New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Final Study Guide (Fall 2015) - Intro to International Relations

by: Allison Woolverton

Final Study Guide (Fall 2015) - Intro to International Relations POLI 2500-02

Marketplace > Tulane University > Political Science > POLI 2500-02 > Final Study Guide Fall 2015 Intro to International Relations
Allison Woolverton

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is based off of the study guide prof. Kiel gave us in class. My friend and I compiled our notes to fill this out and talked to her about some of the details so I think it's very reflective of...
International Relations
Christina Kiel
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in International Relations

Popular in Political Science

This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allison Woolverton on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POLI 2500-02 at Tulane University taught by Christina Kiel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see International Relations in Political Science at Tulane University.


Reviews for Final Study Guide (Fall 2015) - Intro to International Relations


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 12/09/15
POLI 2500-05 Prof. Kiel Tulane University Introduction to International Relations Final Study Guide Fall 2015 Chapter 10: ECONOMY:  balance of trade o surplus: export more than import (ex; China) o deficit: imports more than export (ex; the US with China… China’s surplus=money… extra money that is invested in US government bonds, power to destabilize us, but won’t because of interdependence), causes unemployment because reduces domestic demand for labor  currency o convertible - can change with other currencies o non-convertible: can’t change with others, complete control, sign of a bad economy, more stable, ie. North Korea o hard- stable, strong - usually the leading currency from highly industrialized countries; most countries have reserves in the hard currencies, reliable  ex: dollar, euro  all hard currencies are convertible  exchange rate: currency’s worth is now relative to everyone else (esp. the strong and stable currencies, ie. US dollar, Japanese yen, EU euro)  fixed: government decides-- usually to a hard currency, constant ratio of exchange, stable  floating : global market decides… supply and demand; states can manipulate it by devaluing currency to boost trade/trade surplus  inflation - currency loses value relative to the leading/more stable ones; can be good or bad  a result of countries devaluing their currency to stimulate trade demand, ie. China  protectionism - protecting of domestic industries from intl. competitors (often infant industries or those that are vital to national security)  why: to keep domestic economy strong  how: limiting foreign products: tariffs, quotas; supporting local products: non-tariff barriers such as subsidies which discourage imports; economic nationalism (patriotic encouragement)  liberalism (in IPE), - states mutually benefit from economic exchanges  absolute power - doesn’t matter if a state gains more of less than another, just whether or not they do gain; absolute over relative  governmental role: non-interference (to increase efficiency)  assume anarchy, but believe that cooperation helps  the invisible hand of the market… it will work itself out  efficiency- maximum input, minimum waste  mercantilism - stemming from realism, the idea that economic power is beneficial to political goals  always want to have a trade surplus (for power) ie. Britain until the 1800s  each state protects its own interests at the expense of others  relative power (economic, military)- sees power as zero- sum game  conflict over cooperation as the natural state  advantage  absolute- the country who produces goods cheapest and most efficiently  comparative- a country’s ability to create goods at the lowest opportunity cost (in comparison to that of others), gives up the least by producing the good; always best to specialize  political interferences in markets and market imperfections: (free and efficient markets have lots of consumers and producers, supply and demand are both high, everyone has complete information)  sanctions - government implies sanctions against trade to enforce political goals, very direct political statement with trade restrictions; only works with collective action to have an influence on the country  autarky - self-reliance, isolationist, avoiding/closed trade (doesn’t work very well), fails, an excuse, ie. North Korea  monopoly - one firm controls entire market; ex: De Beers diamond market in South Africa  foreign governments don’t have much power to stop them (domestic ones do)  no competition= can charge as much as they want to  cartels - when countries in an oligopoly (just a few countries control the market) work together, a few countries have a large market share, get together and set prices; OPE  taxes - will also influence the market  tariffs- double standard, developed vs. developing, power= can demand no tariffs, unequal risks  economic nationalism- a protectionist measure; patriotism with respect to the economy  corruption - if a country is bribing someone, they will pass that price onto the consumer in the end Chapter 11: GLOBALIZATION  globalization - the rapid increase in cross-border movement of goods, money, people, and ideas; the process in which international trade increases relative to domestic trade o cost and time for things to go across borders are decreasing