Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide ANTH 1001
Popular in Biological Anthropology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia SaoBento on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1001 at George Washington University taught by O'Malley, R in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
Reviews for Exam 3 Study Guide
Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 12/09/15
Exam 3 Study guide Possible Hominins Sahelanthropus Tchadensis - Chad - No post crania uncertain dating - Ape-like Enamel on teeth & small brain - Hominin like not prognathic, position of Foramen magnum, & small canines Orrorin Tugenesis - Kenya - Chimpanzee sized ape, canine, thick enamel - Femoral neck suggests biped, small teeth Ardipithecus Kadabba/ramidus - Ethiopia - Multiple specimens but w/ 1 post crania - Fruit-dominated diet Things to remember - 7-4.4 mya - Classification, and relationship with hominins is uncertain - Limited skeletal evidence - N/E Africa Early Austropithecines (4.2-2.5 mya) - Bipeds w/ arborality - Sexual dimorphism Australopithecus afarensis - Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania - “lucy” most complete (40%) - Human like pelvis, smaller canines, small diastema, valgus angle femur - Slightly larger than chimps, larger molars, curved digits, longer arms, shorter legs - Tracks found in volcanic ash, bipedal, 2/3 individuals - Possible stone tools A . Deyiremeda (3.5-3.3 mya) - E . Africa - Sympatric w/ A. afarensis A . Garhi - Ethiopia - Large molars and premolars - Stone tools, bones w/ cut marks Kenyanthropus platyops - Severely crushed - Not prognatihic, small molars - Possible stone tool use o Larger and simpler than later tools o Disputed, natural breaks v. deliberate breaks Things to Remember - 4.2-2.5 mya - Bipedal but w/ arboreal adaptations - Larger than chimps - Stone tools and cut marks - Laetoli trackway (footprints in ash) - Sexually dimorphic Robust hominins Things to Remember - 2.7-2.1 mya - Sexually dimorphic Australopithecines - Chewing tougher foods temporal muscle fibers, Megadant - Not ancestral to modern humans - Sympatric w/ early homo - E . Africa o P. aethiopicus o P. Bosiei - S . Africa o P. Robustus o No definite post crania o Tool use (termite mound soil) Gracile Australopithecines Things to Remember - 3.5-2 mya - S . African Caves - Smaller incisors, larger brain and body size, more efficient bipeds - Possibly earliest Homo o A . Africanus Taung Child mostly complete skull w/ lower jaw Endocast of brain o A . Sediba Small body long arms Moderate sexual dimorphism Subtly similarities w/ homo Dental Microwear - Patterns on enamel surface o Complex diff. directions & deeper o Simple one direction & shallow - Only last 4 month captured Trends in A. and P. evolution - Transition from forest to woodland (use of C4 resources) - Increase in body/brain size - More efficient bipeds - Dentition & adaptations (smaller canines, loss of diastema, strong jaw muscles) Genus Homo Homo v. Australopithecus - Larger rounder brain case, Smaller teeth - Reduced prognathic, efficient bipedalism Homo habilis (2.8-1.4 mya) - E & S Africa - Often split to H. habilis & H. Rudolfensis - Oldowan tools o Simple but effective, sharp flakes - Food o Access to meat, mostly butchery after death o Underground storage organs o Honey and honeycomb sugar, fats and proteins H. erectus (1.9-<200kya) st - Africa and Asia (1 known hominin outside of Africa) - Morphology related to H. habilis o Large body and brain (longer) o Modern limb proportions, human like feet o Small teeth and jaws - Omnivorous but predatory o First access to large carcasses o Predators require more territory - Ileret Trackway o 100 footprints, multiple individuals, adult males traveling together in same direction - Achuelean tools bifaces o Olorgesailie Kenya Hundreds of hand axes Many unusable Resources from 40km away - Fire and Cooking o Controlled use fire pit w/ burnt wood/bones o Benefits Destroys toxins Easier to chew/ digest Protect from predators Homo Naledi - S . Africa - 15 individuals - Deep cave (intentional internment) - Distinct from other Homo in subtle ways Homo Heidelbergensis - Diverse and widespread - Larger brains - Smaller teeth and jaws - Heavy brow ridge, slopping forehead - Bodo, Ethiopia scraping on jaw, pulling flesh off - Stone Tools o Finer detail, symmetry o Prepared core o Hafting - Common ancestor H. Sapiens and Neanderthals - Schoningen spears, Germany o Sharpened wooden spears o Heidelbergensis or Neanderthals Neanderthals (250-30kya) - Large brain bigger than modern humans - Heavy brow ridges, slopping foreheads, no chin, compact & muscular, large joints, midface prognathism - Middle east Asia (large distribution, mostly Europe) - Diverse and varied diet o Big game hunting w/ spears and hand tools - Symbolic behavior?? o Hand painting in cave, mask of stone o Bird talons as ornaments - Long term care of elderly o Intentional burial, with flowers o Severe injuries w/ evidence of healing week, months even years - Hafting - Wooden tools - Houses made