitamins are parts of TPP? PLP? NADP? TPP: Thiamin PLP: Vitamin B6 NADP: Niacin 3. What is ariboflavinosis? Riboflavin deficiency- sore throat, swollen mucous membranes 4. Pellagra is a deficiency of what nutrient? What are the symptoms? Severe niacin deficiency- dementia, dermatitis, diarrhea 5. Beriberi is a deficiency of what nutrient? What are the symptoms? Thiamin: muscle wasting, nerve damage 6. Which of the B-vitamins are involved in metabolism of homocysteine? Vitamin b6 7. What is choline? Is it a vitamin? Vitamin like substance: metabolism, cell membranes, neurotransmission- not actual vitamin 8. Chromium is involved in the cellular uptake of which molecule? Assists insulin in glucose uptake 9. What hormones require iodine to be produced? Thyroid hormones Chapter 9 1. What are the two common extracellular ions and the two common intracellular ions? Extracellular: sodium, chloride; intracellular: potassium, phosphorus 2. What function does ADH have? What organ secretes it? Stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water, reducing urine. Released from pituitary gland 3. What function does aldosterone have? What organ secretes it? Secreted from adrenal glands, signals kidneys to retain sodium and chloride, retaining water, + blood pressure, and – urine output 4. Chloride is sourced mostly from what food product in our diet? Table salt 5. Processed foods typically contain what mineral to help preserve it? sodium 6. What is Hypokalemia? Hyperkalemia? Hyponatremia? Hypernatrimia? Hypokalemia: low blood potassium levels Hyperkalemia: high blood potassium levels Hyponatremia: abnormally low blood sodium level Hypernatremia: abnormally high blood sodium concentration 7. Where is phosphorus stored? What can enhance the absorption of phosphorus? Stored in the bone, animal sources can enhance absorption 8. What populations are most likely to become easily dehydrated? Elderly and infants 9. Is the major cause of hypertension known? What is it? Major chronic disease, + risk of heart disease, stroke, kidney disease. Cause is unknown Chapter 10 1. How are free radicals formed? Electron loss during oxidation leaves an odd number or unpaired electron ; How do antioxidants stabilize free radicals? Donate their electrons or act as cofactors 2. What are the 4 main antioxidant micronutrients? Vitamin A,C, E and selenium 3. What are some examples of enzyme systems involved in this process? Superoxide dismutase, catalase, gluthathione peroxidase c. Which food groups provide the majority of antioxidants in the diet? Fruit, beans 2. What are the functions of vitamin E? lowers risk of heart disease, normal nerve and muscle development, enhances immune system, improves vitamin A absorption 1. Where is it stored? Adipose tissue and cell membranes 2. What function does it have in the cellular membrane? Membrane stability and stops them from oxidative damage 3. In what forms is Vitamin E present in food? oils 3. What are some major functions of Vitamin C? synthesis of collagen, DNA, bile, neurotransmitters, carnitine, hormones, appropriate levels of thyroxine 1. How does vitamin C influence Vitamin E? regenerates oxidized vitamin E 2. What are toxicity and deficiency symptoms for vitamin C? Toxicity: nausea, diarrhea, nosebleeds, abdominal cramps; deficiency: scurvy, anemia 3. What circumstances increase your need for vitamin C? low fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol and drug abuse 4. What is collagen? Structural protein that prevents scurvy 4. Vitamin precursor: beta carotene 5. What process helps increase beta carotene bioavailability in food? heat 6. What biological functions is Vitamin A involved in? healthy vision, cell differentiation, sperm production and fertilization, bone growth 7. What does glutathione peroxidase require as a cofactor? selenium a) What does this enzyme system do? Thyroxine production, basal metabolic body temp. Chapter 11 1. Explain the components of bone. 65% assortment of minerals (calcium and phosphorus)- hardness, 35% organic substances- strength, durability, flexibility most important- collagen a. Include both trabecular bone and compact bone, and characteristics of each. Cortical bone (compact): dense, 80% of the skeleton, outer surface of all bones, contains microscopic openings-passageways for blood vessels and nerves Trabecular (spongy) bone: 20% of the skeleton, found within the ends of long bones, the spinal vertebrae, the sternum, the ribs, most bones of the skull, and the pelvis- aligned in a precise network of columns that protect bone from stress, supports outer cortical, faster turnover rate 2. Explain the different processes involved in bone development 1. Bone growth, bone modeling, bone remodeling. Bone growth: determines bone size, begins in the womb, continues in early adulthood Bone modeling: determines bone shape, begins in the womb, continues in early adulthood Bone remodeling: recycling of older bone tissue and the formation of new bone tissue, repairs fractures; resorption and formation 2. What cells are involved in these processes, and what is their function? Resorption- osteoclasts: erode the surface of bones by secreting enzymes and acids that dig grooves into the bone matrix New bone is formed through osteoblasts/ “bone builders”: