FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE ETS 154 - M001
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ETS 154 - M001
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This 35 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mitchell Jones on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ETS 154 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by R. Hallas in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 321 views. For similar materials see Interpretation of Film in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
1 ETS 154 Final Exam Study Guide: Theme: underlying message of film/story Setting: necessary to show plausibility and relationships within story Anchors and enhances the realism of the story Props: the physical objects of the film (curtains, guns, cars, etc.) Central to story (the ring in Lord of the Rings) Can be used to create comedy Costume: what characters wear; important to relate to the setting Performance: relates to audience with the way actors speak and/or act Frame: on screen vs. off screen Camera distance: close up vs. long shot—what is the point director is making? Camera movement Sound—no sound can detract from realism Sound and no image can be confusing Contrapuntal sound effect—different sound effect from what is expected (guitar becomes gunshots) Iris: closing of lens to open or close scene Wipe cut: one shot pushes next off screen Direct address: speaking directly to audience Acknowledges film—ends realism Selfreflexivity: acknowledges own status as film Persistence of vision: films are “moving pictures” Films are an illusion—series if pictures rotating quickly (24 frames/sec) 2 Compositional Elements of Film 1.) Miseenscene: the elements of a scene that are organized generally by director and are visible on screen; separate from editing 2.) Cinematography: the art of using the camera to capture moving pictures; involves frames, camera angles, shots, lighting, moving camera, special effects 3.) Editing: the relationship between shots and cuts; allows transitions from one shot to the next 4.) Sound 1.) Natural sound/sound effects 2.) Music—nondidactic sound (outside world of film) 3.) Voice/dialogue Organizational Elements of Film Modes of film: narrative, documentary, experimental film Genres (action, comedy, fantasy, drama, etc) Larger Cultural Contexts Promotion (trailers) Stardom (actors, fame) Authorship (directors are authors of film) Historical moment of reception—how does real world relate to theme Cultural location of audiences—how does a person’s background contribute to understanding/liking of film Film technology—how does technology influence production and reception of film Identification: emotional/intellectual connection the audience feels for a character or camera (ex. POV shot) (feeling) Cognition: rational thought; process of working through a narrative that keeps the audience engaged and interested; makes audience think about purpose (thinking) Time and space are fundamentally relative in film Can alter time and space with cuts 3 Medium specificity: the ways communication are defined by the qualities that are unique to its style (a novel is different from a movie) Psychodrama: film that portrays the mental difficulties within a character’s mind Interpreting Film: Interpretation: integration of analyzing the form and theme of the film Not a personal opinion Not a topical claim Also not about form as a standalone function of the film Must integrate thought about understanding the meaning Meaning in film: Relative— the meaning is not fixed or absolute; various interpretations possible Contextual—depends on the films purpose Contradictory—what is contradicted within the film, or how does it contradict real life? Dynamic—the meaning of an element (prop, character, etc) changes throughout film Multilayered—what is the historical, psychological, etc. meaning Complex—never straight forward Film reviews—advertisement to persuade people to go or not (for entertainment); very opinonated Scholarly film artcles—incorporate evidence to support claims; assume movie has already been seen; analyzes Elements of Analytical Element: Argument (not opinion) Interpretation (not evaluation) Thesis (nucleus of argument) Evidence (close reading of element, contextualization, and citation) 4 Golden key—the author’s interpretation of the film (usually director); not the only possible interpretation Miseenscene Derives form mettreenscene: to stage Elements: Setting and props can be used to enhance the realism of a film (onlocation: setting of film is realworld setting; not a stage) Costume is used to explain the character and adds to realism Makeup is used to define the actor’s face so it is not lost in lighting Lighting is used to illuminate the film and to express mood and tone Performance is how the actors use their bodies to convey meaning Character blocking is how the actors are placed in relationship to one another (explained by the scene from Citizen Kane) All the physical elements that are in front of the camera Articulates connection between individuals and the world Lighting: Key light—main light; creates shadows Fill light—weaker; softens shadows Backlight—weaker still; illuminates space behind creating a 3D illusion or depth These three kinds of light combine to form what is called threepoint lighting High key lighting—little contrast; full illumination of scene; grey tone (All about Eve) Low key lighting—high contrast between light and shadow; little grey tone; creates pools of lights and dark shadows Naturalistic