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Final Exam Study Guide
Professor Richard Taflinger
A note from professor Taftlinger: The exam is half comprehensive and half the material you have been learning since the last exam. That material includes ethics, contact hypothesis (how it works and why its there), and the laws/regulations and their effects. You should also know the different supreme court decisions that were made. You need to know the influences on the media and what they mean. As far as people go: you only need to know people without whom the media they made would not exist, in other words, the people who had the original genius to create the new media. Also know how these different medias (radio, tv, movies, ect.) affected society. Finally, for the media theories, you should only pay attention to the theories that were discussed in class. Don’t be nervous (yet)!
There are several channels of communications:
- Chemical: communications through chemicals
- Pheromones: these are molecules of sent that can be picked up to send messages. For example, insects do this during mating season to attract a mate and communicate that they are ready to mate
- Visual: This is a visual display (something that can be seen) to convey a message
- Aurally (sound): noises or sound vibrations that communicate something
The primary way of human communication is talking. Talking is the intricate manipulation of oral sound to convey meaning. If you want to learn more check out plextr
The purpose of communication is to connect with other members of the same species (other humans).
Why communications is important:
o Safety in numbers – means less of a chance of being picked off o Being the biggest and strongest
Hominids had neither natural weapons nor numbers. What they did have was cooperation, they banded together (in small bands) so they had to communicate survival strategies. Because they did not show by example they had to make words to talk it out first. Hunters in the animal kingdom (wolf, lions, etc.) tend to cooperate, but only on the hunt. Humans did not have packs and they did not hunt. They had to talk, so they created a mutual support group.
- Reproduction: This is not as strait forward for humans as it is for other animals. People choose partners based on other’s communication and if they like the way they communicate.
- To bind groups together: This is a way of helping an organism (people or animals, ect.) know they belong to a group and identify those who are not part of the group. Humans like to use language that shows they are a part of a certain group. This does not have to be language it can also be dialect, such as the southern accent. If you want to learn more check out psy 101 exam 3 asu
People have to translate what they here, decode it into something they understand, and then translate their thoughts/response into something that they can reply with.
- Meanings of words in the literal sense
- Usually have a concrete reference
Connotative (applies to almost everything, especially things that are not physical objects):
- Personal definition of the word (not literal)
o What the word means to the individual
o Sometimes there is a strong emotional element ( the feelings that apply to the word)
o Abstract (not concrete)
- Sometimes problems arise when someone thinks someone else has the same definition for an abstraction that they have.
It is not the media who creates the definitions of beauty, it simply follows culture’s definition of beauty.
A problem for mass media is that the sender of the mass media (such as a TV show producer) is that it is difficult to get feedback/ response for their messages. Thus they are conservative and repeat the same kinds of media over and over because it was successful once (such as ideas for TV shows or movies. Think of how many doctor shows there are, or vampire movies). If you want to learn more check out statistics 201
It is important because if we are not media literate we cannot understand what the media are doing for/to us.
- It is the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and process messages that come from the media Don't forget about the age old question of efficiency is accomplishing tasks that help fulfill organizational objectives.
- The US produces the most media, but is, however, the least media literate of the countries
- It is a continuum rather than a category (from Low to High)
- High Literacy = the ability to actively process the message and put it into context, more control over the interpretation of the message Don't forget about the age old question of isogomy
- Low Literacy = not consciously processing the message, more likely to just accept the message at face value rather than interpret it.
- Someone who is media literate has the skill of critical thinking, enabling them (the audience) to develop independent judgments about media content.
- Someone who is media literate understands the process of mass communication (written to be read vs. written to be said)
- Someone who is media literate has an awareness of the impact of media on the individual and society, as well as the ability to enjoy, understand, and appreciate media content.
Third Person Effect: This when people think they are not affected by the media but they think everyone else is so they complain about the media. For example: “well violence in video games doesn’t make me thing violent thoughts, but it must make other people think violence is ok, therefore the media is affecting them badly.” This was proposed by W. Philips Davidson (1983).
- Perceptual component
- Message desirability (pro – or antisocial)
- Overestimate the effects on others
Social Distance Corollary:
- The more general/ social distant “other” leads to larger perceived effects o Lower class “others” are more likely to be effected
Importance of perceived exposure:
- “others” are estimated due to perceived exposure We also discuss several other topics like mcm study guides
Linking 3rd person perception to support for censorships:
o Violent TV Content
o Violent and misogynistic rap and death metal lyrics in music
- People support censorship because they assume people are being affected by this content
- There is no evidence from any of this, it is just someone using anecdotal evidence
Qualitative Analysis of media messages:
Qualitative: trying to find out potential effects on the audience, because of how they will receive it.
Critical Theories: Help us to understand how audiences perceive a message
1. Semiotics – the science of signs and symbols
o Looks at how people create and understand signs and symbols in order to comprehend communications
o Trying to figure out how people know what symbols mean, who will interpret a sign and why they will
o What does a symbol mean to those who see it
o Takes a media message apart, breaks it into pieces, they try to understand what those pieces mean, and then put them back together to understand what the target audience will interpret the whole message as.
o “symbolic interactionism” is another term for semiotics 2. Psychoanalysis (“psychoanalytic theory”):
o Examines the way in which mass media messages influence the audience’s social rules in order to suppress instinctive antisocial impulses
o Freud was the first to come up with this
o Id: selfish, only about you, nothing else matters
o Superego: about everyone else except you
o The id and the superego fighting against each other, id is self centered and only concerned with avoiding discomfort at all costs. The superego counters the id, the superego is learned so that the superego keeps the id in check so that the person is socially acceptable. Those who don’t have a superego do not follow the rules of society and this is where psychopaths come from. Id and superego simply react to the situation. No one has the same superego as another person. Trapped between the id and the superego is the ego, which is the combination of the id and superego. Tries to balance the demands of id and superego which tells you what you're going to do for real
o Looks at the balance of the id and superego. So many rules from our superego comes from the media
o Who you are is the balance of id’s demands and the superego’s demands
o Every form of media tries to reinforce the superego except for advertising which tries to get the id stimulated without getting the superego involved
o All about the subconscious mind to influence conscious behavior 3. Sociological Analysis (the most common):
o Comes in many forms that have evolved over the years
o 500+ kinds
The Neoaristotelian analysis:
- All stories had elements in common:
o Action- something needs to happen to be interesting, there are certain parts that have to be there such as exposition (what
audience needs to know to understand the story, the universe in which the story happens, when, where, basic starting point.
Establishes an equilibrium). Next there is a problem (something throws off the equilibrium, everything in the rest of the story is
about fixing the problem) in stories there is only one problem there is. Next there is the Crisis (the solution is applied, often it is the wrong solution and makes the problem worse) which allows the story to continue because it creates a complication (obstacle to solving the problem, keeps getting in the way) most stories more than 15 seconds have multiple complication and crisis. Finally, there is the climax - ultimate crisis, where the protagonist finds the
solution and it is over. Finally, there is the denouement where it illustrates the universe back in balance.
o Character- agents who carry out the action, there are two words which are vital to storytelling. Every character wants something, and each one wants something different.
o Conflict - because the character wants something and each
character wants something different, they are constantly in conflict with every other character. Without the conflict there is no story, the problem starts the conflict, the climax is the resolution of the problem, and thus ends the conflict.
o Thought - why they story is being told in the first place. Sometimes this influences what the audience’s reality. Most stories use the rules of society they are written for to inforce them.
o Diction/ Music/ Spectacle - How the story is told, diction = the words used and how they're said for example characters of a certain
status might speak in a way that conveys that whereas characters who are supposed to be "dumb" have an accent that conveys that (such as a southern accent), music = what we hear, including music and sound effects, spectacle = what is seen, including setting,
lighting, costumes, make-up, relationships, angles, etc. (they
Why is this important?