laying down collagen- containing part of bone- mineralized 3. Define bone density, and list factors influence peak bone density. Bone density: compactness of our bones Peak bone density: point when the bone is the strongest; influenced by late puberty for boys, late menstruation for girls, inadequate calcium intake, low body weight, physical inactivity during adolescence 4. How does the body regulate calcium levels in the blood? Enhanced in an acidic enviro; Understand the hormones involved in this process, and all of the functions of vitamin D. See flowchart on this topic in Chapter 11. Low blood calcium levels: + secretion parathyroid hormone by parathyroid glands -> + activation Vitamin D -> +reabsorption of calcium by kidneys, +release of calcium into bloodstream b/c of + breakdown of bone, + absorption of calcium from intestines -> + blood calcium level High blood calcium levels: + secretion of calcitonin by the thyroid gland -> action of vitamin D inhibited -> - reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys, - absorption of calcium from the intestines, - breakdown of bone -> - blood calcium levels Functions of vitamin D: regulate blood calcium levels- maintain bone health, -/+ blood calcium levels by signaling the kidneys to excrete more or less calcium in urine, works with PTH to stimulate osteoclasts to break down bone when calcium is needed elsewhere, assists the calcification of the bone 5. Know dietary sources and how vitamin K is produced in the body, as well as any conditions where Vitamin K status is compromised. Green leafy vegetables, vegetable oils. Produced by bacteria in the large intestine; excessive bleeding, fat malabsorption, long term use of antibiotics 6. Know what factors influence magnesium absorption, both increasing and decreasing. Kidneys regulate absorption. Dietary protein enhances absorption and retention. Phytates and fiber decrease absorption 7. Know what fluorosis is, and what happens to teeth in the condition. Excess fluoride; + protein content of tooth enamel and makes teeth porous. Teeth become stained and pitted 8. What are the possible skeletal health issues associated with Vitamin D deficiency? Rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults 1. How is vitamin D produced? Synthesized by body from exposure to UV rays from the sun 2. What are some food sources of Vitamin D? animal foods, fortified foods- milk, cod, liver, oil, fatty fish 9. Define osteoporosis, what are its characteristics, risk factors, and treatments? Disease characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue. Shortening and hunching of the spine. Age, gender (higher in women), smoking, poor nutrition, physical inactivity Treatment: consume adequate calcium and vitamin D, exercise regularly (jogging, resistance training) Chapter 12 1. What are the components of blood? Erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, plasma a. What do each of the components of blood do? Erythrocytes: transport oxygen in blood Eukocytes: protect body from infection and illness Platelets: assist in formation of blood clots and helps stop bleeding Plasma: maintain adequate blood volume so blood can flow easily 2. Describe the process of Iron and Vitamin B12 absorption. Iron: promoted by meat factor, stomach acids, vitamin C. 1. What are food sources of Vitamin B12? Dairy products, eggs, meats, poultry, fish, shellfish 2. What are food sources of Iron (heme/non-heme)? Heme: meat, fish- easily absorbed; Nonheme: not easily absorbed, plant 3. What digestive conditions cause greater absorption of iron? Acidic enviro 4. What are the storage (2) and transport (1) molecules for iron? Storage: ferritin, hemosiderin; Transport: transferrin 3. How is zinc absorbed and transported? Absorbed: stored in metallothenein (animal protein enhances absorption, + with need) Transported: bound to albumin for transport 4. Describe deficiency and toxicity symptoms of copper, folate, iron, Vitamin B12 Copper: D- rare, anemia, reduced white blood cells, osteoporosis, bone demineralization; T: abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, liver damage Folate: D- macrocytic anemia , elevated homocysteine, neural tube effects; T: can mask vit. B12 deficiency intestinal pain, nausea, vomiting Iron: D- most common, erythropoiesis (- iron transport), anemia (reduced normal, healthy red blood cell production, - size, inadequate hemoglobin); T: hemochromatosis B12: D- gastrointestinal and neurologic effects, pernicious anemia; T- no known effects 5. What cells function as part of the immune system? Non specific and specific a. Specify between non-specific and specific immune cells Non specific: body defense mechanisms that protect against entry of foreign agents- microbes and allergens- innate immunity Specific: strongest defense against pathogens, requires adaptation of white blood cells to recognize antigens (large proteins that are recognized by immune cells & activate immune response) & that multiply to protect against pathogens carrying the antigens- adaptive immunity 6. Describe immunocompetence and how it relates to diet. Ability to produce a normal immune response; - immunocompetence is a sensitive indicator of reduced nutritional status
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