Final Exam Guide
Final Exam Guide HIST 1500 - 01
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HIST 1100 - 01
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by William Bartek on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1500 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Autumn Dolan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Discovering World History in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
History 1500 Final Exam Guide Byzantium and the Rise of Islam Empire at War Justinian (527 – 565) Emperor of Constantinople o Wants to reunite east and west o Kicked Vandals out of North Africa Gothic Wars (535 – 554 CE) o War to kick Goths out of Rome o Devastates the countryside and bankrupts Justinian Sassanian Dynasty still warring in the east Justinian Nika Revolt – Green v Blue; Jesus is divine and human v. he is only divine Empress Theodora reaffirmed Justinian to quell the revolt Tries to turn Constantinople into Christian capital of the world o Hagia Sophia built by Justinian Roman Law Age of codifications – writing down and discussing laws Corpus Juris Civilis – body of civil law; like a textbook o Digest – History of classical law o Code – The laws themselves Institutions – How to teach laws in schools Holds legacy for medieval and American law Trade & Politics Prosperous urban life Imperial control on the economy Limits of prosperity on the lower class Byzantine court is complicated & underhanded – think King’s Landing in Game of Thrones Eastern Church Intelligentsia preserved, but philosophy of Greece is abandoned Greek Orthodox Church Language – After Justinian, no emperors spoke Latin; churches switch to Greek Patriarch – Bishop of Constantinople is religious leader; under thumb of emperor Iconoclasm – “Icon bashing”; worshipping icons is wrong Rise of Islam 5th & 6th c. Arabia Tribal Society – Bedouins Polytheistic with Allah as one supreme God over others Ka’ba – meteor used as religious center of Allah Muhammad (570 – 632 CE) Revelation that Arabs need to be monotheistic Mecca and Medina Hijra, 622 CE – Beginning of Muslim calander; Muhammed recognized as prophet Conquering of Mecca (630 CE) Becomes Islamic center after conquering Teachings 5 Pillars of Islam Shahada (Testimony of Faith) Salat (Praying 5 times a day towards Mecca) Zakat (almsgiving) Saum (Fasting) Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) Jihad – Internal struggle to follow pillars as well as outward struggle to spread Islam Succession Crisis Abu Bakr (573 – 634) and Ali (599 – 661) Divide between who should lead after Muhammed fuels Sunni and Shi’ite feud Carolingian and Abbasid Societies Rise of the Carolingians Tours, 732 – Charles Martel (686 – 741), a wealthy local lord, stopped Muslim expansion in Spain/France Pepin the Short, son of Martel, wants kingship Franco-Papal Alliance – Pope agrees Pepin should have royal authority, but he must help the pope get rid of Lombards in Rome Pepin flushes out the Lombards and ends up giving the papacy all the lands he conquered Charlemagne (r. 768 – 814) Great military mind and only living son of Pepin Carolingian Conquests Border wars gains land and power to the east and north Expansion was critical to stability – Lords too busy fighting to turn against the king Christianization – 20 year fight for Christian dominance, especially against Saxons Imperial Coronation Pope Leo III seeks help from Charlemagne After helping, the pope crowns Charlemagne emperor of Rome Irene in Constantinople is offended at this, as she thinks she is emperor through Justinian Carolingian Renaissance Palace culture at Aix-Chapelle Classical renewal of art and architecture Age of Correctio Intellectual circles created new grammar and corrected old texts Carolingian rule – sending out laws and edicts everywhere Missi dominici – Officials sent to enforce the new laws and edicts He is rex (king) and sacerdus (priest) all in one Carolingian Society Peasantry mainly farmers who’re disconnected from Charlemagne and his laws Commerce and trade reviving and lively in this period Evidence of global exchange – Abbasids, Vikings, global slave trade Abbasid Caliphate Overthrow of Umayyads because of exclusivity Umayyad’s become Caliphate of Cordoba Baghdad is made new capital Caliph has two roles: Emir – Military leader and heretic smiter Oversight – Uphold fair trade and law Allows scholars to preach Islam instead of the caliph Abbasid Society and Culture Inclusive of outsiders Literary culture – “Arabian Nights” written during this time Translation movement from Greek