- Humans do not live in reality
- Humans tell stories about reality and that is how we understand everything we know
- We want to understand things in a “clean” way and stories are clean when reality is messy
- Humans have a great sense of the past, present, and future. We can remember the past, apply it to the present to project the future. Stories give us the magic of life:
- Three kinds of magic:
o Magic of nature: things we see every day (ex: The Grand Canyon) o Spells: saying you want something and it happens (ex:
“abracadabra, and “please”)
o Technology: How does it work? Do you really know? (ex: cell phones)
What is a society?
- It is a shared, learned, symbolic system of values, belief and attitude that shapes and influences perception and behavior
- All groups which get together have the same basic values and world views (ex: Christians vs. Jews, republicans vs. democrats)
- They are a shared perception of reality
Ways of knowing:
- Tradition: a belief that has lasted for a long time, this is hard to change after someone believes something (ex: eating turkey on thanksgiving) - Authority: someone (who should know) says so, hard to change and may not consider new info (ex: a doctor’s diagnosis)
- Intuition or Logic: where the truth is self-evident
Problems with “everyday” ways of knowing things:
- Filters how info is processed: false premise, illogical reasoning - Everyday ways of knowing can lead to conflict ideas about “truth”: belief in two completely contradictory things at once
Why bother with societies and culture:
- Humans are weak
- Societies are mutual support packs: sociability mutual support/protection packs
- Rules are designed to keep friction at bay between different opinions
- As more rules are added the freedom of the individual is limited more and more for the benefit of the group
Print and Journalism:
- News had always driven the plot of people’s social stories
- Events would have to be put into context of the social story
- Often in the old world this was explained in religion: if something bad happened it was because the gods were displeased
- In general people did not used to care about the outside world unless it got too close to them
- Printing was invented, so new sheets were published. These were not for average people, they were for rich people. Therefore, they contained information that would be of interest to people with money, and this information was to help them make more money.
- In the 19th century newspapers began being printed for normal people. - News became a very large part of the world view.
- Newspapers had no pretense of objectivity.
- In 1833 the Sun was the first newspaper everyone could afford. The Penny Press, where the price was a penny and most people could afford it. - Canons of journalism and statement of principles 1923
- Today the same thing exists, the newspaper provides the information and facts, and each person forms their own opinion.
What is News?
- The definition is fuzzy
- Criteria for newsworthiness:
o Timeliness – hearing about something in time to do something about it o Proximity – how close the news is to you, and how major to your area o Prominence – what makes someone prominent is that they are reported on, but this is problematic
o Consequence – for it to be news it should affect people so they can make an informed decisions about what is being reported on
o Rarity – an event being out of the norm, these are unusual
o Human interest – what people have interest in, often have no consequences in the real world
- Another definition: this is a matter of opinion on what is important, individual to each person and what is important in their world
Problems with Objectivity:
- Not everyone agrees on what objective is
- Says all points are of equal validity
- Concept of objectivity can be taken too far
o Ignoring context
o Not making judgement calls
- If providing all the details favors one view, so if they do not include those details they cannot understand that side
Two ways of writing news:
- Inverted Pyramid:
o Basics of the story in the first paragraph
o Ensuing paragraphs provide more details
o Hard news and news shorts
- Feature Writing:
o Written as a story with exposition, problem, crisis, and complications and a climax
o People in the story are presented as characters (often as heroes, villains, and victims, rather than well rounded people)
o Magazines news stories, television news stories, and newspaper articles and columns
Future of Newspapers:
- Actual number of newspapers are declining
- More people depend on modern media (technology) so they buy newspapers less and less
- Newspapers cannot support themselves on subscriptions, newsstands and ads
- Newspapers have to live off these small funds so they cut costs by cutting important staff, join a syndicate to share expenses, sell subscriptions to online readers,--- and they reduce operations
- Newspapers had to cut reporters in important places such as DC Magazines:
- Not as many as there are newspapers
- Cannot compete on breaking news because they are once a month, however they do write with better in –depth coverage, meaning there is more detail, especially because there are specialists writing the articles and because it does not come out daily the spend more time on writing each piece.
- Sending sound through the air by attaching it to electric sound - Bagdad Battery 250 BCE said to be the first battery
- In the 18th century electricity was taken seriously, however only for fun and games
- People began to study electricity to find out what it is exactly
- Luigi Galvani - 1786
o Believed everything contained electricity
- Alessandro Volta -1796
o Thought Galvani was incorrect, and made his own experiment to test if electricity could be made chemically
- Hans Christian Oersted - 1820
o Demonstration that magnetism and electricity were not connected when they actually are.
- William Sturgeon - 1825
o Created the first electromagnet
- Michael Fareday - 1826
o Reversed Stugeon's experiment
- Samuel F.B. Morse - 1838
o Sent a message down a wire
o For the first time a message could send over miles in an instant o Morse code was created and thus lead to the telegraph
o Takes a lot to learn to send the clicks and understand them - Johannes Muller - 1840
o Studying the senses and trying to figure if they were different - Helmholtz
o Student of Muller
o Sang into piano to discover sound makes vibrations
- Leon Scott de Martinville:
o Phonautograph - 18
o Made it so sounds could be seen, etched them into Smokey glass - Bell and Gray both invented the telephone at the same time but Bell got to the patent office first so he gets all the credit
- Heinrich Hertz - 1886
o Helmholtz students
o Spark gap generator - jumps the gap making the spark, made a receiver to try to pick up the spark
o The receiver picked up the spark
o Demonstrated that electricity traveled through the air in frequencies, just as it did through wires
- Guglielmo Marconi - 1894
o Added an antenna to the spark so it could go father
o He made "wireless telegraphy" but people call it a radio
- Nikola Tesla
o Figured how to boost power with the tesla coil
o Raised the voltage of an electric current high enough
- Reginald Fessenden:
o Tried to send the first voice transmission without wires
- Ernst Alexanderson:
o Made a generator that was powerful to piggy back voice on radio waves going through the air.
o Finally radio is born
- Lee de Forest (father of radio)
o He would just try to create things for fun
o Took a Fleming valve (vacuum tube) added a bent wire, and called it the audion tube (1904) and this amplified the tube
- Edwin Howard Armstrong
o Took the audion tube and improved it
o Designed regeneration, so that whatever was put into the tube it was send back into the tube many times
o Amplified radio signals and made good sound
o Made the superheterodyne which was a receiver to put into the home and pick up signals
- Crystal Radio
o Made from Quaker oats boxes
- David Sarnoff
o First to see the potential for big radio
o Wasn’t about the actual radio but rather what you could do with the radio
o Started at American Marconi office
o Knew wireless telegraphy was point to point media
o Radio was a broadcast medium rather than a point to point
o He wrong the "radio music box memo" to convince companies to invest in building broadcast buildings and selling broadcast music boxes o Was named as commercial manager
o In charge of RCA
American telephone and Telegraph
o They used Armstrong's inventions
- Radio stations start popping up all over the country
- KWSU (KWSC) is made on campus and it’s the third in the world - Every kind of entertainment was available on the radio
Orson Welles - 1938
∙ Leon Scott de Martinville
∙ Thomas Edison: tinfoil phonograph 1877 with the intention of being an answering machine, but simply made something that could play back sound ∙ Chichester Bell and Tainter's phonograph 1885
∙ Problem: could only make one at a time rather than making multiple ∙ Berliner Gramophone - 1887
∙ 1890 the first juke box was created
∙ Eldridge Johnson got rid of the crank and put in a motor so that songs would no longer die during a song
∙ "little nipper" - was a phonograph company with the dog listening to his master's voice from the phonograph
∙ There was a race to advance the players more and more, but there was a problem with production
∙ Mechanical Recording Session: everyone would have to gather near the cone, which limited how many musicians could be on the recording
∙ Electrical Recording: Valdemar Poulsen 1897 made a way to record electrically
∙ Telegraphone 1915: it's steel wire was weak and could not be replaced ∙ Fritz Pfleumer added magnetic wire to strips of paper. The use of tape was a breakthrough
∙ BASF/AEG magnetophone: 1935 people were able to buy these magnetic recording things,
∙ Carbon granule mic: very poor quality mic and speakerphone ∙ Condenser Mic: used 1925 needed a battery to power, and susceptible to moisture.
