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UTA / History / HIST 1312 / who is Rutherford B. Hayes?

who is Rutherford B. Hayes?

who is Rutherford B. Hayes?

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School: University of Texas at Arlington
Department: History
Course: U.S HIstory Since 1865
Professor: Bradley folsom
Term: Fall 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: HIST 1312 final exam study guide with answers
Description: This is the final exam study guide along with answers. Good luck for the finals.
Uploaded: 12/09/2015
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Forty acres and a mule


who is Rutherford B. Hayes?



1910

Forty acres and a mule refers to a concept in the United States for agrarian reform  or former enslaved African American farmers following disruptions to the institution  of slavery provoked by the American Civil War.

“Forty acres and a mule” during the final months of the Civil War, tens of thousands  of freed slaves left their plantations to follow General William T. Sherman’s  victorious Union Army troops across Georgia and the Carolinas.

Scientific Management

1890

Scientific management, or Taylorism, is a management theory that analyzes work  flows to improve economic efficiency, especially labor productivity.  This management theory, developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, was dominant in  manufacturing industries in the 1880s and 1890s. 

Scientific management theory is important because its approach to management is  found in almost every industrial business operation across the world. Its influence is  also felt in general business practices such planning, process design, quality control, cost accounting, and ergonomics. 


when did rutherford b hayes became president?



Bargain of 1877

1877

Republican Rutherford B. Haynes over democrat Samuel J. Tiden was awarded the  White House on the understanding that he would remove federal troops that were  placing republican governments in the South. 

In the aftermath of a close presidential election, an Electoral Commission declared  Rutherford B. Hayes president contingent a variety of compromises and agreements upon his taking office. 

The Dawes Act

1887

The Dawes Act of 1887 (also known as the General Allotment Act or  the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887), adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the  President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it  into allotments for individual Indians. We also discuss several other topics like lavacha

Due to this act, many Native Americans were assimilated into the mainstream of  American life.

“New Immigrants”


The Dawes Act of 1887 is also known as?



1880s

These immigrants came to America from areas that had not traditionally supplied  settlers to the US. The lands of southern Europe and eastern Europe such as Italy,  Russia, Poland and Greece, as well as Asian locales such as China and Japan. 

Immigrants formed what is today known as the United States. 

Pinkertons

1850

Pinkerton, founded as the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, is a private security  guard and detective agency established in the United States by Allan Pinkerton in  1850 and currently a subsidiary of Securitas AB.

It was often used to carry out protection activities like guard duty, riot control, etc.  in the United States.

Populist Party

1892

The People's party, more commonly known as the Populist party, was organized in  St. Louis in 1892 to represent the common folk—especially farmers—against the  entrenched interests of railroads, bankers, processers, corporations, and the  politicians in league with such interests. 

They attained many state-level positions, and their policies influenced national  policy greatly during the Progressive Era. If you see the Omaha Platform they laid  out their beliefs, and many of them were later implemented.

Spanish-American War

1892

The Spanish–American War was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United  States, the result of U.S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. We also discuss several other topics like maria terreros fiu

The war ended Spanish colonial rule in the Americas and resulted in U.S. acquisition  of territories in the western Pacific and Latin America. 

The First Red Scare

The First Red Scare was a period during the early 20th-century history of the United  States marked by a widespread fear of Bolshevism and anarchism, due to real and  imagined events, real events such as the Russian Revolution as well as the publicly  stated goal of a worldwide communist revolution. Don't forget about the age old question of michael mccloskey temple
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The red scare made people fear communism spreading to the United States and the whole point of the Cold War was to stop the spread of communism and most people  already hated communism. 

Flappers

1920

Flapper is a fashionable young woman intent on enjoying herself and flouting  conventional standards of behavior. If you want to learn more check out chem 152 uw

The topic of flappers was especially important in the 1920’s because it is the time  period when a woman started being independent, making her own decisions and  becoming her own person.

CIO

1935

The CIO or the Congress of Industrial Organizations was an American labor union  which organized workers by their industries.

The CIO later emerged with the AFL and formed a joint organization called AFL-CIO  in 1955.

Joe Louis

1914-1981

Joe Louis was an American professional boxer. He held the world heavyweight  championship from 1937 to 1949.

He is considered to be one of the greatest heavyweights of all time.

He defeated Max Schmeling in 1938 when Nazism was still prevalent. This was a  symbolic defeat for the Nazis.

Social Security Act

1935

It is an act to provide for the general welfare by establishing a system of Federal  old-age benefits, and by enabling the several States to make more adequate  provision for aged persons, blind persons, dependent and crippled children,  maternal and child welfare, public health, and the administration of their  unemployment compensation laws; to establish a Social Security Board; to raise  revenue; and for other purposes. 

