Final Study Guide (Fall 2015) - Intro to International Relations
Final Study Guide (Fall 2015) - Intro to International Relations POLI 2500-02
Popular in International Relations
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Political Science
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allison Woolverton on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POLI 2500-02 at Tulane University taught by Christina Kiel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see International Relations in Political Science at Tulane University.
Reviews for Final Study Guide (Fall 2015) - Intro to International Relations
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 12/09/15
POLI 2500-05 Prof. Kiel Tulane University Introduction to International Relations Final Study Guide Fall 2015 Chapter 10: ECONOMY: balance of trade o surplus: export more than import (ex; China) o deficit: imports more than export (ex; the US with China… China’s surplus=money… extra money that is invested in US government bonds, power to destabilize us, but won’t because of interdependence), causes unemployment because reduces domestic demand for labor currency o convertible - can change with other currencies o non-convertible: can’t change with others, complete control, sign of a bad economy, more stable, ie. North Korea o hard- stable, strong - usually the leading currency from highly industrialized countries; most countries have reserves in the hard currencies, reliable ex: dollar, euro all hard currencies are convertible exchange rate: currency’s worth is now relative to everyone else (esp. the strong and stable currencies, ie. US dollar, Japanese yen, EU euro) fixed: government decides-- usually to a hard currency, constant ratio of exchange, stable floating : global market decides… supply and demand; states can manipulate it by devaluing currency to boost trade/trade surplus inflation - currency loses value relative to the leading/more stable ones; can be good or bad a result of countries devaluing their currency to stimulate trade demand, ie. China protectionism - protecting of domestic industries from intl. competitors (often infant industries or those that are vital to national security) why: to keep domestic economy strong how: limiting foreign products: tariffs, quotas; supporting local products: non-tariff barriers such as subsidies which discourage imports; economic nationalism (patriotic encouragement) liberalism (in IPE), - states mutually benefit from economic exchanges absolute power - doesn’t matter if a state gains more of less than another, just whether or not they do gain; absolute over relative governmental role: non-interference (to increase efficiency) assume anarchy, but believe that cooperation helps the invisible hand of the market… it will work itself out efficiency- maximum input, minimum waste mercantilism - stemming from realism, the idea that economic power is beneficial to political goals always want to have a trade surplus (for power) ie. Britain until the 1800s each state protects its own interests at the expense of others relative power (economic, military)- sees power as zero- sum game conflict over cooperation as the natural state advantage absolute- the country who produces goods cheapest and most efficiently comparative- a country’s ability to create goods at the lowest opportunity cost (in comparison to that of others), gives up the least by producing the good; always best to specialize political interferences in markets and market imperfections: (free and efficient markets have lots of consumers and producers, supply and demand are both high, everyone has complete information) sanctions - government implies sanctions against trade to enforce political goals, very direct political statement with trade restrictions; only works with collective action to have an influence on the country autarky - self-reliance, isolationist, avoiding/closed trade (doesn’t work very well), fails, an excuse, ie. North Korea monopoly - one firm controls entire market; ex: De Beers diamond market in South Africa foreign governments don’t have much power to stop them (domestic ones do) no competition= can charge as much as they want to cartels - when countries in an oligopoly (just a few countries control the market) work together, a few countries have a large market share, get together and set prices; OPE taxes - will also influence the market tariffs- double standard, developed vs. developing, power= can demand no tariffs, unequal risks economic nationalism- a protectionist measure; patriotism with respect to the economy corruption - if a country is bribing someone, they will pass that price onto the consumer in the end Chapter 11: GLOBALIZATION globalization - the rapid increase in cross-border movement of goods, money, people, and ideas; the process in which international trade increases relative to domestic trade o cost and time for things to go across borders are decreasing o can infringe upon sovereignty; economy in the hands of others with investments, private sector and producers gain control over sovereignty o companies can have headquarters in any country...differences in power history, o Britain had the most advanced economy in the 1750s (industrial revolution, technology) - decided that free trade