∙ Ribbon Mic
∙ Radio stations needed the records so that they could play things back rather than having a live band come in
∙ Radio was mostly entertainment and constantly needed new material ∙ Non main stream music came to a rise
∙ New forms of music became popular
∙ For 20 years the country was bound together by the radio as a common source of info and social norms
∙ 1952 Alan Freed "father of rock and roll" he started making rock music a staple for the radio
∙ Music aimed at young people started being played more often ∙ 1944 Minnesota Manufacturing company came up with rust on tape to give greater sensitivity
∙ Reel to reel tape recorder
∙ Cassette Tape: 1963 made from plastic and used small tape ∙ Norelco CarryCorder 1965
∙ Sony Walkman personal carry your own music entertainment 1979 ∙ This was the beginning of decline of records
∙ CD pits
- Fraz Ucanious made motion pictures as a teaching tool, using it to teach his students how a cannon ball flies
- Ludwig Doebler was a magician who stole Ucanious’ idea and started using the machine for motion picture shows which became very popular in England - Aristotle wrote about painting with light, and talked about the pinhole camera, which was a black box with a small hole on one side, which, when pointed at something, would reflect it upside down to be accurately traced - Hyatt came up with Celluloid, which was first used in ivory replacement. It was very flammable
- Hannibal Goodwin took celluloid which was created by Hyatt, and turned it into sheets
- Edison came up with the kinetiscope which was a movie in a box that had a coin slot, so people could insert a coin and a movie would play while the viewer looked through some goggles.
- The Lumiere brothers were the first to play a moving picture on a bedsheet and call it a movie theater
- Movie theaters continued from then on to be in theaters, and there were nickel theaters called nickelodeons
∙ Lumieres showed movies by shining
∙ Edison had a kinetiscope
∙ Danish Researches: discovered selenium would generate an electrical signal in direct relation to the amount of
∙ Movies and Society: society before movies was all local or parochial ∙ Movies reflect the markers' society
∙ 1920s Post World War I movies went through a major change ∙ Movies started to cater to the young people who wanted to defy the old ways of society and create their own new young society
∙ Movies created a sense of community
∙ A full evening of entertainment:
∙ A cartoon
∙ A news reel
∙ A short subject, like a comedy bit
∙ A movie, sometimes 2
∙ The movies where upbeat, optimistic and filled with dance ∙ They left people feeling happy after watching it
∙ 1940s war propaganda started cropping up in movie theaters, there are lots of movies about the women waiting for their man to come home from the war, and she sacrifices the things a women has to in war times
∙ These movies helped people to change their opinions to whole hearted support of the war
∙ It's a Wonderful Life - 1946 was one of the best movies, and helped people to get happy again
∙ Movies reflected the way young people felt because they didn't like the way their parents wanted society to be
∙ 1950s people wanted to believe everyone was content in the world, everyone has a dog, and 2 kids, and a white picket fence
∙ The blackboard jungle in 1955 disproved this, showing the real world ∙ With the Cold War it was clear that the world could come to an end, and movies reflected that
∙ The fear of nuclear power and war in the 1950s
∙ In the 1960s there was a new freedom in the 60s, laws were changed and movies could do more than they could before, they stopped worrying about offending people
∙ People stopped worrying about sex
∙ It looked at the suburban life and how they didn't care about the restrictions but didn't know what they wanted in place
∙ 1970s looked at the myths of society, and which should be held and which should go away
∙ One of the big myths was the trust worthiness in the government to work in the public's good
∙ People started looking at politicians as people who just wanted power not to actually work for the government
∙ Jaws was the first summer block buster movie
∙ In the 1970s there started being battles between good and evil (star wars) so literal battles
∙ Movies that the industry did not think would be popular became major hits ∙ These movies helped bind back together a society that had been fragmented in the 1960s
∙ 1980s a problem arose, the studios realized messages in movies were bad for sales, so they merged with companies that knew nothing about movies to put teenagers in the theater
∙ Most movies at this time were about teenagers and catered to them ∙ For adults, the Vietnam war became a story for movies to use ∙ Most movies in the 80s that were anti-war
∙ Special Effects took off because of Star Wars, because George Lucas figured out ways to do something that could not really be done except in a computer. ∙ Lots of SyFy started, Star Trek came into the play, most of their money went to special effects
∙ 1990s a period of establishing new mythologies, as well as reinforcing some old ones (Schindlers list, Saving Private Ryan)
∙ New mythologies are changed (Dances with wolves)
∙ Conspiracy theories started arising (JFK)
∙ Blockbuster films came more and more important, they went year round (Braveheart, Jurassic Park)
∙ Reemergence of Animation, started with Snow White from Disney, but the these imaginations where nothing like the original stories, They rewrote them to reflect society to be the way it wants to be today
∙ 2000s Movies are still delivering mythology, but it Is not out of our experiences/pasts
∙ They were based on fantasies that were not from our past (pirates of the Caribbean, the matrix, lord of the rings)
∙ Future: concerned with movies that bring in audiences, lots of sequels, where audiences are already existent (books/ tv shows with a large fan base), Big name actors will be used because they're already known
∙ Movies have reverted to the kinetiscope, where it’s all about making money, not about the message
∙ Newsreels were important, they started to be produces after the lumieres who made the first movie theater, Pate made the hand held camera so that it could go around, and they filmed WW1. Movie studios sent a camera and writing producer went to the action, the producer would edit content into a news real and sent it to the main office to go to the theater
∙ People nowhere near the war saw what the war was like, they saw the dirt, blood and death. These drove home the war to people, they responded emotionally and feel the impact of war.
∙ Created newsreels that covered several subjects
∙ Television news killed off the newsreels
∙ Newsreels laid the ground work for television news
- Next invention was color TV, and CBS had the first color system because they created the sequentially color wheel
- Because CBS was the only channel that produced color productions that was the only channel people with color TV could watch
- NBC was the next to start on color
- RCA color TV was in 1954
- Producing color shows was more expensive than black and white, the networks did not want to produce them, therefore the public did not want to buy color TVs
- RCA gave money so that sponsors could produce color TV
- Once more things were broadcast in color more people bought color TVs - Digital has replaced analog
- TV has been established as one of the most powerful media ever established
Television and Society:
- Had the same impact as writing and printing
- Biggest on 1950s when everyone started having a set in their home - Movies in the home = incredible at the time
- Television took mainstream beliefs and stuck with them, promoting them, because sponsors did not ---want to upset people by challenging what people believe
∙ Everything was done in studios, and turned into an era of experimentation ∙ Originally started with everything that was on the radio
∙ Musical Variety shows were the most popular at first
∙ Small scale sports (boxing wrestling)
∙ No close ups or multiple angles
∙ Live Dramas (not series) they were plays done in front of a camera ∙ Sponsors owned the shows, and they used their marketing teams to run the shows which where fillers between commercials
∙ Interference by sponsors in shows could get very petty
∙ 50s = the "golden age of television" as culture was brought into the home with these different plays
∙ The number of political talk shows during primetime decreased over the years
∙ Prime time week: 8-11 and weekends: 7-11
∙ Networks drive was for viewers eyes looking at the commercials, and the political talk shows required thinking
∙ When everything was started to be filmed rather than live (except dramas, talk shows)
- 1950s: people wanted peace and conformity, and TV did not do that - TV took mainstream beliefs and reinforced them
- The TV networks stuck with the bland so they wouldn't upset viewers - A new kind of action drama almost drove out all other action, that was the Cowboy
- Westerns were aimed at kids, so the tv producers started to create westerns aimed at adults, the most famous being Gunsmoke in 1955-75
- Some people complained that the Westerns did not have enough action - The anti-western was the opposite of the cowboy, the name of this hero is Maverick, and the purpose if it was to undermine the cowboy, audience saw it as a real western but it was a spoof
- Bonanza 1959 - 73 another big western
- Society was not really black and white like the westerns, with all bad and all good
- The power of television came into people's homes, which gave it the power to expose hypocracy, and show the extremists of good and evil
- Joe McCarthy - lead a witch hunt against communism in the government and Hollywood. Accused people of communism with no evidence, and badgered them until they confess. These trials were televised. He destroyed a lot of people's lives, and told people that if they opposed him, they would be
accused next. He had power to play on people's fear to get them to follow him.