The Eastern Front

1914-1918

The Eastern Front of World War I was a major theatre of operations that  encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire  and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman  Empire and Germany on the other. Don't forget about the age old question of wole soyinka abiku

Executive Order 9066

1942

Executive Order 9066 was a United States presidential executive order signed and  issued during World War II by the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on  February 19, 1942, authorizing the Secretary of War to prescribe certain areas as  military zones.

MAD

1940s

Mutual assured destruction or MAD, is a doctrine of military strategy and national  security policy in which a full-scale use of high-yield weapons of mass  destruction by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender. 

HUAC

1938

The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was an investigative  committee of the United States House of Representatives.  

It was originally created in 1938 to uncover citizens with Nazi ties within the United  States. 

CORE 

1942 

The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) is a U.S. civil rights organization that played  a pivotal role for African Americans in the Civil Rights Movement.  

Founded in 1942, CORE was one of the "Big Four" civil rights organizations, along  with the SCLC, the SNCC, and the NAACP. 

Duck and Cover

1949

Duck and Cover Drills Bring the Cold War Home. After the Soviet Union exploded its  first atomic bomb in 1949, the American public was understandably nervous. They  were aware of the destruction that individual atomic bombs did to the Japanese  cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 

Mother’s Little Helper

1966

“Mother’s Little Helper” is a song by the English rock and roll band The Rolling  Stones. When the Rolling Stones sang “Mother’s Little Helper”, they were talking  about a specific drug that was prescribed for everything from severely ill mental  patients to recovering alcoholics to comfortable middle class people who sometimes felt anxious.

Redlining

1960

The term “redlining” was coined in the late 1960s by John McKnight, a sociologist  and community activist.

The specific practice called “redlining” began with the National Housing Act of 1934, which established the Federal Housing Administration.

Loving v. Virginia

1967

Loving v. Virginia is a landmark civil rights decision of the United States Supreme  Court.

This decision invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage.

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis, the Caribbean Crisis, or  the Missile Scare, was a 13-day confrontation between the United States and the  Soviet Union over Soviet ballistic missiles deployed in Cuba. 

The Great Society

1963

The Great Society is a domestic program in the administration of President Lyndon  B. Johnson that instituted federally sponsored social welfare programs.’

The notion of a Great Society started the war on poverty in the United States which  we are still fighting today helping low income families with housing, jobs and  education. 

Fragging

1969-1972

Fragging was a slang term used to describe U.S. military personnel tossing of  fragmentation hand grenades (hence the term “fragging”) usually into sleeping  areas to murder fellow soldiers.

The breakdown of discipline, including fragging was an important factor leading to  the creation of an all-volunteer military force by the United States and the  termination of conscription.

Stonewall rebellion

1969

The Stonewall rebellion was a series of spontaneous and violent demonstrations by  members of the LGBT community against a police raid that took place in the early  morning hours of June 29, 1969 at the Stonewall Inn, located in the Greenwich  Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. The Stonewall rebellion  represents an important shift in the Gay Rights Movement. It changed the way how  the homosexuals fought for equal rights.

The New Right

1955-1964

1964-present

In the United States, New Right refers to two historically distinctive conservative  political movements. Both American New Rights are distinct from and opposed to  the more moderate tradition of the so-called Rockefeller Republicans. The first New  Right embraced classical liberal economics, traditional social values and an ardent  anti-communism. The second new right was mostly ignored by scholars until the  late 1980s, but the formation of the New Right is now one of the fastest-growing  areas of historical research.

Soviet-Afghan War

1979-1989

The Soviet-Afghan war was a nine years long war in which insurgent groups who  received aid from Western countries and several Muslim countries fought against  the Soviet Army and allied Afghan forces.

Neoliberalism

1980

Neoliberalism is a term whose usage and definition have changed over time. Since  the 1980s, the term has been used by scholars in a wide variety of social sciences  and critics primarily in reference to the resurgence of 19th century ideas associated  with laissez-faire economic liberalism.  

Describe three major ways that Reconstruction and its failure have influenced  American history since 1877.

The government of the United States tried to put the country together again after  the Civil War. Historians in general consider the result of this attempt to be a  complete failure.

Politically, the government succeeded in convincing the Southern states to rejoin  the Union in a fairly simple process. They also managed to pass the 13th, 14th and  15th amendment. This was the only victory achieved.

