Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide GEOL 1005
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Frances Cooke on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 1005 at George Washington University taught by Glenn Havelock in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Environmental Geology in Geology at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
Environmental Geology Exam 3 Study Guide Havelock Groundwater 0 Distribution of groundwater 0 At surface belt of soil moisture held as a film on soil particles soil water used by plants Zone of aeration unsaturated zone pore space in soil are mainly filled with air Zone of saturation saturated zone all pore spaces are filled with water gt groundwater o The water table 0 Upper limit of the zone of saturation o Rarely level usually a slight replica of the surface 0 At the surface in wetlandsswamps o Lakes and streams water table is above the surface 0 Porosity 0 Percentage of pore spaces in soil 0 Determines how much water can be stored 0 Higher porosity more water can be stored o Permeability 0 Ability to transmit water through connected pores o Smaller pore spaces slower rate of movement 0 Aquifer o A permeable layer of material 0 Aquiclude 0 Also known as aquitard o lmpermeable layer of material 0 Ex clay o Perched water table 0 Accumulation of groundwater above water table in unsaturated zone 0 Spnng 0 Natural outflow of water when water table intersects with Earth s surface 0 Can be associated with perched water table 0 Hot spring 0 Water 69 degrees Celsius warmer than average air temperature of locality o Heated by cooling of igneous rocks 0 Geyser o Intermittent hot springs 0 Water turns to steam erupts 0 Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park 0 Method for removing groundwater 0 Hole bored into zone of saturation I Must penetrate water table in all seasons for continuous supply water table can change based on season 0 Cone of depression I Drawdown lowering of water table I Cone like depression of water table level around well 0 Artesian wells I Groundwater in well rises higher than initial groundwater level I Two conditions for such well 0 Water must be confined to an inclined aquifer so one end is exposed at the surface to recharge receive water 0 Aquitards both above and below aquifer confined aquifer 0 Environmental problems with groundwater o Nonrenewable resource I Withdrawal can cause longterm drop in water table Saltwater intrusion I Overwithdrawal in coastal areas I Contamination of freshwater well with saltwater Land subsistence I Caused by withdrawal I Can cause permanent flooding of low coastal areas Contamination O O O I Pollution I Comes from septic tanks sewage farm wastes agricultural chemicals land Hs o Fracking I Drilling for natural gas contained in bedrock I Force mixture of chemicals into bedrock to break fracture rock and release natural gas I Hazards groundwater contamination of groundwater and wells from chemicals earthquakes o Caves 0 Formation dissolving rock beneath Earth s surface weak carbonic acid in groundwater 0 Form in zone of saturation o Sinkholes 0 Surface depression in land 0 Caused by dissolving rock and cave collapse 0 Dripstone 0 Forms in zone of aeration o Stalactites hanging from ceiling o Stalagmites growing upward from the floor 0 Pillars when stalactites and stalagmite join 0 Karst topography o Formed by dissolving rock typically limestone o Sinkholes caves and caverns o Lacks good surface drainage Coasts 0 Ocean waves 0 Energy traveling along interface between ocean and atmosphere 0 Derive energy from wind 0 Characteristics I Crest top of the wave I Trough bottom of the wave I Height distance between trough and crest I Wavelength horizontal distance between successive crests or troughs I Wave period time interval for one wave to pass a fixed position Depend on I Wind speed faster bigger waves I Length of time of wind blows longer more bigger waves I Fetch distance that wind travels longer fetch bigger wave Breaking on shoreline I Wave collapses into surf I Velocity decreases height increases 0 O o Beaches o Composed of whatever material available I Biological component shells 0 Wave erosion on shoreline I Caused by impact pressure and abrasion process of wearing away 0 Wave refraction I Bending of a wave I Waves slow when touch bottom of shallow water gt bend refract I Results wave energy concentrated against sides of headland o Straightens out irregular shoreline o Erosional features 0 Wavecut cliff cutting action against base of coastal land 0 Wavecut platform benchlike surface left from receding cliffs 0 Sea arch headland eroded and two sea caves from opposite sides unite 0 Sea stack roof of sea arch collapses o Depositional features 0 Spit ridge of sand extending from land into mouth of bay 0 Baymouth area sandbar that completely crosses a bay 0 Barrier island low sand ridge islands separated from shore by lagoons 0 Hard stabilization building structures in attempt to prevent erosion o Groins barrier built at right angle to beach to trap sand 0 Breakwaters offshore barrier parallel to coast 0 Seawall armors coast against waves 0 Not effective I Expensive I Can still cause erosion or movement of sand to other areas 0 Alternatives I Beach nourishment add sand to beach system I Relocation of buildings away from beaches Tides o Caused by gravitational forces from Moon Sun to produce tidal bulges o Neap tides first and third quarter of Moon gravitational forces offset lesser tide range Spring tides new and full moons gravitational forces combined large tide range Saltmarsh I Vegetated tidal wetland I Flooded during highest tides Hurricanes Most violent storms Cyclonic