- Edward R. Murrow went after McCarthy, and said it was no time for men who opposed McCarthy to be quiet.
- CBS let McCarthy talk about whatever he wanted for 30 minutes on prime time TV, and he just used the time to accuse Murrow, and this lead to him loosing his following. TV destroyed him because it exposed his demi-godery
- 1960s: a new type of show came out: the single parent show - It couldn't be the result of divorce, the other parent had to be dead. The Andy Griffith Show - 1960
∙ Showed that small town values were the best values
∙ Country life is better
∙ Single Parent
∙ Rural Comedy
∙ Openness and kindness
∙ Explored the changes of American Life
- 1961 this show put out the message that women are equal to men, long before the women's movement
- A popular theme became rural life vs. big city life, taking rural folks and taking them into the big city where they miss behave
- These comedies were all canceled because the older folks didn't like it - The news was full of war, and protests, and unrest, where as TV produced funny dumb shows during prime time, idiocy was king
- TV needed audiences eyes to sell to sponsors, sponsors didn't want an upset audience because they might not pay attention to the commercial - Tv in the 60s was a vast wasteland
- 1970s: Society blew up, and there were great generation differences which left conflict, Race riots, war riots, and a growing generation gap. Baby boomers fought with WW2 generation over how society should proceed
- At the end of WW2 the women who had gone into work decided they liked financial freedom and working. This came to a head in late 1960s, when the younger generation rebelled on the constraints on women
The Mary Tyler Moore Show - 1970 showed two new ideas:
∙ A woman could be at the age of 30
∙ She could be happy without being married, and still has sex ∙ She was the first truly liberated woman on television
∙ The networks did not like putting divorced women on TV, so they just had her boyfriend dump her
∙ Adults unrelated could make a nuclear family and have the same comedy A new show came around: All in the Family 1971
∙ For the first time in any show used taboo subjects for a basis for a plot ∙ Taboo subjects: Sex, race, religion, politics, death
∙ People found this really funny
∙ Introduced a social political views, and had two extremes
∙ You do not think in feelings, you think in words
∙ All in the family gave you the words from the extreme ends so you can think about the issue in words
∙ In the middle of the two extremes was the audeinces oppinion and they now had the facts to support why they think that way
∙ Audiences wanted something smart to think about, because they were intelligent and liked being involved in the show, no longer mindlessness. They explored the changes in the social world and actually thought about them
The impacts of television on society and society on television
- M*A*S*H - 1972 was extremely popular, and its final episode is till the most watch TV show
- First sitcom that didn't think laugh-a-minute jokes were the only way, they brought emotions, and dealt with real issues such as death
- This show caused conflict with the generation gap, because the younger people thought it was funny but the WW2 people said it wasn't funny at all - Watergate changed Society forever, because Nixon betrayed everyone's trust of the government
- Walter Cronkite ("The Most Trusted Man in America") never let his own opinions be in the news, and he played a key role in Watergate, he broadcast 2 big stories on the news, which let it be known to millions via the TV
- Even those who didn't think it was true said it was true because Walter said it was true
- Prior to Watergate people trusted politicians to do what was best for the country, but afterward people realized politicians are just in it to get the job and get power, so they no longer trust the government
- All the old rules of society saying to trust the government were thrown out, and society demanded new rules, and TV went along with it
- Sexual Revolution on TV in the late 1960s and early 1970 despite the older generation's protests, most sitcoms became TNA
- The 1980s this was the lowest time for situational comedy, there are mostly dramas on the air, this had a storyline that went over multiple episodes. Dallas was the first story that went over the whole seasons rather than just a few episodes.
- The Cosby Show 1984 brought back the sitcom with the family comedy, and this was the biggest show in the 80s
- Roseanne 1988 - broke ground on TV by showing a sexually active overweight woman, and showed fantasies of Roseanne killing her family for comedy to enjoy her bath, this was no longer a "leave it to beaver" world
- Married with Children 1987 - was the exact opposite of the Cosby show, sex was a major part of the show, the family didn’t get along, completely rejected the social story everyone wanted. Lead to protests against the show. Campaigns lead to publicity of the show, and kept it on the air.
- The Simpsons 1989 - heightened the trend of the idiot, competent father/husband, and the woman rescues him. There were lots of complaints against the show, especially Bart, because he was a poor role model for kids. It is the longest prime time running show on TV. Biggest problems: Social criticism and other cultural ideas. One of the most culturally literate shows on the air.
The Rise of Cable:
∙ Invented by John Walson 1948 to bring Tv to places that couldn't receive broadcast signals
∙ FCC restricted it to prevent competition with broadcast stations until 1972 ∙ HBO started in 1972 - first network to use satellite instead of phone lines to deliver content
∙ Cable Act of 1984 - cable restrictions lifted and new networks could start - Fox had a hard time getting started, because they needed an affiliation, so only 50 percent of the country can see Fox, but once the cable started Fox could go anywhere in the country
- Magazines and Radio fragments the audience because of the competition with television, they had to target niche audiences. Basically this happened with cable too, because there were many more channels that could be created, more than just the big 5
- Every network had to concentrate on a certain audience because they wanted viewers, so they had to change their shows to fit the different social stories, they marketed to audiences not being represented on the air
- For decades society showed the same social story but with cable any group had a network that catered to their world view.
- There were cross overs: 1999 Will and Grace started changing society, by showing a gay couple, much of the humor was Will and Jack, but overall there weren't many complaints. Will was chill, and Jack was so over the top Gay that no one really took it seriously, it was too funny.
∙ In the late 90s TV was changing by showing situations on TV that had never before been ok on Tv before
∙ Sex and the City in 1998 showed a lot of single women who were not celibate, and addressed a lot of sexuality, and liberated women
TV and Money:
∙ When cable came around the networks had to cut costs because there were too many cable networks
∙ Shows were often canceled because they cost too much and were not watched enough
∙ Syndication was an individual station that simply ran reruns of old shows from other networks
∙ TV stations would buy the rights for a show and then started stripping so that they could play the same show at the same time every day during the week day
∙ To do syndication there had to be 72 episodes (3 years on the network) ∙ Scripted shows are very expensive, where as unscripted (game shows) are much cheaper
∙ A new kind of show came along, based on 1973 show "An American Family" and it established a cheap show. Take real people and put them on TV thus "reality TV" was born
∙ Writers and actors are the biggest expense for any type of scripted show ∙ The participants in reality TV are actually just characters in a drama ∙ When you see a reality show you see rearranged reality, they just shoot the footage and write the script afterward
∙ Reality shows seem to be crowding out scripted shows on the networks,
∙ The effect of reality shows on the public is huge, people think it real and they want a part of it so they apply to be on it, or be in real life situations like they characters in the show
Journalism and TV:
∙ Local News
o Standard format
∙ Big Local and regional stories
∙ Major national stories
∙ Puff Piece - a light weight meaningless story to make the audience feel happy, because it puts all the other things before it on the same level "its not important, non of this show is, don't worry about it"
o Part of their licensing agreement for public service
∙ National News
o Gives national and international news (national disasters, politics, war, famine, ect.)
o Ends with a puff piece
o Each network had an evening news show
∙ Only 15 minutes, later expanded to 30 minutes
o 1980 - Ted Turner begins CNN, the first 24 hours news networks Characteristics of TV News:
∙ Short form
∙ Shallow - Lots of details have to be omitted and analysis is no longer really there
∙ Emotional - they could now show the action, and the news casters reactions are shown
∙ The problem is that not everything can be/should be emotional, because having overpowering emotions takes away the ability to think
General Characteristics of News (TV News):
∙ News is personalized (they put a face, an emotion face, on the TV to tug at heart strings) but the public will dismiss the problems as just specific to the person/ people in the story
∙ News is fragmented, there are lots of brief, capsulated story that has no relation to any of the other stories, there is very little news given for perspective. They do not give the how or why events happen, they simply state that they happen. Journalists are obsessed with objectivity, just giving the facts.
