Exam 3 (Final) Study Guide
Exam 3 (Final) Study Guide REL 1310
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabriel Hahn on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to REL 1310 at Baylor University taught by Dr. Coker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see Christian Scriptures in Religious Studies at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
Christian Scriptures Exam 3 Study Guide 1026 124 Mark and Matthew Mark 9 Luke 9 Written about 3040 years after Jesus death before it was written it was passed through small populations pop up creating a movement across the with the oral traditions Mark takes these stories and gets them on paper Most eye witness accounts of people who saw Jesus were dead or dying at the time which triggered a need to get the accounts written down of Rome persecuting from 64 to 68 AD after he puts the blame of a he made on the Christians This also triggers a need to write pericopes down due to the fear that Christians might be out another trigger event was the destruction of in 70 AD Features of Mark Made of about pericopes shortest of the gospels most of the pericopes are connected by the word Over 95 of is found in Matthew and Luke His style re ects the period of persecution that it was written in Traditionally seen as a version of the other two Got little respect no commentary was written on it until the 6th century 500 years after it was written New importance beginning in the 19th century now seen as the gospel now one of the most popular to study It is an work attributed to John Mark the personal secretary of Apostle Peter 2 cc 3 Gospel good Christ anointed in Hebrew very bold statement to say Jesus is the long awaited Messiah as Mark does Jesus is very even at his time and among his disciples For Mark Jesus is the Messiah not in spite of the fact that he was crucified but because of the fact the he was crucified One of the major points of the gospel is that no one recognizes Jesus for who he is but the reader does because we re are on the inside Turning point in story is the miracle in Ch8 where Jesus heals the man turns toward climax of disciples begin to realize he is the Messiah Mark uses a structure similar to a palistrophe A He did this because these B documents were made to be read out loud So literary devices like C mam Pomt Chmax these allowed the audience to more B easily understand the message A Characteristics of Mark Sense of short and quick Emphasis on Jesus not much on what he says Long passion narrative focus on final days of Jesus life Less refined in and style Use of effective rhetoric very well thought out arrangement to portray a message Written for a nonJewish audience Most human portrayal of Jesus emphasizes Jesus and human characteristics SQP PPP 8 Secrecy motif keeping his miracles as secrets and does miracles in private 9 Highlights of Jesus disciples Jesus frequently becomes displeased with disciples the disciples don t quite get it Mark is largely a gospel about what does it mean to be a follower of Jesus not about the glory and honor of it instead about suffering and hardship with a promise of glory yet to come message to his readers during persecution we live on Saturday but we know Jesus is the Messiah and Sunday is coming Gospel of Matthew the gospel of the Contains didactic messages Early church believed it was the gospel written Received commentary by Origin by the early 200s M material is material unique to Adds genealogy and resurrection appearances Shortens all of Marks narratives Cleans up grammar Cleans up misstatements Drops explanations of Jewish practices Changes it to match wealthy urban setting Matthews Genealogy Emphasizes the of Jesus Traces Jesus ancestry via Joseph back to 3 sets of 14 generations 14 generations from Abraham to 14 from David to exile 14 from exile to leaves out some generations in order to make a significant event occur every generations does this to show that Jesus is the long awaited Messiah as he comes at the end of 14 generations Parallels between Jesus and Moses Both born under hostile regime Egypt Rome Rulers in both wants to destroy the Pharaoh Herad Child is divinely protected Each end up in Each leave Egypt and go through water Red Sea baptism Each goes to a mountain to deliver God s Mt Sinai Sermon on the Mount In Matthew Jesus is the new Structure of Matthew major blocks of Jesus teaching with narrative in between Parallels to the 5 books of Torah Jesus takes Jewish law and pushes it further beyond letter of law to the spirit Moses said do not kill I say do not become angry Matthew and Judaism Matthew is most portrayal of Jesus and emphasizes his J ewishness Also it is the hardest gospel on the Jews Harsh towards scribes and Characteristics of Matthew Uses organizational patterns Has a motif will use 2 of something when the other gospels only use 1 Gives special prominence to Jesus talks explicitly about the