circulation Minimum 74 mph wind speed Tropical storm 0 Winds between 38 and 74 mph Formation 0 Between 5 and 20 degree latitude o Fueled by I Evaporation of warm tropical water I Condensation in atmosphere releases heat energy Names for hurricanes 0 Western Pacific Ocean typhoon 0 Indian Ocean cyclones Eyewall o Rising air near center 0 Cumulonimbus clouds 0 Greatest wind speed heaviest rain Eye Very center 12 miles diameter No precipitation or wind 0 Warmest part of storm Conditions that diminish a hurricane s intensity 0 Cooler ocean water 0 Move onto land Category 15 0 5 over 155 mph wind Katrina OOO Category 4 Levees failed only built to withstand category 3 Residents didn t evacuate survived previous storms Hurricane lvan was a false alarm 0 Hurricane destruction 0 Storm surge I Dome of water where eye makes landfall I Increase height with rivers and bays lnland flooding excessive rainfall Wind damage structure collapse flying debris Tornadoes structure collapse Factors affecting amount of destruction I Strength of storm I Size and population density of affected area I Shape of ocean bottom affects storm surges 0 Global activity 0 No longterm change in frequency 0 Intensity and duration increasing gt global warming 0 Hurricane watch 0 Hazard is a possible threat in the next 36 hours 0 Hurricane warning 0 Hurricane expected in 24 hours or less Weather and Tornadoes 0 Weather state of constantly changing atmosphere at a particular place over short period of time Climate generalized composite of average weather over a long period of time Equator o Receives more solar energy because rays must travel through less of atmosphere high angle than at the poles low angle 0000 0 Rain 0 100 humidity gt air is saturated water vapor condenses o Dew point temperature temperature at which water vapor condenses o Condensation I Air forced aloft expands and cools to reach condensation level altitude o Atmospheric pressure 0 Force exerted by weight of air above 0 Standard sea level pressure 1013 millibar 0 Mercury barometer air pressure increases mercury rises measured in inches of mercury o Aneroid barometer Metal chamber that expands pressure decrease and compresses pressure increase 0 Wind 0 Horizontal movement of air from areas of high pressure to low pressure 0 Controls I Pressure gradient force PGF 0 Pressure gradient pressure change over distance 0 lsobars lines of equal air pressure 0 Coriolis effect I Deflection of wind direction based on Earth rotation I Northern hemisphere deflects to the right 0 Pressure centers 0 Cyclones center of low pressure pressure decreases towards center risingcooling air clouds precipitation inward winds 0 Anticyclones center of high pressure pressure increases towards center outward winds descending warm air fair weather no cloudsprecipitation o Fronts boundary separating air masses of different densities 0 Warm front warm air replaces cool lighttomoderate precipitation 0 Cold front cold air replaces warm intense precipitation o Thunderstorms 0 Lighting superheats air 0 Air expands explosively produces sound of thunder 0 Florida highest frequency of thunderstorms o Tornadoes o Rotating column of air that extends down from a cumulonimbus cloud Up to 310 mph Associated with mesoclines vertical cylinders of rotating air Scale ranked on Fujitascale FScale Tornado watch Alerts public to possibility of a tornado Tornado warning tornado is sighted or indicated by radar OOOOO lmpacts o Asteroid small bodies that orbit and collide with other bodies 0 Comet snowball size composed of frozen gas and rocky material glowing head and tail 0 Halley s comet every 76 years 0 ShoemakerLevy struck Jupiter Asteroid belt located between Mars and Jupiter Tunguska impact 0 Explosion in Russia thought to be asteroid Famous examples Meteor Crater Chesapeake impact Evidence of former impacts 0 Macroscopic I Tektite buttons look like obsidian I Suevite impact breccia I Shatter cones conical shape with impact grooves from large meteorite impacts 0 Microscopic I Shocked quartz grain I lridium rare enough not to be able to be measured 0 Chicxulub Crater extinction of dinosaurs 0 Gulf of Mexico 0 Impacts could destroy civilizations o Spaceguard survey 0 Discover and track 90 near earth asteroids with diameter greater than 1 km Climate Change 0 Major components of atmosphere 0 Nitrogen 78 0 Oxygen 21 0 Three mechanisms of heat transfer 0 Conduction transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity 0 Convection Mass circulation through a substance 0 Radiation electromagnetic waves how solar energy reaches Earth 0 Albedo of solar energy reflected in atmosphere 0 About 50 absorbed at Earth s surface 0 Reradiates this energy 0 Greenhouse effect heating of the atmosphere 0 Greenhouse gases C02 methane o Anthropogenic impacts on global warming 0 Fossil fuels deforestation 0 Consequences of global warming 0 SeaJevel o Intense hurricane and storm activity 0 Droughts 0 Major flooding o Glaciers 0 Valley alpine glaciers I Mountainous areas I Flow down a valley as a stream of ice 0 Ice sheets I Larger scale Flows out in all directions 10 of Earth s land surface area Down from 30 in last Ice Age Greenland I Antarctica largest sheet of ice 0 Glacial budget I Balance between accumulation at upper end of glacier and loss at the lower end 0 Accumulation exceeds loss gt advances o Wasting increases gt retreats 0 Terminal end moraines ridge of sediment accumulated at the terminus front of a glacier marks limit of glacial advance 0 Records of past climates 0 Tree rings 0 Deep sea sediment cores 0 Ice cores 0 Glacial deposits 0 Fossils 0 Pleistocene Ice Age 0 Covered Canada and reach down to Midwest
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