Miseenscene: Scenic realism The fictional world created is rational, plausible, and realistic Doesn’t surprise the audience Presents realworld materials, historical references, etc. 5 Tends to recede to the background; rarely notice the surroundings compared to the events occurring Theatrical Miseenscene: Deviation from scenic realism Fictional world created; unrealistic; surprising Independent expressive form in a film Provides expressionism Embodies the set of forces in conflict with the characters More noticeable as a meaningmaking element Neorealism First established in Italy post WWII Films were made to be truly real and relevant Not showy like Hollywood Used real people, no actors ETS 154 9/21 German Expressionism Roots in German Romanticism (late 1819 century) Portrays landscape as an expressive form Reflects characters selfidentity Scream painting most notable painting of German Romanticism The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari Set design unrealistic Irrational and clearly a set; no attempt to hide it Performance: actors were highly expressive and exaggerated; high key acting style Makeup: very stylized Costume: contrasts between women and men 6 Externalization of internal state of mind—internal and external world merge Narrative turns out to be a delusion of psychotic patient at end Madness of characters psyche is projected into the physical world Cinematography Visual qualities of shot How camera capture light Includes animation, special effects frame (on screen and off screen framing); distance of the camera relative to the shot depth: film 2D, but has illusion of 3D; what is in focus and what is out of focus movement: how does camera move/does it move at all; static shots and moving shots film stock: whether movie is produced on film or digitally; film stock is chemical—light is affected and visual qualities can be altered filters: now produced in post production (digital); filters put over camera to create a feel special effects Aspect ratio: Academy ratio—boxy, square shape (1.37:1) Cinemascope widescreen (2.35:1)—created to rival television; bigger screens U.S. widescreen ratio (1.85:1)—standard modern day Camera distance: very important Extreme long shot: landscapes, vistas, birdseyeview; characters barely visible Long shot: figures more noticeable, but background dominates Medium long shot: whole body show Three quarter shot: shown from knees up Medium shot: waist up Medium close up: chest up; shows details on face more Close up: face dominates screen; expresses character 7 Extreme close up: isolates detail of face or object All shots not always discernable; can look similar, but important to note differences Depth of field: Shallow focus: background unfocused; used to express characters focus; not everything is important Deep focus: every element is important Wide angle: allows person to see almost 180 degrees; distorts space; fisheyelens; expands space Telephoto lens: more narrow and exact; magnify and compress space Camera position: where the camera lies and how it is angled to take a shot (high angle, low angle, etc.) Cinematography Part II 9/23 Sixth Sense Discussion: One shot used to show conversation between mom and Cole Shows trust and care for on another Cole and psychiatrist uses two shot—requires editing Depicts distance and lack of trust—tension Neither are centered in frame Empty space signifies distance between the two, as well as the lack of trust Both look just off screen to avoid a POV shot As time goes on, camera closes in on faces because they physically move closer together—Cole walks forward They also get closer mentally—Bruce Willis reads his mind 8 Camera moves further as Bruce Willis gets questions wrong—getting further apart Nil by Mouth Establishing shot is a long shot—establishes setting and mood In house, shots are close ups and face shots to make the audience feel as if they are watching from within (part of the conversation) Medium close ups used to show wife—not a part of the conversation, tries, but gets dismissed by the men Shown behind curtain which accentuates her distance from conversation Shallow focus used and emphasized by obstructed views Enhances the realism and illusion that audience is truly looking on Pulls focus (racking focus)—change of focus from foreground, to background and vise versa Handheld camera—conveys audience’s presence Widescreen: type of movie production process and type of film stock; depicts frame as wide rectangle Wide angle: type of lens; distorts space to give a fisheyeview Rebel without a Cause About deeply dysfunctional families Uses wide angle to give wide field of vision—provides a deep focus Plays with all aspects of the frame Three characters constantly connected within the frame—uses depth and breadth High angle shots and breadth of widescreen ratio Low camera position: eye level on ground Low angle shot: camera low pointing up Varieties of Camera Movement: 9 Tilt—stays in one place; moves up and down Pan—stationary, moves horizontally Track—follows character or action Dolly—camera put on a cart Crane—camera put on crane; used to get variety of shots (high especially) Handheld—used to depict situation; bounces around; not steady Steadicam—walks but does not bounce around; camera stays steady Editing Lumiere brother—inventors of cinema Single shot films (The Sprinkler Sprinkled) Used depth of space to fill frame for entire scene/film Dissolve transition signifies a passage of time Early cinema frontally staged Inspired by theater Early 1910s—development of more intricate editing