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by: Elizabeth Ronecker

FINAL STUDY GUIDE HIST 1200 (History, Steven Watts, Survey of American History Since 1865)

Elizabeth Ronecker
GPA 3.5

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material from after the midterm
Survey of American History Since 1865
Steven Watts
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Ronecker on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1200 (History, Steven Watts, Survey of American History Since 1865) at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Steven Watts in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History Since 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 12/09/15
History  1200   Professor  Watts     Study  Guide  for  Final     Terms  in  order  of  the  lectures  after  the  midterm     Samuel  Insull,  Herbert  Hover,  Franklin  Delano  Roosevelt,  New  deal:  CCC,  PWA,  TVA,   SEC,  WPA,  NRA,  John  Maynard  Keynes,  “blue  eagle”,  “the  folk”,  Aaron  Copeland,   Thomas  Hart  Benton,  Woody  Guthrie     Dr.  Francis  Townsend,  Father  Charles  Coughlin,  Huey  Long,  Mike  Gold,  New  Masses,   partisan  review,  popular  front,  WPA,  Social  Security  Act,  Wagner  Act  (NLRA)     Benito  Mussolini,  Adolf  Hitler,  Munich  Pact,  German-­‐Soviet-­‐Non-­‐aggression  pact,   Isolation,  Internationalism,  “America  First”  committee,  lend  lease  act,  tri-­‐partie  act,   Pearl  Harbor,  D-­‐day,  Henry  Luce     Axis  powers,  appeasement,  neutrality,  Philip  K.  Wrigley,  “Rosie  the  Riveter”,  Nash   Kelvinator  Refrigerator,  Hoover  Vacuums,  Pond’s  face  cream,  Ballantine  Ale,  John   Hershey,  Office  of  war  information,  War  relocation  Authority,  “unconditional   surrender”,  Casablanca  conference,  “warfare  state”     Yalta  conference,  iron  curtain,  Truman  Doctrine,  Berlin  blockade,  containment,   Marshal  plan,  NATO,  Brinkmanship,  Dwight  D.  Eisenhower,  John  Foster  Dulles,  CIA,   Pentagon,  Korean  conflict,  HUAC,  Alger  Hiss,  the  Rosenbergs,  Joseph  McCarthy     Asphyxiation,  GI  Bill,  ITT,  the  interstate  highway  act,  AFL-­‐CIO,  Suburban  Ideal,  Baby   Boom,  Benjamin  Spock-­‐  “Baby  and  Child  Care”,  “Leave  it  to  Beaver”,  Westerns,  “I   Love  Lucy”,  Dwight  McDonald,  Elvis  Presley,  Beat  Generation     Peace  corps,  nuclear  test  ban,  Jim  crow  laws,  Martin  Luther  King  Jr.,  Brown  vs.  Board   of  Education,  Montgomery  Bus  Boycott,  March  on  Washington,  Freedom  rides,   Malcolm  X,  “Black  power”,  “Long  hot  summer”,  Blank  panthers,  Betty  Friedan,  The   Femistique  Mystique,  Feminism     Counterinsurgency,  Lyndon  B.  Johnson,  Domino  theory,  Defoliation,  Mekong  Delta   Campaign,  Viet  Cong,  SDS,  Woodstock,  Yippies,  Tet  offensive,  Eugene  McCarthy,   Robert  F.  Kennedy,  George  Wallace,  1968  Democratic  Convention     Richard  M.  Nixon,  Détente,  Watergate,  Gerald  Ford,  Jimmy  Carter,  Stagflation,  Iran   Hostage  crisis,  Ronald  Reagan,  The  new  Right,  the  moral  majority,  Family  Values,   Sun  Belts,  Mikhail  Gorbachev,  Solidarity,  Berlin  Wall         The  Great  Depression  I:  Challenging  the  American  way  of  life   • 1929,  stock  market  crashes  followed  by  a  depression  that  lasted  a  decade   • Three  big  problems     o Great  weakness  in  business  structure-­‐  2  main  industries-­‐>   automobiles  and  construction   o Distribution  of  wealth-­‐uneven   o Nature  of  the  international  market;  US  lent  money  to  Germany  to  pay   for  the  war  repercussions  which  was  being  given  to  Allies  which  in   return  was  given  to  the  US;  bad  cycle   § America  was  in  a  prosperity  bubble   • Samuel  Insull-­‐was  CEO  of  electric  company;  his  company  had  smaller   companies  and  those  smaller  companies  invested  in  each  other;  when   market  crashed  companies  declined   • There  was  an  atmosphere  of  failure  and  dread;  there  was  an  emotional   depression   • Herbert  Hoover-­‐tried  to  fix  the  economy;  never  really  understood  that   Americans  wanted  government  to  provide  and  protect   • FDR-­‐won  1932  election;  he  immediately  launches  programs     o New  Deal   § Goal  to  restore  consumer  ability   § Rebuild  of  finance     § Provide  relief  to  Americans   § Lots  of  acronyms-­‐work  projects       The  Great  Depression  II:  Demagogues,  Radicals  and  the  New  Deal   • FDR  gets  a  lot  of  support  because     o Instill  confidence  in  Americans   o Personality   o Volume  of  activities   • 1935,  unsettling  fact  that  the  depression  was  not  lifting   • A  lot  of  criticisms  from  demagogues  and  radicals     • Demagogues  got  support  from  upper  working  class  and  lower  middle  class   • Dr.  