church Has strong Jewish orientation Has a strong antiJewish orientation Also has great interest in the Emphasizes the fulfillment of WNQMPP PF Gospels of Luke and John Luke Jesus is portrayed as a Jewish prophet who is by his own people because of rejection the message of salvation is taken to nonJews Written in 80s AD after destruction of temple but before persecution of early 90s more attitude towards Rome Only gospel with a second volume Acts Only gospel to be addressed to someone Theophilus ie loved or lover of God L material unique to this includes some parable nativity scenes information about Jesus as a child etc Luke s Genealogy Traces Jesus ancestry via Joseph back to Comparing Genealogies Matthew Luke Adam Abraham i Solomon 4 Nathan Jacob Hgli Joseph Neither is really concerned with J 63113 having the perfect genealogy mostly just showing a point about Jesus Matthew s Genealogy to show that Jesus was a descendant of David Luke s Genealogy to show that Jesus was God s son is the rejected Jewish prophet likens himself to Elijah and prophets sent to minister both Jews and Gentiles Jesus is the new prophet as his life parallels the life of a prophet Born like prophet Samuel like Elijah and Elisha heals like them too Dies like a prophet in Jerusalem Jesus in Luke Portrayed as calm cool and collected lacks agony and of Mark s passion account Jesus is a not a tragic figure Speaks frequently of God s plan or will no sense of apocalyptic return of Christ first gospel must be spread to ends of Earth that s what Acts is about Luke s use of Mark Adds genealogy and resurrection appearances Streamlines some stories Cleans grammar and style Characteristics of Luke Only gospel to identify More interest in historical context 3 Special attention given to focus on geography Ni 4 Emphasizes worship and prayer 5 Has an unusual interest in 6 Focus on ministry to oppressed and disadvantaged 7 Prominent place for Acts Parallels with Luke s gospel Luke provides view of Acts Events of Jesus ministry in Luke foreshadow those of Paul et al in Acts Jesus was the hero of Paul is the hero of Acts Luke and Acts Compared Luke Jesus the new Jewish prophet is rejected by the Jews and takes his message to the Acts Earliest Christians are run out of Jerusalem and forced to take the message of Christ to the ends of the worlds Comparing Luke and Paul How familiar was Luke with Paul s ministry or with his writings There are between the writings Did Paul s companions at his conversion hear a voice but see nothing or hear nothing but see a light Did they stay standing or were they knocked down Acts gives a continuation of the story from The Gospel of John not a synoptic gospel Known as the Gospel Anonymous work attributed to disciple John in late 2nd century John lower class Jew who spoke Aramaic and was More than of material is unique to John Drawn upon different strain of oral tradition Similarities With synoptics Account of Jesus ministry of teaching and healing Focus on Differences from synoptics No accounts No baptism by John No Wilderness temptation No proclamation of coming kingdom of God No parables No casting of No Lords Supper No Gethsemane Stories unique to John Water into Wine raising from the dead 3 year ministry Jesus dies on a different day Day of Jesus death Mark Disciples prepare for Passover meal on Day of for the Passover Jesus shares meal that evening and is betrayed arrested and Executed the next morning at 9 AM Only in John is Jesus identi ed as the of God John shares meal With disciples no symbolism Jesus is betrayed arrested and tried Explicitly states that he is executed on the day of preparation for the Passover at Theological significance of Jesus dying on Day of Preparation for Passover Comparing Jesus Miracles Synoptics Miracles performed as response to people s Jesus refuses to do them to prove who he is John called instead of miracles CC 39 3 39 39 39 s1gns performed in order to generate 1n w1tnesses Mark 53 raiSing Janus daughter John 11 raising of Lazarus 39gl 1165 before J 65115 amVes Lazarus dies before Jesus gets Jesus says she is just sleeping there Takes parents and 3 disciples with him quotraises him in from 0f huge Tells them anyone of what has happened quotmany belieVe in him because Of what they witness John never uses or proclaims a future kingdom of God not similar characteristics to synoptics Jesus in John Jesus teaches about himself and does miracles to prove Seven 1 themed miracles He is much more than the man found in synoptics Prologue indicates that Jesus is the the Word of God that existed from the beginning of all things Not a misunderstood messiah or prophet but a being I and the Father are one Gradual development of John community a group of followers of disciple John who were possibly responsible for writing of gospel along with 1 2 and 3 John Gospel could have developed in beginning with collection of stories about Jesus Dependent on