D.W. Griffith helped to inspire new editing style Was the director for The Lonedale Operator and Birth of a Nation Parallel editing Ex: sending a telegraph in one shot, next shot showing the receiving end Depicting different areas at the same time Possible relations to editing Temporal: change in time Spatial: change in space Graphic: visual qualities; shape, color (warm/cold colors), directional movements of the film Rhythmic: patterns of film; alteration of shots (ex. scene in Sixth Sense) 10 Editing can create meaning independent of what is in the frame Continuity editing vs. disjunctive editing Continuity—classic Hollywood narrative; editing remains constant, orients audience in time and space so that plot is focused on Establishing shot: normally long shot where we see action and introduced to characters; limits confusion Axis of action (180 degree rule): maintaining continuity if movement Ex. shot of person 1 walking right, another person 2 walking left, another both meeting in middle 30 degree rule: breaks continuity of time and space; creates jolt and disorients; too similar; shots must be greater than 30 degrees Eyeline match: character looking off screen, next shot shows what they are looking at (often POV) Shotreverseshot: shots alternate between different characters/aspect of scene (Sixth Sense scene) Match on action: where character/item was in action/movement from previous shot, second shot must pick up at exact same spot, otherwise it would appear like action is being repeated Dynamic relationship between onscreen and off screen space Jump cut: choppy edit Editing Part II Continuity editing: constructs continuity in time in space; know where and when we are; clear and coherent story telling; editing supposed to be invisible, unnoticeable Disjunctive editing: calls attention to the editing for aesthetic reasons and the play of the form, to rethink perception of the world, time, or space, for ideological reasons (to compare and contrast components), for psychological purposes, to articulate trauma; works to distort, disorientate audience The Big Sleep Door in same place beginning and end of scene—continuous 11 Eyematch seen throughout Shotreverseshot used during conversation Relationship of on and off screen 180 degree rule never broken, but constantly changing and moving; adds flexibility to staging on scene Axis of action moves as Marlo moves throughout scene Montage: French word for editing Continuity editing: montage sequences compress narrative time In films, time has to be compressed Actual time does not align with film time (events in movie can take place over days or years, but film is only 2 hours) Disjunctive: intellectual montage produces meaning through combination of shots Gladiator Editing is disorienting The action is paralleled by editing—makes it more exciting Focuses on sound Horse riding maintains continuity in motion Close ups of horses hooves show the speed of motion; suggests urgency Moon close up suggests passage of time; cut away Time becomes ambiguous once he reaches his house Parallel action of him on horse and his family Dissolve then used shows grave, then him passed out on grave Depicts psychological trauma Cut to black shows unconsciousness Time lapse of sun tracking through sky Dreams of anxiety Montage in disjunctive editing 12 Battleship Potemkin Bolshevik revolution promoted artistic creativity Eisenstein Conflict of vertical movement Conflict of lateral movement and lines Conflict of scale (camera distance) Rhythm of repetitive action Articulates violence Movement created from stasis of editing Use of three different statues to make it appear as if it is moving Alpsee Graphic similarities between different objects (curtain/dress) Color and texture Uses red blue and white as primary colors throughout film Shape and movement Boy hugging tree to putting on a watchimitates similar movement Overlapping action Boy emerges from curtain several times Rhythm of repetitive shot (record player) Final images returns to curtain, now red, but receding into curtain Sound Voicedialogue Music 13 Sound effects—added in after filming during editing; many many layers of sound Atmospheric sound—adds three dimensional feeling for audience; wouldn’t seem real without the background noise Elements of Sound Design Sound of hierarchy—most important to least important sound; dynamic Ex: Action movies—sound effects more important than voice on average Sound perspective—volume of sound creates sense of depth Loud—closer, quiet—further Diegetic vs. nondiegetic sound Inside movie world or outside story world Music is nondiegetic—characters don’t hear background music Internal vs. external diegetic sound Sounds inside character’s mind, or outside and in the reality of the film Ex: Ada imagining her voice (internal), Ada playing piano (external) Sound bridge—sound from one scene carries into next scene or vice versa; links scene together with sound On and off screen sound Conversation in Sixth Sense—person talking not always on screen Voiceoff—voice still in space of scene, but not shown (sees reactions of others for example) Voiceover—voice comes from different time or place (flashbacks) Sound image relation: parallel or contrapunctal Does the sound and image work together, or in contrast Singing in the Rain Not sure where voiceover comes from at first Narration of his flashbacks contradicts what actually happened 14 Sound Continued Seven Parallel between rhythm of the music and edits and movements (credit scene) Creepiness of hands making sadistic scrap book Fragments