of mammoth tusks Modern Humans (H. Sapiens) - Africa - Likely from H. Heidelbergensis - Large globular skull, not prognathic, chin, high forehead, small brow ridges - Trade network - complex tools o long thin blades o clothes/containers - distance weapons o hafted stone tips, heat treated o javelin points o arrow points - Symbolism and art, ornaments - Behavioral Modernity o Abstract thinking o Planning o Innovation/flexibility All emerged w/ modern Humans Symbolism - Red Ochre pigment - Body ornamentation - Cave art Death and Burial (Homo sapiens) - Evidence of ochre, shell beads, ivory beads - Like Neanderthal burials but with some personal belongings European art fertility concentration Domestication of Wolves used for hunting, pulling Asia and Southeast Asia Continued expansion - Gap in fossil record - Earl and late waves of H. sapiens Americas - Bering land bridge - Costal route - Native American closely related to East Asian Floresinsis (the Hobbit) - Short 3.3 ft tall - Indonesia - No stone tools, possibly fire - Overlap w/ modern humans - Extinct w/ volcanic eruption - Island Dwarfism mammals also smaller scale Special about H. Sapiens - Diet high level of animal consumption - Highly encephalized Neuron density, interconnectivity, plasticity - Technology of cumulative culture, not spontaneous - 14-18 years to reproductive maturity, cooperative breeding - Capacity for reasoning, empathy, and social sophistication - Use of symbolism/complex communication (language) Brain - Cerebrum (outer region/neocortex) o Higher thought and function o More sophisticated in Humans - Cerebellum Sexual impulses - Spinal cord o Sleep o Digestion o Breathing Social Brain Hypothesis - Social groups long term, fluid relationships is cognitively demanding - Individuals more successful at navigating social constructs are better off - Strong selective pressure for high cognitive sophistication Theory of Mind - First order: the person next to me has a mind - 2nd order: another person not here has a mind - 3rd order: another person, knows someone who has a mind Correlation between size/thickness of neocortex and ability to deceive others Dunbar Number Hypothesized upper limit to stable social networks for humans ~150 in most contexts Can be tested w/ o Military structure o Business organizations o Academic sub-disciplines Evidence for strong prosocial tendencies Psychological studies suggest o Make proactive altruistic choices with no rewards o Sensitive to cheating but also forgiving o Find helpful behavior pleasurable o Don't like to see others suffering o Prefer cooperative work vs. solitary But prosocial behavior is influenced by in-group vs. out-group Large brain trade offs Potential difficulties in childbirth Exceptionally long developmental period o Dependency o Skill/knowledge acquisions o Delayed reproduction Mothers and others Group of people who help (literally carry babies, Food sharing) Caregivers not necessarily biologically related, Infants induce hormonal changes Socially engaged Language Usually but not necessarily spoken Semantic (units with meaning) Phonemic (units can be recombined) Grammatical (rule based) Recursive (infinitely modifiable) Physiological differences o Shorter tongue o Shift in the larynx o Pharynx is larger in humans Hypothesis for language evolution o Linked to lateralized behaviors of brain structure, specialization of bodily functions (Calvin) Language in in left of brain, same as right handedness o Language replaced grooming as a tool for social bonding, groups became too big, grooming is simple for complex situation (Dunbar) o Began as gestural communication, gestures are more deliberate, where vocal noises can be reactionary (Corballis) o Retention/use of symbols and symbol hierarchies was the selective force for human brain evolution, combination and recombination of words (Deacon) When did language evolve Evidence for brain asymmetries in H. Habilis, H. erectus Evidence for lateralization in early Homo stone tools. FOXP2 gene (language production in humans) o Same allele is modern human and extinct Neanderthal Reconstructions of throat soft tissue morphology from hyoid suggest that afarensis is more apelike, where Neanderthal is more human like Human variation and Adaptation People have biological variations that are not race Humans all belong to one species o More genetic diversity with populations rather than between o No barrier to Gene flow, most variation is clinal, but clines are independent ABO blood type 4 phenotypes, 6 genotypes Could have a correlation to frequency and disease resistance Skin color --> UV radiation Polygenic trait Low latitudes, melanin is produced to protect from the destruction of pholate High latitudes, reduced melanin, to increase the production of vitamin D with limited sun exposure Diet: Lactose Tolerance As animals a weaned off of milk, the ability to produce lactase is lost Lactose tolerance is derived condition Disease Malaria Sickle Cell Anemia o Heterozygote advantage o See high heterozygote percentages in areas of malaria o Resistance to