The Freedmen’s Bureau was underfunded and cut short, leaving the vast majority of free African Americans uneducated and still in the South. There was no land reform  and slaves were therefore forced into a system of sharecropping system. They could not claim ownership over their own farms, a thing that could have given them equal independence as whites.

The Black Codes and other laws restricting former slaves, though clearly  unconstitutional, were not challenged in any court of law or struck down by local  military authorities. African Americans, although free, were virtually unprotected  and involuntarily became slaves again.

When the Reconstruction effort was later cut off after 12 years, the economy of the  South remained in ruins and many of its people remained in poverty.

• Compare three aspects of American society in the 1920s and the 1950s. What  were the major similarities and/or differences?

Race relations: There were equal rights regardless of race more in theory than in  practice. In the 50’s, tensions became way more pronounced as civil rights  movements peaked. Things were far worse in the South and the mid-Atlantic region  than in the north for both eras. On the whole, the 1950’s were a time of greater  social consciousness on the subject of race.

Role of women: The 1920’s was a time of rebellion where women who wanted to  spread their wings would cut their hair short and wear short dresses. The popular  body frame of the Flapper Era was skinny and flat-chested; women were being more aggressive and masculine in fighting off stereotypes of playing the submissive and  beautiful housewife. In the 50’s, there was a return to the Domestic Goddess idea.  Women’s ideal image was one of the doting wife and mother.

Consumerism: Consumerism was absolutely large in the 50’s and not too small in  the 20s. The phrase “keeping up with the Joneses” was a sociological phenomenon  to describe how families would model themselves after their neighbors, especially  with the boom in suburban living. The television came around in the 50s and  completely changed the dynamic of the family household. “Family time” in the  perfect home was considered to be a father and a mother watching a show on their  brand new television while their children sat in front of the couch, everyone eating  dinner together. The television led to huge booms in consumerism through  advertising, celebrities and sensationalism. Everyone started keeping up with  popular ideas.

• Describe three important results of the United States’ Cold War policies.

Policy of containment: First laid out by George F. Kennan in 1947, Containment stated that  communism needed to be contained and isolated, or it would spread to neighboring countries. The  US's attempt to stop the spread of communism and "Russian expansive tendencies" through  economic and military measures. This included the stationing of military forces in confrontation with the Soviet Union in places such as: Greece, Iran, Germany, Turkey, Korea, and Vietnam. The policy  of containment also affected Latin American policy. The United States used the CIA to support  anticommunist groups in many countries. Many of the U.S.­supported regimes were undemocratic  and used brutal tactics to remain in power. Economic measures included long­term U.S. economic  assistance (Marshall Aid).

Truman doctrine: With the Truman Doctrine, President Harry S. Truman established  that the United States would provide political, military and economic assistance to  all democratic nations under threat from external or internal authoritarian forces.  The immediate cause for the doctrine to be announced was that the British  Government would no longer provide military and economic assistance to the Greek Government in its civil war against the Greek Communist Party. Truman asked  Congress to support the Greek Government against the Communists. He also asked  Congress to provide assistance for Turkey, since that nation, too, had previously  been dependent on British aid. Soon this general principle was applied to Western  Europe as a whole. Truman argued that the United States could no longer stand by  and allow the forcible expansion of Soviet totalitarianism into free, independent  nations, because American national security now depended upon more than just the physical security of American territory. 

Marshall plan: Marshall said that the US Policy's "purpose should be the revival of a  working economy in the world so as to permit the existence of political and social  conditions in which free institutions can exist." The Marshall Plan (AKA the European Recovery Program) generated a resurgence of European industrialization and  brought extensive investment into the region. It was also a stimulant to the U.S.  economy by establishing markets for American goods. Over $12 billion was put  towards the rebuilding of Western Europe by the US. The Marshall Plan was applied  solely to Western Europe, preventing any measure of Soviet Bloc cooperation.  During the next few years, the plan resulted in the extraordinarily rapid and durable reconstruction of a democratic Western Europe. The Marshall Plan institutionalized  and legitimized the concept of U.S. foreign aid programs, which have become an  integral part of U.S. foreign policy. 

• Describe three major shifts in the scope of the federal government’s power that  occurred between the Civil War and the present

The civil war addressed two central issues - the role of the federal government and  the nature of the union. Slavery accelerated tensions between nation centered and  state centered concept of the federal system. On one hand, there were those who  argued that the union was but a league of sovereign states and that each state had  the power to nullify federal laws within its boundaries or ultimately secede from the  union. On the other side were those who believed that the union was indestructible,  created not by the states but by the people delegating to the states and the  national government certain limited authority enunciated in the Constitution. The  question of the nature of the union was resolved in favor of a nation-centered  concept of federalism.

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