of atrocities layered together to produce book of crime Sound is altered—manipulated to mimic the creation of scrap book (enhances graphics) Post credits without sound—emotions lost, no music or voices No audio cues to direct attention No context of when or where without background sound Eliminates realism Makes surrounding look fake (rain) No depth A Touch of Zen East Asian cinema emphasize intensity and depth of sound during action sequences Draw from Chinese influence Precise and intense presence and absence of sound (martial arts) Sound design of kick, gasp, flutter, yell, gasp, yell, rumble—each their own cut in the film Sounds not for realism, but expressive and emphasizing Hollywood—emphasis on overwhelming wave of sound (Transformers) Draws from opera influence Play Time No dialogue for tourists—unimportant, cultural imbeciles Uses voices to covey importance Sound effects are the director’s comedic element Sound continuity vs. sound montage 15 Continuity—Hollywood cinema; strives not to distract audience from story; conveys narrative; moves story along; enhances realism of action; directs attention to something (phone ring); creates coherent sense of time, place, and action Montage—not designed to create coherent sense of time, place, and action; intensifies sensory experience, independent of image Narrative A beginning, middle, and end Classic narrative cinema: associated with Hollywood film Clear cause and effect relation Chain of events: cause>effect>cause>effect Compositional elements of classical narrative: Naturalistic miseenscene Tradition of presence Continuity editing—orientating through time and space Sound continuity—orientating through sound Conventions: Individually centered narratives: protagonist/antagonist Character hierarchy: main characters at top, then supporting characters, minor/walkon roles, extras Characters are causal agents: they make things happen; actions driven by motivated individuals that cause other events to occur Transparency in desires: characters will tell audience why they do what they do Protagonist’s desire complemented by the viewer’s desire to know (what, why, how?) Unmarked omniscient or restricted narration: tends to be told from third person Narrative linearity: clear sense of events; can have flashback, but events are clear in time Strong degree of narrative closure 16 Tight narrative economy Genre Why does it exist? Pleasure: similarity and difference Tastes are designed for repetition of same type of movie Works tension between similarity and difference to overcome boredom Genre hybridity: combination of two different types of genres (Star Wars, Cowboys vs. Aliens) Meaning: cultural myth and ritual Works to illuminate values and beliefs within society Done through sense of rituals Allows us to rehearse and think about certain values—can be contested Economy: suited to industrial mass production Appeals to many people Film Noir French movement (“Film Black”) Hay day in 1940s1950s in France and Europe Only UK had access to US films through 19411945 Hollywood swamps mainland Europe with US films after war Killed European film movements which was fragile after war Crime and sexuality through violence More of a historical cycle than genre Dead Men Don’t Wear Plaid Satire on film noir Funny because it makes takes the elements of film noir to the extreme 17 Genre Part II: 10/21 Classical period of film noir 1941 (The Maltese Falcon)—1958 (Touch of Evil) Critical genre category (comedy of remarriage) A subgenre of a film Isn’t used by critics or average people Generally used by film scholars Film noir started as critical genre Popular genre category (RomCom) Known by everyone Film noir now in this category Idea known throughout popular culture Origins of film noir Film technology—faster film stock (more sensitive to light), smaller cameras Allowed directors to film at night and in darker lighting Visual influence—German Expressionism and French Poetic Realism (emerged in 1930s France: petty crime shot in beautiful scenes; more realistic than German) Literary influence—hard boiled fiction (Chandler, Cain, Hammett) Film genre influence—Hollywood gangster films, social problem films, melodrama Cultural context—postwar crisis Profound, deep seeded changes within society Many at war, women at work, many died People’s view on societal roles altered PTSD kept soldiers from assimilating back into society Middle class women move into work force—more social mobility Film noir is transatlantic phenomenon Mass exit of artists fleeing Europe during 1930s 18 Hitler and Nazis come to power Many Jewish, liberal, or both Sought to control and regulate film Many went to Paris first, then most fled to Hollywood Generic Conventions of Film Noir Character Types Hardboiled protagonist (cynical)—usually detective/man for hire Femme Fatale Binary set of women characters: good and evil Underworld boss/bigtime gangster Themes Murder, betrayal Web of corruption, troubled past Individual moral code vs. institutional morality Fatalism and cynicism Relationship between sexuality and violence Settings Always urban: the city, bars, nightclubs, apartments/offices, streets Night scenes Compositional elements/forms of narration Complex chronology (use of flashbacks) Voiceover narration Low key lighting—contrastive use of light and shadow Emphasis on expressive character blocking over dramatic action Femme Fatale th Suffrage movement in late 19 century—women fight for right to vote Liberal women framed as out of control Femininity and death—sex is dangerous 19 Christian duality