malaria w/ sick cell heterozygote Balanced polymorphism High Altitude Selection for alleles to account for stressors i.e. Tibet have high frequency of alleles to regulate oxygen (hypoxia) Temperature Bergmann's Rule (body and body size) o Volume increases more quickly than surface area o Larger bodied animals can retain heat more readily than smaller animals Allen's Rule (appendages) o Shape matters (more surface area, same volume) Soo.. o Colder environment animals have shorter wider bodies, to retain heat o Warm environments have longer, lean bodies to release heat Race in terms of Biological Anthropology Pop. Distinguished by one biological trait or gene? Pop. Distinguished by a set of traits or genes? Race is a social construct Skin Color=Race? Skin color due to position on earth/environment, not continent Not more closely related due to skin color Continent of ancestry = race? Large continents with diversity of skin color and genetics People can claim ancestry (Asian or African) but not actually what is meant o Born on continent, but don't fit the meaning (Black or Asian etc.) Recent ancestry =Race? Mixed ancestry/race is very recent concept In past, much broader, Black, Asian, white Race: fluid or fixed Inconsistencies between birth and death certificates Who decides race? o Attending doctor o Mother records "cause of death" influences racial categorization (done my M.E.) Saperstein and Penner study (2013) o Yearly interviews throughout adult life o Racial category coded by interviewer, changed over time with life circumstances Not fixed Chosen Identity =Race? Historical significant By choice or not (mistaken, or deliberate) 2012 US Census Mexican is not a race, but Korean is Guam is a race, but African decent only has one option Hispanic is not a race Native Hawaiian is not a race, but American Indian is Genetics =Race Compared to other hominoids, humans have low genetic diversity Humans are less diverse than chimps in Tanzania and Uganda alone Too young species Most genetic diversity is within Africa No single gene or allele or phenotypic trait can be definitively predicting ancestry Whole genomes can estimate likely ancestry Is Race biologically meaningful? Humanity cannot be classified into discrete categories with absolute boundaries Result of gene flow and genetic diversity Perpetual flux of traits Empirical way to classify human beings into groups on some biological basis? Yes, but they do not align with current concepts of Race Biological Anthropology, Psychology and Race (15002 -> Today) widespread view that races are meaningful biological categories o Linnaeus (Racist, Eurocentric, not completely analytical) o Races can be ranked in terms of intelligence Craniometrics (empirical) o Brain size reflects intelligence (Broca) o Polygenesis (groups so different, don’t share ancestry), broad racial groups show difference in brain size (Morton) o Phrenology (Bumps and irregularity of skull reflect intelligence, personality, and criminality) (Gall) Eugenics o Science of improving the stock through breading o Keep criminals, degenerates, feebleminded away from breeding Social Darwinism o Survival of the fittest applied to humans o Political/social elite Franz Boas (1858-1942) o Founder of modern 4-field anthropology o Critic of racial concepts 1950s --> today o Race is increasingly rejected in anthropology o Utility in forensic anthropology as phenotypic markers for identification o Broad "racial" groups are not biologically meaningful "Inferior" white races Link other European ethnicities with being inferior Less evolved (ie. Irish, Italian) Race still exists as a culturally significant and racism as well - Disparency in every facet of society due to skin color The Bell Curve (1994) Embracing idea that racial categories have biological meaning Intelligence (measured singularly by IQ) in demographic context to see variation over different variables (broad racial group, socioeconomics etc.) IQ can strongly predict socioeconomic success, and is heritable(genes) and immutable Heritability Standard variation, with all variable the same is heritability The cultural reality of race can have real effects --> long lasting Modern Human Behavior 4 approaches to understand human behavior and health Hunter-gathers or Foragers o Ancestral human lifestyle o Wild animals and plants w/ simple technologies o Nomadic, "egalitarian", in small groups with wider social networks o Not horticulturalists(gardening) or pastoralist (herding) o Environmental stresses have direct impact on survival Human behavioral ecology o Specific and testable hypothesis about behavior as adaptation o Focus on less complex societies o Quantitative, model-driven, study of relationships o EX. --> grandmother (menopause) hypothesis as cooperative breeder, hunting by males signaling v. provisioning v. reciprocity Evolutionary psychology o Things that are innate to people, beyond cultural influences o Behaviors liked to specific neurological mechanisms/regions o Cognitive modules are adaptations
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'