to Arabic Bayt Al-Hikma (House of Wisdom) – believed to be a library or early school of some sort Allowed circles of intellectuals to gather and discuss world issues Invasion, Feudal Relations, and Commercial Developments Age of Invasion Muslims building caliphate and sacking most of the Mediterranean Magyars – Roaming horsemen push into western territory, eventually settle down Vikings transform northern European kingdoms with raids Viking World We know about the Vikings due to Tacitus, Cassiodorus, and Procopius Society o Runic alphabet suited for carving into stone o Unique religion and world view – Ragnarok, Asgard o Warrior class celebrated, but still had aristocrat (Jarls), farmer, and slave classes Expansion o Reasons Demographic overpopulation Political push for kingship made losing factions leave or face death Religious frustration with Charlemagne’s Christianization Raided economic centers with little protection, such as monastaries Their boats were revolutionary in their attacks as they were fast and could utilize shallow rivers to raid further inland than other boats could List of attacks: o Lindisfarne, 793 – Northern English monastery o Nourmautier, 799 – French monastery o Paris, 834 – Carolingians can’t stop Viking advances o Seville, 844 – Spanish town under Caliphate of Corduba; Vikings caught and ransomed Political Effects: England Invasions encourage unification and centralization Alfred the Great of Wessex – Pushed back against the Vikings, created unified army, paid tribute to stop attacks Danelaw gets adopted into Anglo-Saxon law North Sea Empire gets formed under one king ruling over England, Norway, and Denmark Political Effects: France Louis the Pious dies Treaty of Verdun divides his land between his three sons Local strongmen come together to fight off Vikings due to no help from Carolingians Rollo (860 – 932) – Viking turned strongman to protect Normandy from other attacks Feudal Relations Vassal – Pays fealty to a lord for protection Lord – serves the interest of his vassals May give his vassals a fief of land to work on for their loyalty Public ritual Homage from vessel to lord Lord pays investiture into vassal One complication is subinfeudation Vassals held multiple lords with multiple loyalties, confusing things Agricultural Revolution Technological advances with plows and animal power Farming techniques revolutionized – 3 field system Two fields are worked while one recovers its nutrients for the next season Peasant Life Peasants all share everything Serfs have more rights – can go to court, marry, own property A population explosion begins, causing more people to move to the cities instead of staying on the manor Commercial Revolution Cities grow dramatically because of urbanization Economic development spurs as a result Guilds connect tradesmen of the same craft all in one community Medieval Kingship and Rule Ottonian Empire Eastern Francia 5 main duchies Royal elections Expansion under Otto I – Similar to Charlemagne Otto the Great Military defeats Magyars and gains a lot of reputation Feudal relations across a diverse empire through a papal alliance Bishops are his vassals Eigenkirchen – “Own Church” Ottonian women mainly entered monasteries, building great images of Ottonian men Adopted Franco-Papal ties Otto takes the power of choosing the Pope Capetian France Feudal competition from strong nobles Royal brand – building distinct differences between noble power and kingship Homage ritual with vassalage King protects churches and the poor – used as an excuse to bring royal authority into lesser kingdoms and gain power Succession – By luck or genetics, managed to always produce a son for many generations Anglo-Norman England William of Normandy conquers England from Normandy Feudal relations already present in England Tenants-in-chief have one lord – prevents subinfeudation Domesday Book – an exact measurement of all property in England; exact reasons are unknown William’s sons push for more administrative kingship English law becomes more prominent, mirroring Roman law Challenges come up, such as succession issues as well as clashes of church and kingship Angevin “Empire” Anarchy after William dies and Henry I died without a son Nephew Steven gets crowned instead of Henry’s daughter Matilda Henry II, Matilda’s son, strikes deal with Steven, he gets kingship after Steven dies Henry marries Eleanor of Aquitaine, ex-wife of his nemesis Louis VII Family Feud and Feudal War Henry II and his sons – Richard Lionheart, King John, etc. John raises taxes to pay Richard’s debts, making