Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide Psych 364
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Sullivan on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 364 at Clemson University taught by Eric McKibben in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
Exam 3 Study Guide People O Skinner reinforcement theory more likely to engage in behavior if its reinforced forefather of theory 0 Kirkpatrick 0 4 level model for training criteria I reaction criteria level 1 I internal criteria measures of trainee impressions of the trainee program assess enjoyment of amp satisfaction w the training program 0 affective reactions 0 utility judgements I learning criteria level 2 I internal criteria measures that assess how much was learned in the training program often assessed w a written test which might evaluate knowledge acquired in a training program 0 immediate knowledge 0 knowledge retention 0 behaviorskill demonstration 0 actually take a test see if knowledge transfer has actually occured l behavioral criteria level 3 I external criteria measure how well the behaviors learned in training transfer to the job behavioral criteria may include ratings of on the job performance of behaviors taught in the training program 0 transfer of knowledge to actual job has behavior changed Degree to which performance changes in job setting I Result criteria level 4 I external criteria measures how well training can be related to organizational outcomes such as productivity gains cost savings error reductions or increased customer satisfaction Often considered most important to organizational decision makers 0 Organizational level has training increased profitability Meeting organizational goals seen an increase Theories O Reinforcement Theory 0 Social Learning Theory cognitive theory that proposes that there are many ways to learn including observational learning which occurs when people watch someone perform a task amp then rehearse those activities mentally until they have an opportunity to try them out 0 There are many ways to learn including 39 Behavior Modeling Concepts 1 Observe actual job incumbents demonstrate positive modeling behaviors 2 Rehearse before using roleplaying 3 Receive feedback on rehearsal 4 Try behavior on the job 39 Self Efficacy O Belief in ones capability to perform 39 Goal Setting 0 Specific difficult goals direct attention amp improve performance I Feedback 0 Knowledge of results of ones actions 0 Enhances motivation learning amp performance 0 Types of validity accurateness of inferences made based on testperformance data 0 O O Criterionrelated test relationship bw test amp outcome its predicting performancebehavior Contentrelated are we including everything relevant that would help predict a specific job Constructrelated rely on observable behaviors to determine underlying concepts within individual construct that allows individual to solve problems 0 Selection ratio What is it how to calculate it Index ranging from 01 relfects ratio of available jobs to applicants SR of jobs of applicants assessed 0 Errors in selection decisions 0 O O 0 False Positive applicant accepted but performed poorly False Negative applicant rejected but would have performed well True Positive applicant accepted amp performed well True Negative applicant rejected amp would have performed poorly 0 Cutscores types and how they are determined specified point in dist of scores below which candidates are rejected 0 O Criterionreferenced cut score consider desired level of performance amp find test score corresponding to that level Normreferenced cut score based on some index of testtakers scores rather than any notion of job performance If you lower cutoff fewer false negatives but more false positives amp opposite for other 0 Utility assesses economic return on investment of HR interventions like staffing or training can address costbenefit ratio of one staffing strategy vs another 0 Base Rate percentage of current workforce performing successfully 0 Statistical Decision Making combines info according to a mathematical formula vs clinical decision making uses judgment to combine info amp make decisions about relative value of different candidates almost always beats out other strategies being used 0 Statistical dehumanizes the decision making process Humans like to be apart of decision making Subgroup norming develop separate lists for individuals in different demographic groups who are then ranked within their respective group NOT ALLOWED AS A STAFFING STRATEGY Hurdle combining scores noncompensatory strategy individual has no opportunity to compensate at later stage for low score in earlier stage establishes series of cut scores 0 Constructed from multiple hurdles so candidates who don39t exceed each of the minimum dimension scores are excluded from further consideration set up sequentially more expensive hurdles placed later used to narrow large applicant pool vs compensatory decision making multiple regression analysis results in equation for combining test scores into a composite based on correlations of each test score w performance score Crossvalidation regression equation developed on first sample is tested on 2nd sample to determine if it still fits well Score banding individuals w similar test scores can be grouped together in a category or score band selection win band can be made based on other considerations its controversial 0 Uses standard error of measurement for test 0 Fixed band system candidates in lower bands not considered until higher bands have been exhausted O Sliding band system permits band to be moved down a score point when highest score band is exhausted Selection vs Placement O Placement process of matching multiple applicants amp multiple job openings 39 Strategies 0 Vocational guidance 0 Pure selection 0 Cut amp Fit 0 Deselection 2 typical situations I Termination for cause 0 Individual is fired for particular reason O Generally not unexpected I Layoff 0 Job loss due to employer downsizing or reductions in force 0 Often occurs w little or no warning O Disparate adverse treatment type of discrimination in which the plaintiff attempts to show that the employer actually treated the plaintiff differently from the majority applicants or employees intentional discrimination O