someone who was a witness e g John stories later shaped and edited and finalized by a group of his followers finalized in 90s AD Evidence choppiness of John order of chapter 5 and 6 contains different time periods John s community re ects 1 background 2 Hellenistic background 3 Possibly knowledge of The Gnostic Gospels Many noncanonical writings about Jesus most were rejected because they were written much later and in uenced by Gnosticism Gospel of earliest noncanonical written by Didymos Judas Thomas Jesus brother written in Egyptian language written with Greek letters Made up of sayings of Jesus A sayings gospel No narrative material Cyril of Jerusalem in 4th century tells people not to read it as it was written by a Gnostic was written by Mani Gnosis Early church said Thomas was written by disciples of Mani Mani was the founder of Manschees a movement Gnosticism embraces view of universe a bad God crated everything material a good God resides in the realm of light beyond this material world Material world bad spiritual realm good The Hymn of the Pearl Visible movement of escaping from Earth Gnostic Christianity Jesus is the messenger Who reminds us Who we are and Where we belong Gave teachings to his disciples Epistles of Paul Issues with the Study of Paul Most information about him comes from but Acts doesn t always agree with Paul s own writing what can we know about Paul s mission Some letters with his name on them may not have actually been by Paul Non Pauline letters Paul and Seneca 3rd Corinthians Laodicea s Did any get into the New Testament Scholars dispute the authenticity of some of the Pauline corps Paul s 13 Epistles 3 Categories Almost unanimous agreement that Paul was their author Disputed Scholars split on Paul s role in writing them Inauthentic 1 and 2 Timothy Titus Scholars mostly agree they were not written by Paul They are in nature not systematic treatment of topics things only get mentioned if there is a problem relating them to the not if it s just something important to him EX Lords Supper About Paul He was a Probably raised outside of Palestine Didn t know Jesus during early ministry Found to be blasphemous Persecuted Christians Had experience of resurrected Christ while on the way to Damascus Began to travel and spread Christianity instead Went on missionary journeys to cities throughout total he would set up a church and then move on to the next city Wrote letters to churches that he had made when he heard they were having problems used the genre very common in ancient World Paul and the Gentiles Paul goes from Pharisee to totally rejecting need for the law complete 180 turn Ongoing con icts with some Christians con icts like should Gentile converts be circumcised Focus on Gentiles to Christianity 1ST Corinthians Paul moved to and set up shop After his departure there are major divisions in the Church leadership problems suing each other disputes over abuses in the worship practices and chaos in services These problems relate to their misunderstanding of the resurrection Our participation in Jesus resurrections Already participants but not fully participants already but not yet Resurrection of Christians is a event and until then there will be suffering Paul s apocalyptic view of history Present Age Age to come Faithful rewarded evil punished Righteous suffer evil prosper Time of testing intervention Rethinking Authorship Pseudonym false Authorship and Authority how are they related What does it mean for someone to author a work Did Paul write it alone with Sosthenes was it someone else completely or was it a group of people probably had a to write most of it and Paul would write greetings and personal parts of it Spectrum of Authorship and Pseudonymity Authentic Inauthentic Written by Written by request Written by follower Written by dictation Written by disciple Written by Criteria for judging authenticity 1 Style vocabulary syntax sentence length rhetoric use of scripture etc Christology eschatology ecclesiology view of the law ethics etc 3 Context Does it t within Paul s ministry Comparing 1St and 2nd Thessalonians 1 return of Christ is 2nd Predictable return of Christ a series of events must happen before Christ returns Paul s Captivity Letters Philemon Philippians Ephesians 2 Timothy Ephesians Paul spent a lot of time there yet it is his most letter no greetings only mentions one name Tychicus Some MSS lack an address just say to the church Connected with and Colossians all mention the name Tychicus Perhaps a 3 letter packet Ephesians may be a letter for multiple audiences and churches Paul s Pastoral Epistles lSt and 2nd Timothy and Titus abstract of 1St Timothy scaled down version All three share major issue False teachers have created problems and internal division Letters urge pastors to take charge of the situation Reasons to question Pauline authorship Possible references to Gnosticism Strikineg vocabulary than in