enemies easily Main foe is Phillip II Feudal bonds broken by John start a war with Phillip Feudal War John loses at Battle of Bouvines Monarchy and Feudal Negotiations John and his barons Magna Carta – John signs it against his will, Pope says it is illegitimate Provisions of Oxford o Louis IX was gonna hear both sides, but ruled in favor of himself instead of the people Representative Assemblies Gain power through growing urban centers English parliament French Estates General Holy Roman Empire German Diet Southern and Eastern Europe Italy Rise of city-states German and papal wars Medieval Russia Byzantine turn towards eastern religion and culture Administration – sons inherit parts of the kingdom from their fathers Diplomacy becomes a big factor – marrying daughters off to western lords Church Reforms and Papal Monarchies Caesaropapism through the Ages Constantine – Emperor had governance over bishops Doctrine of 2 swords – Religious sword ruled better than the secular sword Charlemagne – Crowned emperor by the pope Otto – Ottonians intervene in papal politics 10th c. Church Feudal lords often abused church lands due to their wealth and high office positions Simony – selling of church positions for profit Papacy most corrupt of them all 11th c. Church Reforms Peace of God Movement Grassroots movement from the people works its way from bottom to top Papacy begins to take reforms Benedict IX resigned and appointed a substitute, then took over later when they didn’t do a good job Henry III – marches on Rome and appoints 3 popes because the first 2 get murdered Leo IX took papal reforms on the road in Frankia to appeal to the people and get away from the assassins in Rome Papal Reforms Deposed corrupt bishops and lords who were practicing simony Requested that members of the church begin abstaining from sex Requests that lord/vassal relationship be kept away from members of the church Independence of imperial control – created counsel of cardinals to elect the next popes Investiture Controversy Gregory VII comes after Leo dies – butts heads with Henry IV Dictatus Papae – Pope’s authority over emperors Concordat of Worms – new pope and emperor call a truce after Gregory & Henry’s deaths Bishops can have separate church lands and feudal lands England and France Henry II and Thomas of Beckett – Henry kills him to regain church power John & Pope Innocent the III – Innocent interdicts England (countrywide excommunication) John makes peace with the Pope after realizing he needed him for the war with France Phillip II and Innocent III – Pope refuses a divorce for Phillip II Papal Monarchy Innocent III Papal bureaucracy Fourth Lateran Council – Outlines proper church guidelines Crusades and the Translation Movement Relations before the Crusades Umayyad expansion brought Muslims and Franks in close proximity Jerusalem held both Christians and Jews Mediterranean Sea is very active and dynamic encounters Building Tensions Cordoba Caliphate begins persecuting Christians, pushing them north Northern Africa breaks up into smaller caliphates; also persecute Christians Egypt: Fatamid Caliphate Al Hakim (r. 996 – 1021) massacred Christians in Jerusalem Mediterranean rivalries Sicily controlled by Muslims Italian city-states take to seas for trade Byzantium and Pressures in the East Seljuk Turks convert to Islam and push west Leader takes the name of Sultan Battle of Manzikert, 1071 – Byzantines crushed by the Turks Call to Crusade Alexius I calls for aid from Christians brothers Urban II, pope competing for power, likes this because it will legitimize him Praised Frankish superiority, described Persian atrocities, Greeks need protection, the crusade will end feudal violence, and crusades will cleanse them of all their sins Pilgrimage Logistics Risks: o Very expensive o Political risk o Death Crusade Realities Popular response among peasants as well as lords Peasant’s Crusade under Peter the Hermit First Crusade (1095 – 1099) – Retake Jerusalem, massacre everyone Latin Crusader States Defense focus due to lack of troops from Europe Administration centered on leniency and diplomacy Muslims happy with this Arab alliances made or broke certain states Crusades Second Crusade (1145 – 1149) – Absolute failure, Louix the Pious messes it up Third Crusade (1189 – 1192) – Richard strikes treaty with Muslims Albigensian Crusade (1209 – 1229) – Ordered by Innocent III to persecute heretics Spanish Reconquista Cordoba Caliphate and Al-Andalus Islamicization Mozarabs – “Christian subjects of the muslims” Jews become translators and copiers Shifting