of femininity—good women vs. bad women The new woman and the flapper—1920s Women’s sexuality became more public Women more independent The Vamp in 1920s cinema: sexual, dangerous women; deadly (Theda Bara) Rosie the Riveter—WWII Mobilization of women Celebrated and encouraged mobilization of women Flipped stereotypes of feminism Maladjusted war veterans Postwar boom and nuclear family Economic boom Suburbanization Pushed women back into the home Second wave feminism—1970s National trauma of Vietnam War—1960s and 70s Always available to public Race riots Reemergence of film noir in late 60s and 70s Aren’t same as classics Real life has evolved—social standards altered Film Modes Distinctions between types of film Narrative Function: to tell a tory 20 Organization: narration Genres: western, film noir, horror, comedy, mockumentary, etc. Documentary Function: make an argument about the world Org: rhetorical; works to convince audience of their idea of the world Genre: historical doc, political doc, mockumentary, essay film, propaganda film, sports doc Experimental Func: experience Org: aesthetic Genre: psychodrama, found footage film, abstract fil, film installation, structural film, essay film Genres can spill over into each mode (ex: mockumentary) Animation fits into all three categories Experimental Film Aesthetics: can be traced back to ancient Greece; question of what constitutes beautiful form Tied between beauty, truth, virtue Impressionists: captured and portrayed light; light is fundamental to experience of the world Expressionism: material world and environment to articulate emotions inside Avant garde=vanguard Particular group of soldiers that go out first Pushes boundaries of what art is Moto: “epater le bourgeois”—“shock the middle classes” Art has to be beautiful—became a way of seeing the world in new way Experimental Techniques Fragmentation: chopping an image in different ways (Positiv) Abstraction: way representation loses resemblance to normal perception 21 Repetition Parataxis: listing Miseenabyme: never revealing the center; peeling layers off continuously Selfreflexivity: very aware watching a film Improvisation: no script Dissonance: putting together things that don’t mix; awkward Counterpoint: sets one thing against another Parallelism: reveals events going on at same time; can use split screen Documentary Rhetorical—about making an argument about the world; story supports argument Represents an imagined world, even though portrays real life—still actors to reproduce scenes; the world is still real Still has a narrative Documentary Modes Expository mode: explains world Voiceovers (voice of God) Observational mode: watches world Interactive mode: interacts with world Interviews Reflexive mode: selfconsciously explore process of documenting world Performative mode: evokes world through poetic form and performance Reconstructive mode; reconstructs/reenacts historical and contemporary events Archival footage: used to illustrate an event Contexts of Viewing Promotion—trailers 22 Most important form of advertising for film Frames the way we think about film Historical moment of reception—meanings within film that are representative of the time period it was made Stardom—actors that are in the movie You watch because you’re a fan of them Authorship—fan of the director Cultural Identity of viewer/audience—way you see the film from individuality, beliefs, and values Social Space of viewing—With other people (friends, family, strangers) or alone Technological platform—the way you watch a movie (cinema, tv, tablet, phone, etc.) Film Promotion: First film (Lumiere brothers)—people excited because it was a new technology; something they had never seen, not necessarily content like now (cinema of attraction) The action blockbuster: contemporary cinema of attraction—offers a thrill ride; spectacle; less interested in character construction or plot, all about the thrill Technology as spectacle—ex: dvds offer bonus features that illustrate how movie was made Edison’s Kinetoscope Parlors (1900s)—individual viewing through a box like contraption Lumiere brothers’ technology quickly overran kinetoscope Nickelodeon (1910)—early theaters (buildings that were set up as theaters, not built as theaters); cost a nickel Movie palaces (1920s)—movie purpose built theaters; luxurious; could seat thousands Gentrification of Cinema: Initially, films were geared towards men, not women or children Theaters were dark and deemed dangerous, sexual content of movies inappropriate Palaces appealed to upper class and to women Make more money Also feature length films emerged for more profit 23 Hollywood studio system—became an oligopoly Vertically integrated: owning all lines of production Production, distribution, exhibition (owned theaters) FDR worked to disable the control of the major studios—Paramount Case (1948) Television became a major competitor—lowered profits Eventually realized it was another market for the movies Synergy—merging of different media forms into one Studios came to own: films, tv stations, books, magazines, theme parks, toys, etc. Enables marketing strategies Narrative image: posters—present the film in one single image Inner title—“from academy award winner..” put into the trailer over black screen; still used today, but initially used because films were silent Trailer Logic: Paratext—cannot exist on its own, must relate to the film; trailer are made of pieces of film Rhetorical not narrative—functions to persuade Direct address—uses voiceover narration to speak to audience Circus