∙ News is normalized, they try not to make the audience freak out, they really only use the officials to make the audience feel safe and as if they didn’t need to do anything. They follow the standard script of asking officials how the disaster is going. Reinforces that the powerful are able to do their jobs well and make sure everything goes well if no one interferes with their power.
∙ Journalism helps create our reality, but the news gives stories, not reality. Modern Communication:
∙ Index cards were originally "computers" for finding information on research already done
∙ Yes or No answers = digital computing
∙ Charles Babbage: designed a calculating "engine" in 1830, which would do arithmetic very quickly but it was analog not digital.
∙ Basile Bouchon:
o Created Bouchon's loom
∙ Jean-Baptiste Falcon: on 1728 improved on bouchon's loom by making card rather than paper, so that it didn't break down as easily
∙ Jaques de Vaucanson: 1741 improved the system
∙ Joseph Jacquard: perfected the use of cards in the system, so he gets all the credit for making the automated loom, this automated loom was "digital" ∙ Article in the constitution says there must be a census every 10 years to count all the people in the US. This was ok until everyone wanted to come to the US
∙ Herman Hollerith: came up with the Hollerith Tabulator which used punch cards, when someone new came to the US, it was written down and given to a tabulator, who entered all the new people into the tabulator's punch card. The card was placed in a holder, ending with the Hollerith punch cards in the 1890s census.
∙ The new way of finding info with the tabulator cut the time needed to do the census considerably.
∙ Both business, and especially war drive technology
∙ German Z3 - 1941 was a digital computer which replaced cards with electricity, this kind of digital computer did the math to show where to put a gun to shoot down a plane. It used vacuum tubes rather than cards, which came Binary code
∙ You could represent any number or letter or symbol by showing a series of 1s and 0s
∙ British Colossus 1944 was a huge computer, they grew in size and the amount of calculations, which lead to programming
∙ Eniac 1946 was an absolutely huge computer which could be programed to do anything
∙ The problem with the vacuum tube was that they were hot, so they came up with the transistor, which was much smaller and cooler to operate, and could pack several transistor in the same place as 1 vacuum tube
∙ Kilby's integrated circuit 1958 allowed several transistors in the same small space, now they could be made cheap
∙ Modern Integrated Circuit: was a very tiny circuit
∙ These chips stated showing up in everything that used a vacuum tube (radio, TV, ect)
∙ They make small portable radios
∙ The place that needed the transistors was the space race, which needed the calculating power
∙ News of these computers spread
∙ Altair personal computer 1975 which geeks loved, it could be programmed to do things
∙ Bill Gates and Paul Allen made "Basic" which was computer language in 1975 ∙ Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs 1976 they came up with a small computer, the Apple I which replaced the switches with keys, and used Basic written by
Gates. In 1977 they made the Apple II which had color display and a floppy disk drive. Average people did not like it.
∙ Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston - Visicalc 1978 they made an app that everyone could want to use. It was a spreadsheet and soon everyone wants one.
∙ Tim Patterson and QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System) 1980s which ran on more powerful computers. Gates bought it, and tinkered with it before putting it out as MSDOS (Microsoft).
∙ Gates licensed it to IBM to put on their computers for cheap, but he licensed it to anyone who wanted it not just IBM.
∙ Gates found that the money was not in the operating system, but in the programs that would run on the operating system (word, excel, ect).
∙ Sony Betamax was the first thing to record TV
∙ VHS VCR was an even newer way to record TV and VHS pushed Betamax out
∙ Betamax was better sound and better picture but rentals killed it because the porn industry chose VHS
∙ The VCR changed things because programming started to be in the hands of the viewers, not the networks
∙ People were watching tapes rather than what was actually on TV, they skipped the unpopular shows, and the ratings for taped shows were destroyed because they could not tell when something was being taped.
∙ Viewers could now avoid commercials, and that made the sponsors mad
∙ Recording movies off the air, so the movie companies were angry because they no longer received royalties, so the studios would loose income.
∙ This changed the field of TV and movies, the sponsors wanted deals from the networks. Networks had to reduce costs
∙ Any show that did not immediately get an audience were canceled ∙ The kind of movies being made changed, so the movies went more toward making movies that look better on a big screen than a small screen. ∙ The main point of targeting teenagers for movies is because they are most likely to go to movies
∙ The greatest problem with the VCR is the picture quality ∙ 1885 Carl Welsbach was an Austrian chemist who was hired to improve the gas lamp to keep it more popular than the lightbulb. Concentrated with rare minerals, and found a new one
∙ Georgia Cayvan was the best actress in the 1880s and she wore a glass dress for a publicity stunt.
∙ 1960s people got the idea for the laser, the first was by Gordon Gould, he made the Ruby laser.
∙ The laser could go to a very small beam and has very little spread, and the length can be very finely measured
∙ The pits are read by the laser as 0s and 1s
∙ Almost as soon as the laser was invented the laser read compact disc (CD) was made
∙ Sony, Philips, and Toshiba made a disc with mass amounts of storage, so they could now make DVDs
∙ The DVD provided better sound and picture but they could not record so the VCR remained the big recorder
∙ The DVR then came around and put the VHS out for good. But the problem was that the number of shows that could be recorded depended on the amount of storage on the DVR
∙ In the 90s they got rid of the floppy disk and started making CD burners, so people would burn TV shows recorded previously, and able to watch them on DVDs.
∙ Blu-ray was the next step, allowed 25 gbyte rather than the 4.7 on a DVD. It was a result of improving the mechanics and from changing from the red laser to the blue laser. Blue is more accurate, and smaller. ∙ Early cell phones 1980s
∙ Sony Walkman CD - 1984
∙ iPod 2001 play back purely digital file
∙ iPhone 2007 this was the first smart phone
∙ The smart phone is popular because it has all these apps that do things that are easily usable to people
∙ The internet invented by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and was created at the request of Eisenhower in the 1950s, because he wanted to make sure the nuclear war wouldn't take out all the computers.
∙ They wanted to connect the computers but in a way that wouldn’t destroy all of them if one place was taken out.
∙ Required three changes in computers
o Going from analog to digital
o Connecting computers through phone lines
∙ Packet Switching
o Divide any message into chunks of data, or packets ∙ Each packet is a small part of the address
∙ Each packet has a final destination address
∙ Protocols- codes that allow computers to talk to each other regardless of manufacturer or operating system
∙ At the beginning it was mostly college professors who used the internet because it was created by college professors
∙ When word got out then everyone wanted to be on the internet, and then came around the internet provider
∙ Tim Berners-Lee created the World Wide Web (www) invented in 1989 and public in 1993, created HTML which was a set of codes that told the computer how to display the page on the screen.
∙ The advantages to HTML had hyperlinks, so you didn't have to know the exact address
∙ Marc Andreessen made Mosaic which allowed people to not know all the codes
∙ The internet became central to everything
∙ Has led to word redefinition "googling"
Modern communication and Society:
∙ The transistor: before it no computers would have existed. Without the transistor things would run on vacuum tubes and be huge.