borders ends in 1942 w/ Ferdinand and Isabella Translation Movement Islamic libraries and schools become popular Translation teams fiercely productive Texts Science and math perfected in this era Philosophy more controversial of challenging Allah Translation Movement Westward Gerbert of Aurillac (d. 1003) – Redefined mathematics Gerard Cremana (1114 – 1187) – Translation workshops Adelard of Bath (c. 1180 – 1152) – Balances philosophy with religion 12th c. Renaissance and the Rise of Universities Material Culture Cuisine by the 14th c. Spices and foods from India make their way over Drinks and alcohol started popping up Textiles came over such as silk 12th c. Renaissance Literacy changes 1050: 1% of population can read In next 40 years half the men in urban centers can read Monastic schools useful for learning, but very exclusive Limitations on who can get in and what you can learn Reforms to withdraw from all this new wealth o Cistercians wanted to escape urban life o Bernard of Clairvaux (1090 – 1153) Cathedral Schools (1050 – 1153) Development associated with secular church to train clergy Spread rapidly across Europe Format Master Lectures on spiritual authority Disputations – debates using logic Rise of Scholasticism Peter Abelard (1079 – 1142) – Arrogant intellectual Dialectic – Medieval idea of logic and reason Speculative theology and scholasticism Sic et Non – “yes and no”; book of theological questions with no answers Peter Lombard’s Sentences same as Sic et Non but with answers Legal Renaissance Secular law Corpus Juris Civilis Systematic approach Canon law Gratian’s Decretum – Representative of streamlining old documents and evolve bureaucracy Rise of Universities Universitas – guilds for intellectuals Bologna, 1158 – student guild Salerno Paris, 1200 – center of theology University Life Studies begin around age 15 Education focused on liberal arts Degrees after 5 years Invlusivity Expensive Women not allowed in universities until 19th c.; privately tutored by men Urban relations – students cause a lot of tension Scholastic Synthesis Aristotelian Corpus Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 1274) Thomism – Synthesis of Christian theology and aristotilian philosophy Natural order Grace made us better as people 12th c. Renaissance Vernacular language really takes off Chansons de geste Troubadors – singers of courtly love Crisis in the Later Middle Ages New Piety and New Order Holy family and humanization of Christ Mendicants took vows of poverty and preached to the people Dominicans descended into crowds to appease the impoverished with sermons Franciscans believed luxury was a sin and emphasized charity Alternative Devotions Women focused on being mendicants and were believed to hold a mystic connection with God Eucharistic veneration Avignon Papacy (1309 – 1378) Philip IV wants to tax churches Boniface VIII’s Unam Snactam states the Pope’s superiority over secular rulers Philip captures and beats Boniface to death; Papacy moves to Avignon Babylonian Captivity – Avignon “kidnapped” the papacy; sides were drawn Great Schism (1378 – 1414) Return to Rome, Pope immediately died Chaos descends as two rival popes fight for power Conciliation movement brought to resolve the pope fights Counsel of Constance (1414 – 1418) – Translate scripture to local languages Protests and Challenges Anti-Clericalism rises among the people John Wycliff (1320 – 1384) – Translate scripture to local languages Ethics of Salvation – if you aren’t ethical, you can’t reach salvation Jon Hus (1369 – 1415) – Egalitarian; burned as a heretic Modern devotion Clerics and laymen Imitation of Christ Intellectual Shift Scholastic synthesis Condemnation of 1277 denounces reason, saying it was diluting God’s image William of Ockham – God’s power was unlimited and not bound by reason Truth isn’t necessary for everything; allows focus on God’s power Black Death Famine 25% of European population wiped out Collapsed medieval society Government gained power and authority through disaster relief Eastern Pressures Mongolian expansion o 1206: Genghis Khan o Lightning strikes by horse archers Ottoman expansion Turks and Mongols lead attacks against Byzantium Mehmed II (1451 – 1481) uses cannons to capture Constantinople; ends Byzantine Empire The Renaissance Hundred Years’ War (1337 – 1453) Long term causes: England/France tensions going back to 1066 Short term causes: Succession crisis in France; only male in the line was the king of England French use Salien Law to prevent Edward III from being both king of England and France Early