mode vs. vaudeville mode Vaudeville—one that offers variety of appeals to appeal to lots of people Gets name from a variety show—Particular mode of theater/public performance as entertainment structured around a series of acts (comedians followed by dancers, then singers, etc.) Circus—uses hyperbole to advertise (greatest, magnificent, etc.) Montage and voiceover—editing incredibly important; condenses and unifies shots from film Condensation (story, stars, genre)—witling down the basic ideas of film into 3 minutes Incompleteness—does not give away full story of the film; many gaps Authorship 24 Creative expression of individual artist Art in premodern world considered the expression of the divine Art itself considered the medium in which the message is expressed La politque des auteurs (doctrine of authors) Subsequently adopted in English as auterism or auter theory Originally film critics who became great film makers Argued director is the artistic talent of film Directors constrained by studios, scripts, etc. and they work around these to create their own work Hitchcock, in his prime, framed as the great entertainer, not great director Art cinema—films that don’t have big commercial market but are made mainly for aesthetics Directors have recognizable themes and structures Sophia Copolla One of the best known female directors in Hollywood Often depicted with father, looking up at him and under his guidance—highly gendered Women in Hollywood 2013—women accounted for 16% of all directors, producers, writers, cinematography, editors Decrease since 2012 (2%) Stardom The use of popular actors to promote a film and attract an audience Three understandings of stars: As popular icon Behind the scenes—creating the star Star as a real person—paparazzi tries to expose real person Once exposed, not private anymore Aspects of a Star Private person—unless personally know them, you don’t know them 25 Worker—acting, publicity stunts, everything goes into making of a star Also products of other people’s work (agents, makeup artists, etc.) Commodity—something that can be bought and sold Cultural sign—embodies whole set of cultural meanings that circulate in society Aspects of Star Text: Films—promotes the star/creates their notability Promotional material (posters, trailers, stills, press kits) Public appearance—red carpet Interviews Biographies Press coverage of public and private life—stories of charity work and paparazzi Star as intertext—popular terms that or phrases that are highly recognizable (quotable material from movies) Fan culture (clubs, websites, blogs, social media) Political endorsements/public service Advertising endorsements Public activites in other media/arts (writing, music, etc.) Why Study Stardom: The individual—power that the star has in society Social identities and categories—ex: female stars articulate what it means to be a mother Public/private—what is public and private in society Nature of work/labor—conflicts over contracts reveal the value of labor Scarlet Johannson Stardom: Began as child actor Went into bigger pictures Romcoms and dramas Now an action star associated with Avengers Her—never gets seen, only heard 26 Lucy—becomes a robot where technology overcomes her body Under the Skin Classical Hollywood Cinema Textual form: particular way of structuring a narrative film; how story is formed Period: late 1920slate 1960s (studio era) Set narrative conventions Set of compositional conventions (ex: editing is continuous) Comparison to earlier and later textual forms (early cinema of attractions, postclassical cinema) Mode of production: emergence of studio system as a particular economic model for producing movies Scale: industrial mass production; developed to create profit Vertically integrated industry—studios owned all modes of production and distribution of films Comparison to other modes of production (artisanal filmmaking by experimental filmmakers) Cultural practice of reception: mode of moviegoing pleasure Changing experience of cinema (in cafes, to nickelodeons, to palaces, etc.) Moviegoing as central leisure activity of mid20 century Comparison to other cultural practices around film Film is educational and political contexts Jackie Stacy “The Great Escape” Reading: Reception Studies How American stars shape Britain women ideals during 1940s50s Through questionnaires, letters, etc. Does not analyze film itself, but the audience’s perception of film Dyer’s Model of appeal of entertainment forms (see slide for details) Social tension 27 Utopian solution Hollywood musical—shows sense of community; expresses basic issues experienced in everyday life Camp A resistance to good taste; a rejection of cultural respectability and high culture Inversion of values—good taste believed to be bad taste and viseversa Embrace of excess and artifice Loves the artificial, not the natural; revels in too much (color, etc.) Pleasure in constructed nature of the work (its lack of transparency and/or realism) Tension between affection and critique—affection for the art, but a separation from the criticism “a specialized mode of interpretation”—camp is not to be found in the text of film or other art form itself; an optic (reading strategy created by the viewer based on their cultural location) Against: The way that the authors had intended the meaning The way it was originally understood when first screened The way mainstream audiences understand it (camp is rooted in the spirit of resistance) The Gang’s All Here (Busby Berkeley, 1943) Carmen Miranda—Brazilian actress who became highest