∙ Lots of transistors in a small space = the IC chip
∙ The idea of hand writing letters seems to have disappeared ∙ We used to talk or write on paper but now we talk on the phone and text on the phone
Facts to consider:
∙ Extended plot stories over multiple episodes require audience commitment ∙ USA TODAY, the country's most popular newspapers, uses very short stories and lots of graphics
∙ Sound Bites have shortened from 42 seconds to 7 seconds = bumper sticker politics, but leaves out anything that might help people decide if it’s a good idea or not
∙ Along with bumper sticker politics there are tweets, 140-character limit Result:
∙ Short attention span
∙ Low threshold of boredom
∙ Era of instant gratification
∙ TV news relies on people taking videos on their phones, and looking at social media to find material to report on
Greatest change in society:
∙ The computer
o They run everything
o They make the decisions
o They do what they are told, they cannot think, but people believe they are thinking
o They hold all the information about all of us
What modern communication has done and is still doing:
∙ We're at the beck and call of our devices
∙ We've developed a low threshold of boredom
∙ We've lost our privacy
∙ Anything anybody wants to say they can say to everybody ∙ We're in a global electronic village - we have never been closer or further apart
∙ Knowledge is in the data base rather than people's heads
Qualitative effects are those that create someone's reality about the world and how it works
- Research = an attempt to discover something
- Social Science = An examination of how people interact with objects in their environment
- Giovanni Benedetti decided to test Aristotle's guesses at various things. He performed the ball drop experiment
Ways of knowing:
∙ Tied to prior held beliefs
∙ Beliefs are hard to change
∙ The 4th way of knowing
∙ Requires systematic analysis
∙ Always open to new information
o Nothing is ever "proven" with science
∙ Tests questions of fact
Differences between hard and social sciences:
∙ Hard sciences deal with the inanimate or nonhumans, like elements and forces and animals
∙ Social science deals with people
o Reduce variables as much as possible
o Administers questionnaires to research
o Be careful with wording the questions
o Be careful of question order
∙ Focus Groups
o Small panel of people who discuss what the researcher
o Problems with maintaining focus
o Danger of one person dominating discussion
∙ Content Analysis:
o Counting things to get statistics
o Sample size must be large enough
o Time consuming
o Must specifically define what you're looking for
What are media effects?
∙ Media effects approach
o Focus on audiences (vs. media system)
∙ Try to reduce variables
∙ Types of Outcomes in Effects Research:
o Behavioral - buying a product
o Physiological - jump scene in a scary movie
∙ Eras of Media effects:
o Magic bullet/ uniform effects
∙ Also known as Direct Effects
∙ Pre- 1945
∙ Focus on war propaganda
o Limited ( or indirect effects) - two step flow
o Powerful effects in limited areas
∙ Early 1970s to present
∙ Move to focus on cognitions and perceptions
∙ How do we know what is going on? Get information from news. ∙ Relevance: proximity
∙ Importance: prominence
∙ Interest: conflict oddity
∙ Conflict needs to be odd + out of the norm.
∙ Agenda Setting:
∙ Media tells us what to think about – which leads us to perceptions of what matters
∙ Media doesn’t tell us WHAT to think
∙ People care more about what gets news coverage even if something else is more of a threat
∙ Media tell you not only WHAT to think about (agenda setting) but HOW to think about it
∙ Explains why people have similar opinions/reactions ∙ Shanto Lyengar (1991)
∙ Examined how issues were presented on television ∙ Episodic: there is a problem that is solved at the end of the episode
∙ Thematic: a main theme running through all episodes ∙ How a story is told
∙ Game Frame: Horse race (politics): Who is leading the race and winning. It implies 1 candidate is better than another.
∙ Value Framing: Implies the story is around something that the people watching value
∙ Frank Luntz: really good at framing by choosing specific words. Chose the wording for estate taxes which = “death” taxes to evoke a stronger emotion ∙ Talking Points: words and phrases in a news story which will evoke lots of emotions, and are given to anyone who wants to be interviewed about the subjects will hit them. They become part of the world view.
∙ Beginning of Spiral of Silence:
∙ Created by Elisabeth Noelle – Nuemann (1984)
∙ Examined originally by considering the content of train passengers conversation
∙ Certain topics of controversy that don’t come up to keep the peace
∙ Individuals who are in the minority will often keep their opinions to themselves = minority views are less often heard.
∙ The more the loud voices make noise the more it seems they are the majority
∙ The Big Lie: Joseph Goebbels
∙ Say something often enough and loud enough, then people will believe them.
Basics of the Knowledge Gap:
∙ Increasing info in the environment will increase knowledge ∙ High SES individuals acquire info at a faster rate than low SES individuals o Essentially the" rich get richer": people with higher SES get better information than lower SES
o Societal and democratic implication
Why The Gap Exists:
∙ Differences in cognitive/ communication skills
∙ Less about memorizing new facts, but rather learning to think about the new information
∙ People do not like reading because they view it as a chore, especially because reading is slow
∙ Listening is a skill that needs to be practiced and mastered ∙ Differences in prior information and knowledge
∙ Access to information
∙ Selective exposure to information
Desire for Consistency:
∙ People generally like to hear information that agrees with beliefs they already hold
∙ Cognitive Dissidence - the personal experiences that create our world Cognitive Dissonance Theory:
∙ Cognitions: bits of knowledge individuals have stored in their mind ∙ Individual cognitions have one of three relationships with one another o Dissonant relationship
o Consonant relationship
o Irrelevant relationship
Magnitude of Dissonance:
∙ Importance of the cognitions
∙ Ratio of dissonance to consonant cognitions: the more new cognitions received that conflict with existing thoughts the more discomfort. The fewer = less discomfort and less of the need to escape.
∙ Degree of cognitive overlap: the similarity of the choices
Necessary Conditions for Cognitions Dissonance:
∙ Aversive consequences
∙ Freedom of choice
∙ Insufficient external justification – can’t find enough outside sources to support what you believe, and reject the new information
∙ People rationalize things in absurd situations
∙ We tend to expose ourselves to info sources that are likely to reinforces our views
∙ Happens at three levels:
o Selective Exposure
o Selective Perception - people tend to see what they expect to see. Personal experience influences all the time
o Selective Retention - we remember things that are important to us.
Effects of Violence/ Aggression:
Why is there violence in media?
∙ It’s exciting
∙ It attracts attention
So Why Violence?
∙ Quickest and easiest way to show the conflict and solve it
∙ Less time consuming than verbal talking
∙ Makes it easier to write the story
∙ Has been a way of solving problems for a very long time
NTVS Results: Context
∙ 24-28% of perpetrators are "good" characters
∙ 37-40% of perpetrators are "attractive"
∙ 71-75% of violent scenes do not have punishment of perpetrator ∙ 15% of violent scenes show blood and gore
∙ 51-58% of violent incidents do not show the victim in pain or harm ∙ 39-43% of violent scenes involve humor
Basic Assumption of human behavior:
∙ Much of it is learned
∙ Learning - the process of acquiring, through experience including observation, new and relatively enduring information or behaviors
∙ Thoughts, perspectives, and expectations, -- remembering the past (whether the past is real or not) relating it to the present, and making predictions about the future.
∙ Trial and error - come up with a solution and try it
∙ Algorithms - a step-by-step process to solving a problem. A lot like a computer science problem
∙ Heuristics - mental shortcut to solve problems. Faster than the first two. Your solution could be completely wrong, where the media comes into play, because the media offers superficial problems that barely resemble personal ones. If people apply these solutions, there will not be a correct solutions Classical Conditioning:
∙ Pavolv's dogs
- Helps explain stimuli trigger an automatic response
∙ Process of learning an association between stimuli (dogs learning that the ringing of the bell means food will soon come)
∙ Unconditioned stimulus - natural stimulus that reflexively produces a response without prior learning (a bell)
∙ Unconditioned response - unlearned reflexive response (dogs drooling) ∙ Conditioned stimulus- originally unpaired with anything, but soon is used to elecit the conditioned response (The bell which makes the dogs drool) ∙ Conditioned response - the response that is associated with the conditioned stimulus. (Drooling after bell is rung)
∙ Reward vs. Punishment: people want reward and avoid punishment ∙ Albert Bandura: Psychologist at Stanford
∙ The bobo doll experiment: children watched a video of an adult playing aggressively with a bobo doll, then were placed in a room with many different toys, one of which was a bobo doll. The children began imitating the adults by playing aggressively with the doll.