o can infringe upon sovereignty; economy in the hands of others with investments, private sector and producers gain control over sovereignty o companies can have headquarters in any country...differences in power  history, o Britain had the most advanced economy in the 1750s (industrial revolution, technology) - decided that free trade was advantageous o Great Depression → protectionist policies → exacerbated crisis o Keynesian economics: Post WW2 o Bretton Woods institutions: a number of institutions developed post WW2 --GATT (became WTO), World Bank (loans for reconstruction), IMF (international monetary exchange)  set fixed exchange rates; gold standard --- but this didn’t last past the 70’s  institutions to avoid another world war … keep stability, avoid another Depression due to protectionism, inflation, etc.  US as a hegemon, national interest  globalization shot way up in 80s and 90s  international framework  GATT to WTO  GATT - General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade  GATT → WTO in 1995  WTO - World Trade Organization- promotes, monitors, and adjudicates international trade  159 entities; not all are countries  reciprocity is key  intergovernmental organization  bilateral - trade between two countries, reciprocal, now rare (bilateral reciprocity= 2 states agree to have the same tariffs)  regional- trade between a group of countries, common market, no tariffs at all, ex: EU, Customs Union, NAFTA  most-favored nation principle - the best trade deal/condition that you give to a country, you must give to all countries in the WTO, lowest tariffs, non-discrimination  generalized system of preferences- exception to the MFN; trade concessions to 3rd world/developing nations to aid them in economic development, get to pay lower tariffs than the rest  agricultural protectionism- subsidize farmers, causes competition abroad, hurts developing states  pros and cons of free trade. … and globalization, free flow of fianance  pro/con- benefits the hegemon, US now, sets norms to benefit self: free trade, anti-protectionist  pro- in anarchy, combats the prisoner’s dilemma, don’t feel the need to stay protectionist in case others don’t open their borders Chapter 12: DEVELOPMENT:  measuring poverty o some graphs show poverty as declining, while others show it as constant but the rich are rising → the gap is increasing o GINI coefficient - measures inequality on a scale of 1 - 0, compares the richest and poorest, 0= income equal, 1=one person owns everything, hard to get accurate data from worse- off countries o GDP- average income- doesn’t show inequality within a country, may be skewed by gaps and population size o PPP- average income adjusted for cost of living o other: poverty line, basic human needs, gender equality  inequality - how much a person has in comparison to another o why do we care: empathy; self interest -inequality leads to unrest o basic human needs- food, clean water, shelter, basic health care, education/literacy (seen as more important in recent years) , security; not democracy  Millennium Development Goals - set by UN in 2015, these ones are more environmentally focused and more extreme/broad than the last ones  roots of inequality - competing explanations  resources, location, climate, democracy ( → innovation and investment), past (industrialization, colonialism), global South vs North o Europe’s competitive political system encourages innovation and technological advancement o zero-sum game; Europe’s development lead to poverty of the rest of the world o problem of late development - much more difficult for later developing countries to catch up; can overcome with protectionism and high taxes  strategies for development: o import substitution;  producing domestically things that you used to buy abroad; reduce exports  export-led growth- free trade, works much better, favorable trade balance=money=invest  exporting goods boosts the economy  state socialism- a type of economy, discredited, moving out, generally moving towards liberal economies; government control and ownership of capital and infrastructure  Washington Consensus- standard reform package (very cookie cutter) for countries that were in economic crisis in the 80’s and 90’s  Instead of subsidizing housing, food, transportation, etc,, used money to boost economy – invested money directly into education, infrastructure, etc.  minimized state role the economy  Asian Tigers - government was very very involved in the economy in these countries (more than the WC called for) yet it worked  Counterargument to WC: all of these countries were authoritarian, not democratic  developmental state- type of economic growth in which the government is very actively involved by controlling the financial market, so there is a good fertile ground for growth  sort of the opposite of the Washington Censuses; the model used in the Asian Tiger Countries  though the WC was too liberal, but developmental states are too involved, now we’re trying to reach somewhere in the middle  good governance- transparent, controlled by rule of law, accountable, effective  foreign assistance:  types  bilateral - directly from one country to the next; good for a country’s reputation (in the eyes of the receiver); backed by political motives  multilateral - through an organization; more difficult/cumbersome  donors - giving aid too often serves the geopolitical needs of the donors, not the economic needs of the recipients  conditions,  shortcomings of aid - benefits the donors