Disparate adverse impact type of discrimination that acknowledges the employer may not have intended to discriminate against a plaintiff but an employer practice did have an adverse impact on the group to which the plaintiff belongs O 80 or 45ths rule guideline for assessing whether there is evidence of adverse impact if it can be shown that a protected group received less than 80 of the desirable outcomes received by a majority group the paintiffs can claim to have met the burden of demonstrating adverse impact 0 Adverse impact ratio ratio obtained by dividing the selection ratio of the protected group by the selection ratio of the majority group if this ratio is lower than 80 there is evidence of adverse impact 0 Training systematic acquisition of skills concepts attitudes resulting in improved performance in another environment 0 Basic foundation for training programs is learning relatively permanent change in behaVior amp human capabilities produced by experience amp practice 0 Learning outcomes types and examples 0 Cognitive Outcomes type of learning outcome that includes declarative knowledge or knowledge of rules facts amp principles Ie police officers acquire declarative knowledge about laws amp court procedures 0 Skillbased outcomes type of learning outcome that concerns the development of motor or technical skills Ie motor skills might inVlolve the coordination of physical movements such as using a specialized tool or ying a certain aircraft where technical skills might include understanding a certain software program or exhibiting effective customer relations behaviors O Affective outcomes type of learning outcome that includes attitudes or beliefs that predispose a person to behave in a certain way Attitudes can be developed or changed through training programs Ie attitudes that can be acquired or modified through training are organizational commitment amp appreciation of diversity 0 Training needs analysis levels and procedures 0 3 step process required to develop systematic understanding of where training is needed org what needs to be trained task amp who will be trained person 39 Organizational analysis examines organizational goals available resources amp organizational environment helps to determine where training should be directed examines companywide goals amp problems to determine where training is needed takes into account climate of organization amp its subunits I Task Analysis examines tasks performed amp KSAOs required to determine what employees must do to perform successfully what employees must do to perform the job properly I Person Analysis examines knowledge skills amp current performance to determine who needs training O Trainee readiness refers to whether employees have the personal characteristics necessary to acquire knowledge from a training program amp apply it to the job 0 Operant conditioning reinforcement theory 0 Learning results from association between behaviors amp rewards 0 Positive reinforcement desired behavior followed by reward 0 Behavior modification simple recognition amp feedback can be effective in increasing performance 0 Selfef cacy belief in ones capability to perform 0 Active practice actively participating in trainingwork tasks 0 Whole learning when entire task is practiced at once more effective when complex task has relatively high organization 0 Part Learning when subtasks are practiced separately amp later combined more effective when complex task has low organization 0 Massed Practice individuals practice task continuously amp without rest cramming for test 0 Distributed practice rest intervals bw practice session generally results in more efficient learning amp retention than masses practice 0 Apprenticeship training formal program used to teach a skilled trade 0 Distance Learning occur across multiple sites at once more affordable learning tailored alternative to live instruction 0 ComputerBased Training allow trainees to individualize their learning experience have more control over instruction 0 Horizontal Transfer taking what we learned in class amp transferringapply it to the actual job 0 Vertical Transfer transferring above or below the level you are at ie train employees 0 Quid pro quo sexual harassment 0 Communicate a 0 tolerance policy establish effective grievance process take immediate amp appropriate actions when employee complains 0 Coaching 0 Practical one on one goal oriented learning opportunities for professionals 0 Some focus on specific skills others focus on the whole person 0 Scoregains from coaching are small 0 O Informal Training include specific job assignments experiences amp activities outside work Specialized Training Programs Ethics Training appropriate approach likely to use both selection amp training to increase likelihood that employees will perform job ethically Cross Cultural Training CCT helping expatriates to adapt to new environment people who were over seas amp came back usually families impact this deisgned to prepare people to interect from one culture to another Cultural assimilator culturespecific learn specifically about assimilating to one culture culture generallearning specifically to assimilate to going to a different culture in general Symptoms of culture Shock homesickness irritability loss of ability to effectively work Class 121 Notes 0 Understand Concepts 0 Learning outcomes 0 Cognitive claritive knowledge understanding concepts 0 Skill based procedural knowledge 0 affective emotional outcomes picking up better attitudes ect Sub group norming create different pools to put population in ILLEGAL using diffemet norms to split people up Goal Orientation Mastery approach master content Performance approach demonstation confidence w performance Performance Avoid demonstate lack of incompetence not in book horizontal transfer learn material amp tranfers actual content to job vertical transferring leadership skills transfer up amp down to others Training meets analysis Organ meets anaylsis Task meets anaylsis People meet anaylsis which people can perform behaviors Utility anaylisis look top performers amp What economic impact they have on organization identify the KSAs they have amp apply it to other workers Demonstate economic impact training system has
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