∙ The three steps of learning
∙ Key info is taken in and processed
∙ Integrates the info and makes rules about how things work ∙ Put those rules into practice
∙ His findings lead to the Social Learning Theory
∙ Issues with the bobo doll experiment:
∙ The bobo doll is a punching bag, that is its purpose
∙ The children could be just following instructions
∙ The person who is to be imitated needs to be of status to the imitators
∙ It was a doll and not a person
Priming: causes certain memories to come to the top of your mind because there is a reminder of something in you past that comes to the front.
We can be primed to think of things.
Studies on priming and violence:
∙ Watch violent or non-violent clip
∙ Watch a cartoon (fuzzy vs. clear)
∙ Next students were interviewed with walkie talkies and microphones ∙ Frustration came from fuzzy video clips and walkie Talkie
Modeling - Bandura, people will imitate observations
∙ Attention - pay attention to the media
∙ Retention - retain the story
∙ Production - the subject has to be able to reproduce the study ∙ Reinforcement - positive reinforcement presents
∙ Mirror neurons allow us to vicariously experience other people's experiences o We feel what others feel by simply watching it
∙ Kids will imitate what they see on television
∙ The more time you spend with media, the more you think it is an accurate representation of the real world
∙ George Gerbner (1976)
∙ It predicts that watching TV will cultivate attitudes that are more related to the TV world rather than the real world
∙ If you watch a lot of TV you think life is like the world you see in TV ∙ Tv brings up social stories that bind a society together
∙ Mean World Syndrome:
o People believe an event is more possible to happen if they can think of examples of it
o Because there is so much coverage people believe events are common, even when there aren't that many instances of it
∙ Desensitization - people who are exposed to a lot of violence, its effect on them decreases as they become desensitized to it.
o Decreases arousal
o Indifferent to real-life violence
o Less willing to help
o How does it work?
∙ Classical conditioning
∙ Catharsis: cleansing, the audience experiences great emotions when showing tragic events and they also experiences a great relief after it is solves o viewing of violent media content helps to purge violent impulses o Exposure to violent television should reduce aggression
o Almost all the evidence is inconsistent with this theory
o This doesn’t happen because in real life it can't
∙ Everybody knows that they are unjustified beliefs about a certain group of people that separates them from everyone else. But this definition only is about people.
∙ Fixed form or convention: something lacking in originality or individuality ∙ The human mind gathers info and stores it in memory, and uses it to compare to new things
∙ How we get info:
o Somatic: what we personally experience through our senses o Extrasomatic: Sources of information external to your personal experience
∙ Mechanical sources
∙ Extend our senses
o Association: depends on who we associate with, also known as socialization
∙ Associative impressions = a problem, associated with a variety of people
∙ Impossible to avoid
o Vicariously: through imagination and through media
∙ Have a built in drawback: limited by the senses of the creators of the sources
∙ Complication of limited means of communications (words, pictures)
∙ A pale shadow of the real thing
∙ Great advantage: it is objective to you, it opens up the possible ways of viewing things
∙ What do we do with all the info?
o Sort into categories
o The categories are stereotyped
o Why categories?
∙ So we can consciously think about things
∙ It’s the way the human mind works - we remember the past, relate to the present, and project the future. We decide what we would like to have happen, and then follow the steps to get the desired outcome.
o People think of everything belonging to one group or another o Pigeonholing:
∙ Put any and all info we gather about anything, regardless of source, into a box, the stereotype
∙ New boxes are created when new information comes in ∙ If the new information is not important, it will not create a new box
∙ Stereotypes are shortcuts to thinking:
o Called "heuristic" device
o Identify superficial characteristics
∙ See, hear, smell something
o What you perceive triggers a stereotype box
∙ What's important is the contents of the stereotype box ∙ Recap
o Primary sources are what you put in personally
o Secondary are from other sources
∙ A rank is assigned to what's in the box
∙ If a commonly held stereotype matches your stereotype, then it becomes fact
∙ When someone else's stereotype doesn’t match with your own, then it is negative
∙ Stereotypes are neither positive nor negative
∙ Depends on if others' stereotypes match your own
∙ People create their own reality
o Varies from person to person
∙ Why are stereotypes used in the media?
o Reflects the reality of the audience
o Use the stereotypes already present in the audience o Economic factors - people whose stereotypes match up with the media's use of them, then they will buy the magazine or watch the TV show
o Occupations are often over-dramatized in TV
∙ Police Officers - greatly overrepresented
∙ Lawyers & Courtroom Trials - real or fictional, it's sensationalized
∙ Farmers - where is media produced?
∙ College Student - Lots of drinks, party all the time on parent's money
o TV makes money by targeting the largest audience they can, so they reinforce the stereotypes already existing
o In the late 60s there were antiwar and women's civil rights, they challenged stereotypes and reinforced new ones
∙ TV and Stereotypes:
o Introduction to cable
∙ Hundreds of different channels show different stereotypes ∙ Movies and Stereotypes:
o Movies reflected the director's stereotypes
o They became homogeneous
o Birth of a Nation by D.W. Griffith was a racist epic about the Civil War, and he extolled the KKK as heroes, and portrayed freed blacks as evil
o Easy Rider - showed the generation gap and difference between rednecks and hippies
o To Kill a Mockingbird - shows bigotry, powerful condemnation of people who held stereotypes
∙ The original stereotype was that American Indians were uncivilized savages
∙ In 1970 the Indian Savage idea was challenged with Little Big Man o In this case the whites were shown as the evil force trying to destroy a civilization
o Was enforced with Dances With Wolves
∙ Stereotypes of the heroine changed in the movie, from the helplessness of Snow White and Sleeping Beauty to Belle who fights for herself and saves the Beast, as well as Frozen, where the act of true love is performed by Anna rather than done to her. The happy end was changed ∙ Gender and Stereotyping:
o Common gender roles
∙ Certain roles had been designated to each gender because of what happened a long time ago, when women had and raised children while the men hunted and provided food.
∙ After hundreds of thousands of years of women being in the home and men working outside the home became engrained and normal.
∙ Advertising depends on stereotypes
∙ Brand names go after women because they are more likely to buy brand names
∙ Women are exposed in domestic roles more than anything else (cleaning, cooking, laundry)
∙ Ever since the industrial revolution when you could begin making house hold products in bulk, they target advertising at women.
∙ After the women's movement began, the advertising expanded to include new stereotypes about women
∙ The Superwoman: business, professional, community roles, mother, and take care of the home. She can do everything all by herself. This makes women feel good and want the product.
∙ Women as objects, ads turn women into objects rather than people. Often they show her without a head, and shows the turn ons for men. These ads also will show women being
submissive to men as they are physically dominant over them. ∙ Sex Appeal:
∙ Gender linked because of different goals
∙ For men it's sex with ease and no complications ∙ Whatever is closest
∙ For women it's attract more men from which to choose
∙ Select the best among the possible choices,
and the greater the selection, the better the choice
∙ Humans have the most complex social life on earth ∙ Instinctive criteria for men are the same as for any other male animal - she's just there
∙ Portrayals of Women:
∙ Physical Appearance
∙ Youth = beauty
∙ Primary Goal: Stay young and
∙ Women in modeling became tall and thin,
because they became clothes hangers to show the
∙ Their body shapes were essentially
unattainable by consumers
∙ Ads tries to make women think they are
unhappy with their appearance to encourage them to
buy the product to change themselves
∙ Constant use of thin ideal makes the
stereotype of thin seem needed for beauty
∙ Portrayals of Men:
∙ Sturdy Oak: Hard Working, good providers
∙ Big Wheel: trappings of social and financial
∙ Tough, emotionless beings
∙ Physical Appearance:
∙ Attractive + Strong
∙ Upper body muscles
∙ Less emphasis on slight aging
∙ Grey hair
∙ But emphasis on young and strong
∙ Primarily outside the home
∙ Uncomfortable/out of place in the
New Information (minus Ethics)
Contact hypothesis: if people get together, and have personal contact with someone who they have stereotyped in the past will reduce the stereotypes they had of the group.
History of the hypothesis:
∙ Started after WW2
∙ Red Ball Express: their insignia was a red circle, and was mostly black, and they drove supplies all over. They often had to fight german troops. They earned the respect of white soldiers who worked with them because they came through with the supplies, but other white soldiers viewed the black men as beneath them.