other Pauline letters and different way of using words like use of the word faith Letters presuppose on established hierarchy Within the church Different attitude towards Developments after Paul New emphasis on the church and its organization More settled and acculturated Increased desire to relate to ideas Increasingly clear lines dividing different kinds of Christians Orthodox Gnostic Jewish Christianity Christianity The General Epistles Gnostic Christianity Jewish Christianity Developments after Paul New Emphasis upon the churches as an Greater sense of becoming James One of five writings attributed to James of Jesus other 4 weren t included in the canon and came from Gnostics May have originated as a Jewish tract very little about it is distinctively different language used tension between theology not much about Jesus Emphasizes over faith Luther didn t care much for it Lots of doubt that it was actually written by James Jude Judas Also appears to originate within Jewish Christianity sites notcanonical works Serves as a letter of exhortation to believers and an attack upon those who have abandoned the faith Hebrew possibly the Christian sermon we have The Epistle to the Hebrews is neither an epistle nor written to Jews probably for a pagan convert audience Emphasizes of Christ to Judaism He is superior to prophets He is superior to Moses He is superior to His sacrifice and sanctuary are superior to Christ Unsure who wrote it Christ is superior to all elements of Old Testament and law are of the reality of Christ brings up s Allegory of the Cave message of Christ put into terms familiar to GrecoRoman audience Message don t turn from Christianity to Hints at the growing rift and animosity between Judaism and the New Christian movement Animosity would grow as Christianity became an even movement and antiSemitism would exist within Christianity for most of its history 1St Peter One of writings attributed to Peter most others are Gnostic Written to console those undergoing persecution Stages of Roman persecution of Christians 1 and localized 2 Increasingly seen as a dangerous movement 3 Empirewide systematic persecution of Christians Revelation and Apocalyptic Literature Revelation Many Christian traditions emphasize Revelation strongly Others ignore it Some completely reject it didn t like it nor did Calvin William Miller Baptist living in western NY in 1820s Began to predict return of Christ believed return would be in Miller s Prediction Based on literal and creative reading of and Revelation When Jesus didn t show up he recalculated sets date to 1844 instead The Great when Jesus doesn t come again SeventhDay Adventists emerged out of his followers Millerites Others David Koresh and the Branch Davidians Used Revelation and decided God s plans were not for Jesus but for Koresh CC referred to federal agents and other outsiders Ways of Reading Revelation 1 Historical 2 Prophetic 3 Historical Refers to the first century but in language Readershearers know who is being referred to Prophetic Refers to things that are to take place in the distant future Seven Churches seven ages or stages of development in the Church 3 Symbolic Refers to timeless in symbolic form Symbolsimagery not connected to concrete historical events Eschatological Systems Millennium year reign of Christ on Earth 3 Views 1 there is no literal 1000 year reign it is symbolic of the church 2 Postmillennial kingdom of God will come progressively through evangelism and reform after this Christ will return post millennium 3 Premillennial Christ will return and usher in His millennial kingdom pre millennium The Rapture Rapture sudden Dispensationalism belief in the return of Christ where Christians are gathered up message of a system of historical progression from revelation John Nelson Darby Late Great Planet Earth Left Behind Another way of reading Revelation Ask what it meant to its first readershearers Must look at larger genre that Revelation is part of literature Flourished between 200BC 200AD in Jewish and Christian communities Many other Jewish and Christian apocalyptic writings Typical Features of Apocalyptic Literature Claim that a revelation has been given to some prophet or seer The revelation is imparted to those in oppression Contrast between current age and better future The revelation is usually mediated by someone like and angle The revelation is usually and consists of cosmic battles Usually attributed to some wellknown figure from the past QMPPPF Revelation isn t though Point of Apocalyptic literature like Revelation Aimed at group Serve as encouragement and admonition in the midst of persecution and hardship a message of assurance and hope not for a blue print or timetable of the future In the end God will even though things are bad now Reminds readers that God is in control of history even when it doesn t look like he is
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