battles favored the English Longbow advantage Later battles turn towards the French Joan of Arc (1412 – 1431) War technology – cannons and artillery changed warfare French win the war, begin a budding sense of nationalism Renaissance Italy Rise of republicanism Florence Cosimo de’ Medici (1389 – 1464) – governs Florence under a republican façade Lorenzo the Magnificent (1469 – 1492) o Cosimo’s son who blows all the family’s money on himself o Ends Medici rule of Florence Venice o Cosmopolitan (internationally accepting) o Overseas colonies lead to a rise in slavery and Greek influence into Europe o Government – Doge elected for life Principalities After Avignon Papal princes Dynastic control – using family for political power o Pope Alexander VI (1492 – 1503) Julius II “Warrior Pope” used his army in war Lose touch of what the title of Pope represents Renaissance Rome Take great patronage of the arts in Rome Leo X recreated Rome with Renaissance arts – Remastered the Basilica Renaissance Family Patriarchal family Marriages mostly political; large gaps between husbands and wives Death in childbirth and infant mortality rate very high Intellectual Shifts Humanism – emphasis on civic duty and ethics Philology and Rhetoric Francesco Petrarch – You can persuade men to be good Lorenzo Valla – Opens eyes of historians to truth behind medieval history Philosophy and Religion Neoplatanism resurges to connect material to the divine Hermeticism becomes a popular way to reach enlightenment Pantheism – God is in all of nature, including humans Loops back to humanism; if God is in humans, then human actions are divine Ethics and Education Civic humanism Education developed the humanities into what we know them as today Renaissance man and woman focused on Leon Battista Alberti – expert on almost anything through his wide education Renaissance Science Astronomy one of largest advancements Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 – 1543) Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642) Visual theory Linear perspective: the way 3d paintings are created on 2d canvases Printing press provides launch points for new ideas to a wide audience The Reformation Early Modern State Italian Wars (1494 – 1530) Prerequisites to power change Standing army Tons of money More organization than a city-state system can provide Modern political theory Niccolo Machiavelli wrote rules on what a prince should be, titled “The Prince” Monarchies on the Rise State system Military foundational to rule Taxation necessary to fund large states Kings squelch the power of popular assemblies as monarchies rise Aristocracy also put down to not pose a threat Ambassadors become prominent in gathering intel to gain information on foreign states Foundations for Reformation Anti-clericalism was on the rise before Martin Luther entered the scene Millenarian Thinking: Concerns on the apocalypse Christian humanists argued ethics were more important than religion The printing press spread these new ideas to a larger audience Protestants pick up on the printing press more than Catholics do Martin Luther Background Son of a miner who wanted Martin to be a lawyer Martin educated well at university Took religious vows after a lightning strike near him Lutheran Theology Sin and salvation Concern of penance Didn’t believe in Theology of Works Justification by faith alone – no penance needed to get into heaven Lutheran Revolt Friar Tetzel starts collecting indulgences for the building of a church Luther responds by nailing his 95 Thesis on the castle door Church hierarchy threatened by Luther’s teachings If anyone can command their own faith, priests weren’t needed Politics of the Reformation Territorial Princes contributed greatly to Luther’s success Frederick of Saxony protected Luther many times Imperial Diet of Worms, 1521 – Luther tried by church; Frederick kidnaps him for his safety Appeal of Luther’s Message Urban classes more literate and wanted funds diverted to themselves instead of church Women took his message as a sexual revolution Luther did NOT want women to be included, however Peasants saw Luther’s message as a way to attack political complaints German Peasants’ War (1524 – 1525) Demand country convert, self-governance, and loss of power for nobles Luther hates the peasants and their message, calls for them to be put down Lutheran Success Charles V defeated Religious peace of Augsburg (1555) “He who owns the land decides the religion” Diversity of Protestantism Zurich Novel reforms on scripture and iconography Geneva John Calvin (1509 – 1554) City