paid female actress of the time “Backstage musical” Excessive color—very bright, artificial color Very clear it’s a set—nothing looks realistic Size of props—excessively large props Many many performers—excessive people Miranda performs to accentuate her Brazilian accent 28 Costume features fruit—exoticism Overly sexual femininity Camera work has odd, incredible movements creating excess When it sways with the movement of the bananas Stage too big to be real Impossible space of musical number—moves away from narrative to pure spectacle Gay camp: Opens the opportunity for gay men to analyze the cultural construct of gender and heterosexual norms Early cinema, gay men never pictured/never pictured positively Camp allowed gay men to find pleasure in the spectacle and overly feminine aspects of film Intellectual Camp: Felt superior to mainstream audience because they understood cultural references Mass camp: Available to everyone As time passes, camp develops Can appreciate the film due to the time gap and understanding of the history Camp is a reading strategy that often turns into the development of new texts Local and Global Audiences Hollywood dominates every film market in the world except for Iran and India Iran—IranianAmerican conflict of 1970s India—Bollywood National cinema Film industry of a particular nation 29 More complicated now because films have become funded multinationally Representation of a nation on film Ex: British cinema has devoted itself for years to depicting everyday life of its people and cultural heritage (Shakespeare, etc.) Film audiences in a nation People who go to watch a film in that country MPAA (Motion Picture Association of America) Extremely successful at maintaining America’s dominance in film Anxieties Economic—decreases economic gains in that country Cultural imperialism: Hollywood Americanizes the rest of the world Bollywood—very recent term; comes from merging of Hollywood and Bombay (present day Mumbai) Popular Hindi film—Hindi is a major language of India (one of many) Six major regional cinemas—produced in local languages and then dubbed in Hindi and others for larger market Bengali Kannada Malayalam Tamil Rich history of art films Competes with Hollywood for share of global box office Not taken seriously in west because Bollywood films do not abide by our aesthetics Ex: nearly all Bollywood films have comedy, here we have comedies Musicals here, nearly all films have musical numbers in India Hindi films deeply syncretic—borrows from other film industries to reframe and reorganize Indianization 30 Story In India, familiarity with story has better appeal and cultural value than originality Continuously rework Ramayana and Mahabharata (religious texts) Sociality vs. Psychological Bollywood more focused on whether the social boundaries are realistic or acceptable rather than, like Hollywood, whether the narrative is buyable Emotion Bharat’s Natyasastra (third century C.E.) Rasa—classical Hindi film takes you through the nine major emotions rather than focusing on a couple (love, joy/laughter, wonder, courage, peace, sadness, anger, fear, disgust) Masala—term for Indian cooking, but used in film to express that getting a movie right is about getting the right mix of emotions Picturization—visual spectacle more important than strong narratives and characterization Visual communication essential to film making darshan—dedication of gods through depiction and exchange of goods is essential to Hindi cultural and why visual spectacle so significant syncretism: process of mixing; blending of particular elements with culture, talking about different cultural elements coming together and mixing to become something new Indian Cultural History Indus Civilization—one of earliest civilizations dating back to 3000 BCE 1500 BCE 500 BCE—establishment of Buddhism 1000 CE+Islamic influence (Mughal Empire—15261853) ` 1610—east india trading co.; began British power in India: influenced present day culture Cultural influences on popular Hindi Culture 31 Sacred texts Classical Indian Dance—foundation for classical indian aesthetics; seen in song and dance numbers in film Indian Folk theater—classical indian dance mixed with performances; mix of popular and classical culture Parsi theater—origins in Persia; popular theater tradition that mixes multicultural elements; melodramatic; dies away after films gain ground Hollywood—major influence, particularly the musicals of 30s and 40s Major stars: Raj Kapoor—one of greatest stars in Bollywood history Huge star in Soviet Union Aware (rogue), 1951—influenced by Charlie Chaplan in comedy, outfits (took Chaplan’s persona and Indianized it) Junglee (1961)—Kapoor hindianized Elvis MTV and music video aesthetics Masala—having right mix of spices within indian cuisine; in film used to see if film has right mixture of emotional aspects Songs: never sung by actors—playback singers: have own following Most popular: Lata Mangeshkar, “the Nightinggale of India” (born 1929); recorded thousands of songs; enormous following Strong relationship between music and film industry Before film is released, soundtrack is released at huge events Eroticism banned—coded through song Reveal emotion through fantasy Can be used to express an entrance Allow space for elaboration of movie’s themes b Intertextuality: explicit references and homages to Hollywood and classical Bollywood films Movie going is social—aware of other people in theater Some leave theater to eat or at end of favorite parts Memorize lines and songs 32 Distinctive cultural experience