Francis  Townsend-­‐physician,  late  60s   o Argued  that  everyone  over  60  should  get  a  pension  from  the  US   government  each  mouth;  problem  never  clear  where  money  would   come  from   o Townsend  clubs   • Father  Charles  Coughlin-­‐Radio  priest;  radical   o Claims  that  wall  street  created  the  depression  on  purpose   o Anti-­‐Semitic   o Insists  banking  should  be  public   • Huey  Long-­‐theatric  Louisiana  governor   o Old  fashion  populist   o Political  machine     o Tries  to  run  for  president  but  is  assassinated     • Radical  dissent  came  from  the  west  and  socialists   • Radicals  suggest  that  capitalism  is  almost  over   • Mike  Gold,  New  Masses,  Partisan  Review,  popular  front-­‐criticize  capitalism   • The  Second  New  Deal-­‐WPA,  SSA,  NLRA     World  War  II:  the  international  crisis   • The  rise  of  fascism   • Depression  hit  Europe  as  well   • Italy  has  Mussolini     • Germany  has  Hitler   • Japan  is  also  a  fascism   • All  3  of  these  fascism  as  common   o Authoritarian   o Intense  nationalism-­‐>  mythic  destiny  (1000  year  reich,  Roman   empire)   o Racial  explicitly-­‐>  inferior  ethnic  groups   • Leads  to  WWII   o Hitler  expanding   o Allies  try  to  please  Hitler;  it  fails   o Munich  conference   • American  really  wanted  isolation  and  neutrality     • Lend-­‐lease  act,  tri-­‐party  party   • Pearl  Harbor  sends  US  to  war   • D-­‐Day  pushes  Germany  back   • 1945  war  ends     World  War  II:  Reaffirming  the  American  way  of  life   • War  painted  as  a  war  of  liberation,  save  Europe  and  the  world   • Need  to  acknowledge  problems  that  came  with  war   o US  was  never  all  that  sensitive  to  Jewish   o There  was  no  secret  that  that  Nazi  party  was  an  expansionist  party   • Links  Great  Depression  to  war   o Gave  American  men  a  place  in  the  war  and  the  world  that  had  been   missing     o The  war  revived  American  prosperity     o Common  purpose-­‐Americans  to  join  together  in  a  crusade     • There  was  a  crusade  for  comfort   • FDR  trying  to  get  congress  to  deficit  spending   • Rosie  the  Riveter  and  getting  women  to  work   • Phillip  K.  Wrigley,  Nash  Kevinator  refrigerators,  Hoover  Vacuum,  Pond’s  face   cream-­‐business  linking  products  to  war   • War  industry   • War  relocation  authority   • Unconditional  surrender   The  Cold  War:  the  paranoid  style  at  home  and  abroad   • Cold  war  begins  1940   • Yalta  conference-­‐  intense  negotiations  with  the  ally  leaders   • When  war  ended,  mood  of  cooperation  ended  and  mood  of  suspicion  and   hostility  arouse  between  US  and  USSR   • Events  in  Eastern  Europe   o Free  elections  didn’t  happen   o Red  army  never  left   o The  governments  created  were  puppet  governments   o Other  countries  are  unhappy   • Iron  curtain,  Truman  Doctrine,  Berlin  Blockade   • Containment   o Marshall  plan   o NATO   o Brinksmanship     • New  kind  of  war;  psychological  war  that  involves  long  term  standoff  and   wills   o CIA  and  Pentagon   • Korean  Conflict   • Anti-­‐communist  movement   o HUAC,  Alger  Hiss,  McCarthy       Suburban  Sprawl:  Society  and  Sensibility  in  the  1950s   • Americans  were  feeling  asphyxiation   • Abundance  describes  American  life   • Behind  the  stereotypes,  there  were  things  to  push  the  suburbs   o GI  Bill,  The  interstate  Highway  Act,  ITT   • Suburban  Ideal-­‐huge  trends  in  1950s   o Levittown   o  Re-­‐capture  some  traditions  of  rural  life   o Place  of  consumerism   o Abstract  idea  of  privacy   • Baby  boom  and  Dr.  Spock’s  Baby  and  child  Care   • TV  culture   o Family  dimension   o Stay  at  home   o Conformity  of  American  family     o Advertisement     o Showed  values  of  the  1950s     Age  of  Rebellion  I:  the  Civil  Rights  Movement  and  Women’s  movement   • 1960,  against  conformity  and  consumerism   • JFK  election  was  a  big  win   o Breathe  of  fresh  air   o Nuclear  test  ban   • JFK  assassination  turned  the  world  upside  down   • Black  equality  fought  for  because     o Thousands  of  black  men  and  women  served  during  the  war   o High  black  employment   o Ideological  factor-­‐war  against  fascism  had  been  seen  as  was  against   racial  doctrines     • Martin  Luther  king  jr,  Brown  vs.  