Philosophy Final Exam Guide
Philosophy Final Exam Guide PHIL 1000 - 01
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by William Bartek on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Matthew McGrath in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see General Introduction to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
Philosophy 1000 Final Review Sheet This review sheet will define everything you need to know that will definitely be on the final exam However this is not all inclusive and I highly recommend that you study this in tandem with notes on the other subjects covered during the last testing period which would be everything from Jackson s Knowledge Argument to Chisolm s Arguments on Human Freedom and the Self Basic Concepts to Know lncompatibilism about free will lncompatibilism is a position on free will that leads to the belief that free will is incompatible with determinism Agent Causation An action has agent causation when it is caused by the person and not by any event Chisolm also refers to this as immanent causation quotCould have done otherwise You can do otherwise if and only if were you to have chosen to do otherwise you would have done otherwise Principle of Alternate Possibilities You re morally responsible for your action only if you could have done otherwise Determinism and lndeterminism o Determinism the way the universe is at any one time together with laws of nature logically entails everything that happens later 0 lndeterminism The laws of nature only assign probabilities to an action occurring Compatible and Incompatible 0 Two ideas are compatible if they can coexist alongside one another 0 Two ideas are incompatible if one can t be true if the other is true Examples to Know Mary and the Black Room Jackson Mary is a brilliant neuroscientist who lives in a black and white room with a black and white TV She knows all physical facts about vision and how it works in the brain She then leaves her room and sees color for the first time This then leads into the first premise of the knowledge argument see quotArguments to Know Jones 4 Frankfurt A person named Jones 4 is debating whether or not to share his friend s secret on Facebook Unknown to Jones 4 there is a Dr Black who is evil and will make Jones 4 share the secret only if he decides not to meaning he can t do otherwise However Jones 4 decides to share the secret for his own reasons Jones 4 is responsible for his actions If you act from your own reasons you re responsible for those actions even if you couldn t do otherwise There is no incompatibility between moral responsibility and determinism Philosophical Ideas to Know Knowledge Argument refuting Materialism For full Knowledge Argument see Mary s Example The physical facts should exhaust all the facts about vision if materialism is true but they don t Therefore materialism is false Chisolm s Free Will 0 Chisolm believes a free and responsible action is one caused by the person not any event 0 Not only that but he believes determinism and indeterminism are false Frankfurt s Moral Responsibility 1 Coercion excuses one from moral responsibility 2 The reason coercion excuses responsibility is it takes away one s ability to do otherwise 3 So one is morally responsible only if one could have done otherwise Arguments to Know The Knowledge Argument Mary knows all physical facts about vision She learns a new fact about vision when she leaves her room So the physical facts about vision don t exhaust all the facts about vision The physical facts would exhaust all the facts about vision if materialism is true So materialism is false P PP N Blameworthiness If determinism is true no one does anything of their free will If indeterminism is true no one does anything of their free will Either determinism or indeterminism is true So no one does anything of their free will If no one does anything of their free will then no one is blameworthy Therefore blameworthiness requires the ability to do otherwise P P PP N Determinism is incompatible with the ability to do otherwise 1 By determinism the universe at the time plus laws of nature logically entails you raised your hand at 9am today You could have done otherwise at 9am only if you could have made the past or laws of nature different But you couldn t change the past or laws of nature 50 you couldn t have done otherwise than raise your hand at 9am Frankfurt s argument against the PAP PP Jones 4 plans to reveal his friends secret Dr Evil will make Jones 4 reveal his friends secret if he decides to not share it Jones 4 decides to share his friend s secret on his own 50 Jones 4 is responsible for his action If you act from your own reasons you re responsible even if you couldn t do otherwise Two Problems for Chisolm s Agent Causation Doesn t agent causation reduce to event causation Isn t this view empirically problematic
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