more than the recipients  giving money to corrupt governments just supports them  donated goods can hurt the local economy by undermining industries Chapter 14: ENVIRONMENT o collective goods: non-excludable, non-rivalrous  collective action/public goods problem - the problem of how to provide something that benefits all the members of a group regardless of what each member contributes to it; ted to be underprovided and finite o examples - climate, protecting the environment o solutions: dominance- dominant states force weaker ones to comply ; reciprocity - rewards system for compliance; identity - you actually care about others, future generations o barriers to solutions: defection (free-riding)  tragedy of the commons - there is an ever increasing amount of people but a finite amount of goods o ex: grazing cows on a common pasture - people don’t mind sending out one more cow but it’s still depleting the resources  sustainable development- economic growth that doesn’t kill the environment for future generations o 1192 Summit (Agenda 21) - declared that countries must act more sustainably o Liberalism: we can cooperate; with incentives we can monitor compliance o Realism: skeptical of cooperation; sees environmental issues as important because it can be a security issue  climate change cooperation as a collective action problem o to solve the issue of climate change countries and interest groups must work together→ this means that CC is a collective action problem ---but because the environment is a public good, countries don’t have to help (free-riding) o potential solutions: groups of actors, exclusion from benefits, hegemony, quotas and trading, selective incentives, privatization o 1197 Kyoto protocol - to limit carbon emissions - ended in 2012, the US didn’t sign it so nothing much came out of it  climate change as a threat to international security - if resources become scarce this leads to conflict Chapter 13: INTERNATIONAL LAW:  Intl. law- a set of rules and obligations that states recognize as binding on each other  importance according to theories o realism & economic structuralism: say it’s irrelevant and useless, even dangerous  says that self-interest and power will trump it  just a tool for the strong to suppress the weak  liberals: intl. law is important for states’ success; builds trust and accountability  sources of intl. law  treaties and other written agreements  customs and norms - eventually morph into laws  general principles of law - things that are illegal in all countries  legal scholarships  examples of intl. law: theory of just war (war must be “just”), Kellog-briand pact 1929, tried to outlaw war totally (obviously didn’t work), Geneva Protocol (banned biological and chemical warfare)  enforcement- in reality it’s very difficult to enforce  reciprocity; punishment (like sanctions - but these only work with a collective response)  don’t want to get kicked out of organization -- like the WTO  judicial bodies - UN security council  some treaties come with judicial bodies  individual states  blended enforcement - an international body (like NATO) + a state working together  norms  International Court of Justice -- aka World Court  part of the UN charter - states take other states to court about issues relating to sovereignty  mainly between states who get along well, like a arbiter for smaller rules  states MUST accept their ruling  jurisdiction- limited - most of the 80 states involved haven’t even signed agreement to let other states enforce rules over them, applies to UN members, but many opt out  tasks- to arbitrate issues of secondary importance (between countries with friendly relations overall)  useful in dealing with borders and resources; states comply out of personal interest  weaknesses - lacks power because no one wants to give up sovereignty  international regimes- a collection of norms  encompasses both the norms of human rights, but also the institutions that support them (like the human rights council in the UN)  international norms - definition of a norm : on one issue (sovereignty, human rights) - the way states think they should behave towards each other  human rights  universalism vs. cultural relativism  individual rights – sovereignty  sources - religion, philosophy (Locke, Kant, natural law), revolutions of the 18th and 1th centuries and the philosophies behind them  institutions  Universal Declaration of Human Rights - sets forth HR norms (but is not backed by international law)  conventions (ex: Convention on Rights of the Child)  intl. organization ; NGO (using the media, for example)  2 types of rights  economic-social, “positive” - what the government must do or provide ex: basic needs, education, etc.  civil-political, “negative”- what the government cannot interfere with; free speech, religion, press, equal jurisdiction under law, etc.  war crimes -  International Criminal Court (ICC)  getting individuals accountable for war crimes - getting individuals prosecuted, tried, and sentenced  different ways these cases can come in front of the court  permanent, 2002, prosecutor of individuals (especially)  fairly out of the media; teaches leaders that they don’t have immunity  universal jurisdiction… even if they didn’t sign, you can still be tried (national government, U Security Council) Be informed about concepts and theories discussed earlier in the semester that always apply: sovereignty, hegemony, realism, liberalism, power etc.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.