different from selfcontained experience of Hollywood The End of Cinema? The Beginning of Cinema Remediation: allows us to acknowledge that whenever we have a new media emerging, it is not an immediate replacement; ways in which new media rely on old media to be usable and how old media responds to new media threat Ex: onset of television—cinema responded with color and widescreen Internet (World Wide Web): Remediates languages and aspects of books (pages), newspapers (structure of articles and pictures in the paper—this remediates further to ancient manuscripts) Interactive documentary VCR to digital media players Borrows the control button (fastforward, pause, etc.) and permits time shifting (watch whenever), but digital players allow you to skip entire chapters and scenes (non linear format) Cinema as a New Media: Thomas Edison’s kinetoscope (18881892) Individual experience of cinema Modern day has moved back to individual spectatorship (tablets) Cinematographe—Lumiere brothers refashion Edison’s kinetoscope to be social experience Invention of Cinema—roots in photography Light rays make imprint of celluloid film due to chemical that is sensitive to light (silver nitrate) Photography not the only precursor to film Persistence of vision: when we watch a projection of still images at certain speed, we see moving image, no longer still image (24 frames/sec) Zoetrope (1830s)—drum with slats on axis that spins; spin drum and look through slits to see illusion of motion; developed to test theory of perpetual motion Phenakistiscope (1830s)—wheels that you look through hole into mirror Projected image 33 Camera obscura (1646)—dark room with holes in walls, comes in and shines image onto screen or mirror Magic lantern (1671)—used for illustrative lectures using pictures; also for family entertainment Robertson’s phantasmagoria (late 1700s)—projected behind to create illusion of horror 19 century—mirrors used to make ghosts look lifelike Image scale th 18 century panorama—circular building with 360 degree painting on walls; vast, glorious expanse of world; viewed through viewing platform Diorama—viewing platform would rotate between two stages of two paintings; used to tell different stories through lighting and projected images; often horror Cineorama—multiple projectors projecting images unto 360 degree screen Manorama—enter onto boat that would move to simulate ocean with scroll to give illusion of moving images and setting Still seen in theme park rides (Soaring of California—Disneyland) IMAX theaters—massive image Cinerama—three projectors onto large screen to create illusion of total emersion (1950s) Cinema and Digital Media Analog to digital (digital revolution): profoundly transformed movie making and financial markets; killing print media Film shifted from analog to a digital medium Analog: physical—light ray chemically and permanently change film; negatives priceless Only one original film strip Film grain: tiny strip of silver nitrate on the film Digital: electronic sensors sense how much red, green, and blue light have touched them; turns electrical signal into digital code (binary) 34 Once saved, simple sequence of 0 and 1s (binary) No longer has physical connection to person/object it depicts Easy to manipulate the photograph/film Digital copy no different from original—exact replica Easy pirating and duplication Pixelated Proliferation of digital special effects in films (talked about in reading) Star Wars: Attack of the Clones (2002)—most filmed on bluescreen stage Much of what seen produced in postproduction Cinema becoming postphotographic—not documenting world, but creating the world through CGI DV realism—low budget, lowtech cameras; mobility and flexibility allows easy filmmaking Time Code—shot in one shot for duration of two hour storage of film in digital camera; 4 different stories with four different cameras DV Often plays with realtime Surveillance video Streaming media in multiple media input (multiple browser windows) Pictureinpicture broadcasting—two videos at once) Cable news broadcasts Videoconferencing Video game interfacing—high density and level of interpretation of information (image as text) Firstperson shooter games—high level of involvement Continuous POV shot—immersion in story and character Scenic and sound realism Offscreen space important—surveying the space; brought onscreen Run Lola Run—very similar to Lara of game Tomb Raider Film attempts to remediate cinema through gaming culture of ‘90s Costuming similar to Lara 35 Multiple lives—Lola comes back to life Red hair throwback to coding difficulties of hair in games Always in action Credit sequence like intro of games (pick your character) Aerial orientation—in games have access to maps City as space of navigation for avatar (Lola) Iconic landmarks never shown in film, even though setting is Berlin (Berlin Wall and Brandenburg Gate) Generic setting in early games because of coding limits Time limit (20 minutes) Game over—played three times (Die twice, win on last one) Special powers—highpitched scream; not sure what it’s for until at the casino, before used to break things Multiple media (uses film, video, photographs, animation) Games cut to different modes of play Consumersproducers Viewers and fans increasingly accessibility to becoming own media producers Machinima: taking existing game video and turning to video Transformed hardcore scifi action into sitcom Mash up trailers: trailers produced by borrowing from existing trailers Usual to parody
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