Board  of  Education,  Montgomery  bus   boycott,  freedom  rides,  March  on  Washington   • There  was  a  certain  portion  of  the  black  population  that  was  frustrated  with   non-­‐violence   o Malcolm  X,  Black  power,  Black  Panthers,  “Long  Hot  Summers”   • Women  were  upset  with  consumerism  and  conformity   • Contributed  to  women’s  movement   o Jobs  and  employment   o Divorce  rate  climb   o Birth  control   o Betty  Freidan,  The  Femine  Mystique     Age  of  Rebellion  II:  Vietnam  and  the  counterculture     • 1968  was  the  height  of  the  division   • 1960s,  JFK  tried  counterinsurgency-­‐lower  amount  of  atomic  weapons,   specialists  to  teach  how  to  fight  in  Vietnam,  technology     • Lyndon  B.  Johnson  became  president  after  JFK’s  assassination   o Domino  theory-­‐if  Vietnam  fell  to  communism  then  it  would  be  the  1   domino  in  a  track  of  all  other  countries   • Patterns  in  Vietnam  start  to  show-­‐>  the  difference  between  reality  and   expectation   o Military  believes  that  war  will  be  won  with  technology   § Defoliation,  search  and  destroy,  Mekong  Delta  Campaign   § Not  easily  won  because  of  guerilla  tactics   o Idea  that  Americans  would  rally  behind  the  war   § Reality  Americans  had  many  problems  with  the  war   • A  lot  of  protests  rose   o SDS-­‐students  for  Democratic  Society   • Counterculture   o Yippies,  Woodstock,  anti-­‐war  movement   • 1968     o MLK  jr  assassinated   o The  Tet  offense  in  Vietnam   o Robert  F.  Kennedy  assassinated   o LBJ  announces  he  is  not  running  for  re-­‐election   o Democratic  Convention         The  Great  Retrenchment:  America  Since  the  1960s   • Since  1968,  the  country  has  been  deeply  divided   • Questioning  life   • Great  retrenchment-­‐  many  Americans  after  the  protests  and  other  divisions   in  the  country  step  back  to  reorient  themselves  with  previous  ideals  like   consumerism,  corporate  liberalism,  self-­‐fulfillment   • Richard  Nixon   o Republican     o Anti-­‐radical,  anti-­‐hippie,  pro-­‐  middle  class   o He  was  not  people  expected  when  he  got  into  office   o He  was  very  flexible  on  his  foreign  and  domestic  policies   o More  of  a  moderate   o Mainstream  corporate  liberalism   o Made  government  regulate  and  have  price  controls  with  the  inflation   o Tried  to  negotiate  with  North  Vietnam     o Détente     § Was  able  to  have  talks  with  Red  China  and  got  it  recognized  by   the  United  Nations   o Watergate  was  his  downfall   o 1974,  He  resigns  as  president   • Gerald  Ford   o Becomes  president  after  the  issues  with  Nixon  and  his  VP   o Moderate   o Pardons  Nixon  which  angers  people   o Runs  into  problems  with  economy   o LBJ  called  him  dumb  and  it  stuck   • Jimmy  Carter   o Democrat,  runs  as  the  fixer   o Has  to  deal  with  2  big  problems   § Stagflation   § Iranian  Hostage  Crisis   § Was  not  able  to  manage  either  of  these  well   • Ronald  Reagan   o Formally  a  Hollywood  star   o Republican   o Product  of  a  larger  movement     • Conservative  movements   o New  Right   o Moral  Majority   o Sunbelt     • End  of  the  cold  war   o Communism  and  USSR  fell  because  USSR  couldn’t  afford  the  military   spending  to  offset  the  US  military  spending   o Communism  fell  in  Eastern  Europe  because  of  dissent;  Poland  and   solidarity   o Mikhail  Gorbachev  was  a  new  kind  of  leader  was  able  to  loosen  the   economy  of  Russia   o Ended  up  not  being  able  to  control  it     o Tore  the  berlin  wall  down   o Only  three  communist  countries  left  at  the  end   o The  conflict  of  West  Vs.  East  went  away  and  stopped  dominating  the   global  affairs       Watts’s  emphasis  on  big  ideas     § Look  at  time  a  little  before  1920s-­‐>  consumerism,  corporate   liberalism,  self-­‐fulfillment,  bureaucracy     § Changes  in  the  way  of  life-­‐>  life  after  Great  Depression   o After  fascism   o WWII   o Voices  of  protest   § Reaffirmation  of  American  life   o Welfare  state  and  FDR   o WWII   § Crusade  for  comfort   o All  shook  up   § 1960s-­‐  upheaval   o Revolt  against  mainstream   o Civil  rights   o Vietnam   o Rumor  of  War   § Retrenchment   o See  Americans  pull  back  tot  traditions                              


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