was advantageous o Great Depression → protectionist policies → exacerbated crisis o Keynesian economics: Post WW2 o Bretton Woods institutions: a number of institutions developed post WW2 --GATT (became WTO), World Bank (loans for reconstruction), IMF (international monetary exchange) set fixed exchange rates; gold standard --- but this didn’t last past the 70’s institutions to avoid another world war … keep stability, avoid another Depression due to protectionism, inflation, etc. US as a hegemon, national interest globalization shot way up in 80s and 90s international framework GATT to WTO GATT - General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT → WTO in 1995 WTO - World Trade Organization- promotes, monitors, and adjudicates international trade 159 entities; not all are countries reciprocity is key intergovernmental organization bilateral - trade between two countries, reciprocal, now rare (bilateral reciprocity= 2 states agree to have the same tariffs) regional- trade between a group of countries, common market, no tariffs at all, ex: EU, Customs Union, NAFTA most-favored nation principle - the best trade deal/condition that you give to a country, you must give to all countries in the WTO, lowest tariffs, non-discrimination generalized system of preferences- exception to the MFN; trade concessions to 3rd world/developing nations to aid them in economic development, get to pay lower tariffs than the rest agricultural protectionism- subsidize farmers, causes competition abroad, hurts developing states pros and cons of free trade. … and globalization, free flow of fianance pro/con- benefits the hegemon, US now, sets norms to benefit self: free trade, anti-protectionist pro- in anarchy, combats the prisoner’s dilemma, don’t feel the need to stay protectionist in case others don’t open their borders Chapter 12: DEVELOPMENT: measuring poverty o some graphs show poverty as declining, while others show it as constant but the rich are rising → the gap is increasing o GINI coefficient - measures inequality on a scale of 1 - 0, compares the richest and poorest, 0= income equal, 1=one person owns everything, hard to get accurate data from worse- off countries o GDP- average income- doesn’t show inequality within a country, may be skewed by gaps and population size o PPP- average income adjusted for cost of living o other: poverty line, basic human needs, gender equality inequality - how much a person has in comparison to another o why do we care: empathy; self interest -inequality leads to unrest o basic human needs- food, clean water, shelter, basic health care, education/literacy (seen as more important in recent years) , security; not democracy Millennium Development Goals - set by UN in 2015, these ones are more environmentally focused and more extreme/broad than the last ones roots of inequality - competing explanations resources, location, climate, democracy ( → innovation and investment), past (industrialization, colonialism), global South vs North o Europe’s competitive political system encourages innovation and technological advancement o zero-sum game; Europe’s development lead to poverty of the rest of the world o problem of late development - much more difficult for later developing countries to catch up; can overcome with protectionism and high taxes strategies for development: o import substitution; producing domestically things that you used to buy abroad; reduce exports export-led growth- free trade, works much better, favorable trade balance=money=invest exporting goods boosts the economy state socialism- a type of economy, discredited, moving out, generally moving towards liberal economies; government control and ownership of capital and infrastructure Washington Consensus- standard reform package (very cookie cutter) for countries that were in economic crisis in the 80’s and 90’s Instead of subsidizing housing, food, transportation, etc,, used money to boost economy – invested money directly into education, infrastructure, etc. minimized state role the economy Asian Tigers - government was very very involved in the economy in these countries (more than the WC called for) yet it worked Counterargument to WC: all of these countries were authoritarian, not democratic developmental state- type of economic growth in which the government is very actively involved by controlling the financial market, so there is a good fertile ground for growth sort of the opposite of the Washington Censuses; the model used in the Asian Tiger Countries though the WC was too liberal, but developmental states are too involved, now we’re trying to reach somewhere in the middle good governance- transparent, controlled by rule of law, accountable, effective foreign assistance: types bilateral - directly from one country to the next; good for a country’s reputation (in the eyes of the receiver); backed by political motives multilateral - through an organization; more difficult/cumbersome donors - giving aid too often serves the geopolitical needs of the donors, not the economic needs of the recipients conditions, shortcomings of aid - benefits the donors more than the recipients giving money to corrupt governments just supports them donated goods can hurt the local economy by undermining industries Chapter 14: ENVIRONMENT