of God where leaders work together for a Christian community Predestination – certain people were born to get into heaven The Elect – those thought to be provided salvation People acted orderly to try and become part of the elect Age of Exploration English Reformation Henry VIII divorced his wife to gain an heir, creates his own church to do this Act of Supremacy Elizabethan Settlement – you go to church, but what you do at home is your own thing Catholic Reformation New order: soldiers of God Jesuits Reforms Inquisitions Council of Trent – defended Catholic Church from all the accusations of Protestants Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Before Europe existed strong African empires like Mali and Ethiopia European Exploration New technology Caravel – Portuguese ship that worked on both Atlantic and Mediterranean Compass Astrolabe – Determines latitude Portuguese Explorers Henry the Navigator – King that backed exploration trips Colonies in Africa Settler colony Plantation colony Asia before Europe Muslim travelers Ming China Portuguese in Asia Trading posts only thing available Factories – kept things smooth with locals Spice market very profitable Eastern influence on the west Americas Before Europe was a culturally diverse land with Aztecs, Mayans, and Incans Aztecs o Capital: Tenochtitlan o Emphasized warfare o Sacrifices necessary for religion Incans o Capital: Cuzco o Road networks set up o Many weaknesses European Voyages Christopher Columbus (1451 – 1506) Nautical Reckoning called into question Royal sponsorship from Isabella of Spain The New World Competition heats up Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) – Cuts up territory in the Americas European Conquest Fall of Aztecs and Incans Conquistadors – lower nobles who needed wealth for their family name Spanish Crown also incredibly interested Christianization Requerimiento – “Locals can covert or die” pamphlet handed out Transplanting European Culture Governance Encomienda – Estates with slave labor for Spanish profit Christianity mixed with local religion to create hybrids The cross’ image becomes misrepresented by natives Global Systems Columbian exchange Slave trade emergence from Africa Absolutism Intellectual Conflicts Aristotelian System challenged by New World discoveries Christian system Origin story doesn’t make sense Issue of dealing with new world people 2 Theories: o They’re subhuman – justified massacres o They’re innocent – opposes dehumanization of natives Cultural relativism – maybe we aren’t the greatest country in the world “A man with a beard will look down on those without facial hair as not being a true man” Early Modern Society Population finally recovering from the plague Urban boom Significant issue with poverty Economic Turmoil Price revolution with New World gold flooding the market Weakened governments due to financial instability Religious difference associated with this turmoil Fanatic – religious extremist French Wars of Religion (1560 – 1598) Huguenots take a lot of violence for their religion St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572) Edict of Nantes – Huguenots can form their own state Catholic Spain Phillip II Spain and England have a rocky relationship English privateers sack the coast of Spain Spanish Armada defeated by English navy, less than half make it back to Spain Rise of Absolutism Hobbes’s Leviathan “Sole legislator” Divine right protects kings’ right to rule Absolute Rule in France Louis XIII too young to rule, had Cardinal Richeliue rule in his stead Cardinal Richeliue contributed to rise of French Absolutism Reigns in the nobles Controls or shuts down Parlements Increases number of intendants (royal officials) One King, One Law, One Faith Louis XIV ruled alongside his minister Extends royal influence Tax reforms Mercantilism – finite wealth in the world, must control a majority of it Religion followed royal decree; French protestants shut down by army Culture of Absolutism Royal patronage Versailles Baroque style palace Cultural center Warfare (1667 – 1714) Purposes Territorial expansion Dynastic influence Results o Balance of powers switches to alliances o Financial crisis Rejection of Absolutism Great Britain Parliament holds taxes, causes problems for rulers Stuart kings Financial woes Divine Right rhetoric Religious tensions English Civil War Charles I Personal Rule – 11 years never using parliament New Model Army – Protestant Army decimates royalists Charles executed – first king executed by the people
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