o collective goods: non-excludable, non-rivalrous collective action/public goods problem - the problem of how to provide something that benefits all the members of a group regardless of what each member contributes to it; ted to be underprovided and finite o examples - climate, protecting the environment o solutions: dominance- dominant states force weaker ones to comply ; reciprocity - rewards system for compliance; identity - you actually care about others, future generations o barriers to solutions: defection (free-riding) tragedy of the commons - there is an ever increasing amount of people but a finite amount of goods o ex: grazing cows on a common pasture - people don’t mind sending out one more cow but it’s still depleting the resources sustainable development- economic growth that doesn’t kill the environment for future generations o 1192 Summit (Agenda 21) - declared that countries must act more sustainably o Liberalism: we can cooperate; with incentives we can monitor compliance o Realism: skeptical of cooperation; sees environmental issues as important because it can be a security issue climate change cooperation as a collective action problem o to solve the issue of climate change countries and interest groups must work together→ this means that CC is a collective action problem ---but because the environment is a public good, countries don’t have to help (free-riding) o potential solutions: groups of actors, exclusion from benefits, hegemony, quotas and trading, selective incentives, privatization o 1197 Kyoto protocol - to limit carbon emissions - ended in 2012, the US didn’t sign it so nothing much came out of it climate change as a threat to international security - if resources become scarce this leads to conflict Chapter 13: INTERNATIONAL LAW: Intl. law- a set of rules and obligations that states recognize as binding on each other importance according to theories o realism & economic structuralism: say it’s irrelevant and useless, even dangerous says that self-interest and power will trump it just a tool for the strong to suppress the weak liberals: intl. law is important for states’ success; builds trust and accountability sources of intl. law treaties and other written agreements customs and norms - eventually morph into laws general principles of law - things that are illegal in all countries legal scholarships examples of intl. law: theory of just war (war must be “just”), Kellog-briand pact 1929, tried to outlaw war totally (obviously didn’t work), Geneva Protocol (banned biological and chemical warfare) enforcement- in reality it’s very difficult to enforce reciprocity; punishment (like sanctions - but these only work with a collective response) don’t want to get kicked out of organization -- like the WTO judicial bodies - UN security council some treaties come with judicial bodies individual states blended enforcement - an international body (like NATO) + a state working together norms International Court of Justice -- aka World Court part of the UN charter - states take other states to court about issues relating to sovereignty mainly between states who get along well, like a arbiter for smaller rules states MUST accept their ruling jurisdiction- limited - most of the 80 states involved haven’t even signed agreement to let other states enforce rules over them, applies to UN members, but many opt out tasks- to arbitrate issues of secondary importance (between countries with friendly relations overall) useful in dealing with borders and resources; states comply out of personal interest weaknesses - lacks power because no one wants to give up sovereignty international regimes- a collection of norms encompasses both the norms of human rights, but also the institutions that support them (like the human rights council in the UN) international norms - definition of a norm : on one issue (sovereignty, human rights) - the way states think they should behave towards each other human rights universalism vs. cultural relativism individual rights – sovereignty sources - religion, philosophy (Locke, Kant, natural law), revolutions of the 18th and 1th centuries and the philosophies behind them institutions Universal Declaration of Human Rights - sets forth HR norms (but is not backed by international law) conventions (ex: Convention on Rights of the Child) intl. organization ; NGO (using the media, for example) 2 types of rights economic-social, “positive” - what the government must do or provide ex: basic needs, education, etc. civil-political, “negative”- what the government cannot interfere with; free speech, religion, press, equal jurisdiction under law, etc. war crimes - International Criminal Court (ICC) getting individuals accountable for war crimes - getting individuals prosecuted, tried, and sentenced different ways these cases can come in front of the court permanent, 2002, prosecutor of individuals (especially) fairly out of the media; teaches leaders that they don’t have immunity universal jurisdiction… even if they didn’t sign, you can still be tried (national government, U Security Council) Be informed about concepts and theories discussed earlier in the semester that always apply: sovereignty, hegemony, realism, liberalism, power etc.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'