∙ Red Tails: flied escort for the bombers over Germany, maned by black pilots, but then engaged in fighting and protected the bomber crews very well to the point where whites begged them to protect them. But on the ground they still did not want to associate with them.
∙ 442nd Infantry Regiments: second generation Japanese serving the in the army as volunteers, and they were put into a separate unit. None of them were promoted to officer rank. When they went into combat they became the best in the army. They rescued white members at the cost of their own members from the Germans. They earned the white soldiers respect and became the most decorated unit in the history of the army.
∙ All these colored soldiers earned the respect of the white soldiers, which altered the discrimination of them within the army between the white and colored soldiers. They all came to rely on each other for life.
∙ Their attitudes changed because they had actual contact with the people they stereotyped.
∙ Attempts to understand shift in attitudes between groups that fought together during the war started in 1946
∙ Contact Hypothesis credited to Gordon Allport
∙ Rothbert and John: knowing more about actual individuals in a stereotyped group changes the stereotypes of the entire group.
∙ Anxiety during contact reduces the likelihood of reducing prejudice, so the contact situations needs to meet certain criteria if it is going to work
The Criteria of the Contact Hypothesis:
∙ Neither group has greater social or economic status
∙ More likely in informal situations than in formal situation
∙ It is often difficult because participants do not have similar backgrounds, and involves those in power trying to decrease the conflict but this automatically puts them at a higher level.
∙ If everyone is working to achieve the same end, differences that have nothing to do with that achievement are minimized
∙ Both groups must work together toward their common goal without internal competition
∙ This can be more difficult for men than women
Support of Authorities, law, or customs:
∙ Effectiveness of contact reducing prejudice more likely if it's backed by authority or law
∙ They should support working together, and discourage/punish those who compare
Personal (informal) Interaction:
∙ Members of different groups must mingle and talk
∙ They should discover something about the other group, share their common interests
∙ The difference: the red ball express and the red tails did not have personal interactions between the white and black, whereas the Japanese ground soldiers sat around and talked with the white soldiers so that the prejudice dropped.
∙ Allport's criteria are intellectual- there is an emotional aspect that people bring and emotions don't respond to intellect.
Contact Hypothesis and the Media:
∙ The other way is through indirect contact, where people do not meet face to face.
∙ New research looks at the effects of indirect contact
∙ Media are the major source of indirect contact
∙ In the 1950s things began changing, because there was less of a big deal with black characters in the media, and all the criteria being met as characters in shows interacted
∙ Since the 80s characters who are white and black have interacted either formally or informally as a normal thing on television.
∙ They also experienced the vicarious contact hypothesis in movies ∙ In the 60s the movies really began to show the interaction between the races, and shaped people's ideas of how the races interacted.
∙ Possible reasons why the hypothesis works:
o Actual behavior completely unlike expected behavior based on stereotypes
o That unstereotyped behavior is seen often and in many situations o The people interacted with are perceived as typical members of the outgroup
∙ Gutenberg created moveable type press
o Suddenly everyone had access to printed material
o Allowed wide-spread opinions and influence
o Stimulated demand for literacy
o Public Opinion molded
∙ The church:
o One of the first and most important customers
o The church was the most powerful in Europe, and people had to "do it their way or else"
o Indulgence = forgiveness before all past sins, could be bought with money
o With the printing press the church could run off thousands or hundreds of indulgences a day
o Martin Luther made a list of his complaints against the church and posted them on the church door to spark a conversation about the issues, but within a few weeks they were all over Europe, giving birth to the Protestant Reformation. The church fought back. This lead to a propaganda war which was accelerated by the printing press.
o Luther's German Bible - 1520, so that average people could read the bible without needing the priest to interpret the bible.
o To fight the German bible, they tried to control the print media. Printing became the enemy because Protestants could print just as easily as the church. So the church began banning books and burned books they didn’t like as well as burned the writers.
o Galileo Galilei 1564- 1642: disproved that everything revolved around the world by finding moons orbiting Jupiter. This was not a problem until he published his book, spreading his idea. The church banned the book that went against prior teachings, and put him under house arrest. The problem was not with the facts, but that he was telling a new story of the universe and how it works. Because of the printing press there was many copies of the book. The church's fear was of the new story replacing the old story, which was the main basis of the church's authority.
o The king had the power to stop printing because his power was almost absolute. The King never took well to being joked about, or talked about in any other way than praising.
o Henry VIII in 1529:
∙ Banned books he or his advisors did not like
∙ 1530 printers needed permission from the king to print, and the license could be revoked if the king did not like what they printed.
o Governments subsidized printing
∙ Gave them a great deal of control over what could be printed
∙ Newspapers were for the elite
Were anything but objective
Supported those who paid for them
∙ Newspapers slanted everything in favor to those who paid them.
o American Colonies
∙ Had their own printers
∙ They had to get the license from the government ∙ The Boston Newsletter - it was really expensive and very dull, but it was subsidized by the government meaning the government had control over the newspaper so they only printed what they wanted the people to see.
∙ New England Courant - people liked this newspaper, but the government did not like it so they shut him down until Ben Franklin took it over and made his own very popular print shop. He also started his own new paper, the Pennsylvania Gazette. He sold advertising space in his newspaper, which were similar to wanted ads. Many advertised for runaway slaves.
∙ Zenger's New York Weekly Journal: the gazette was supported by the British government this one was not. Zenger was negative toward the government in his newspaper which lead to the government trying to shut him down. But he won the argument by saying the truth was greater than hiding it so that the government only looks good.
∙ British Stamp Act - a tax on newspapers, pamphlets, and paper. This had the purpose to shut down papers which spoke against the government.
∙ Freedom of the press advances people's knowledge as well as holds government officials to doing what they say they are going to do.
o Early days of movies:
∙ Movie makers could do whatever they wanted because of freedom of speech
∙ Mutual Film Corporation V. Industrial Commission of Ohio (1915)
Supreme Court declared that movies were a business, not an art, and thus were not protected by the first amendment.
∙ 1920s the world underwent a major change; young people were very cynical. A period of cynicism and breaking with
traditions following the great upheavals in society caused by
World War 1. Movies started to show more sex and violence
because that was what sold.
∙ 1930s as a backlash against the openness of the Roaring Twenties, many people in society insisted on censorship.
∙ The Hays Office
To set standards for movies
Had no effective enforcement
Started in 1930
Hay's three rules:
∙ Evil shall not win
∙ Law shall not be ridiculed
∙ Standards of life had to be up kept
There were other rules:
∙ Kisses could not be longer than 35 seconds,
∙ Prostitutes had to die at the end in a heroic
way to atone for her sins
∙ No sexual scenes
Joseph Burstyn, Inc. vs. Wilson, 1952
∙ Supreme court decision overturning Mutual vs. Ohio that allowed the censorship of movies because they were a business, not an art form, and "they could be used for evil"
∙ This case determined that the movies, even if a business, are a form of artistic expression and thus entitled to First Amendment protection. ∙ This killed off the censorship board and the hays office
∙ Jacobellis vs. Ohio 1964: ohio tried to ban the film "the lovers" for obscenity, but the court ruled it was not obscene because only hard-core porn was obscene.
∙ Other Media Regulations:
o When any new media appeared it was treated like the press o FCC Act of 1934: the FCC cannot regulate anything about free speech on the radio and in the press, and in 1948 passed on to the movies, and in 1969 it was passed to Television
o Prior to radio, communication was point to point
o For the first time, one voice could be heard by many people o John R. Brinkley - he had a cure for everything but especially sexual problems where he implanted goat glands into his patients. He saw the advantage of the radio as a way of advertising, he made a radio station and used it to purely advertise for his cures. In 1930 he was denied a license because he did not broadcast in the public interest but only for private gain. He appealed on the grounds of censorship but lost. So he made a new radio station on the boarder of Mexico. He amped it up to 5000 watts and overrode other radio stations, and then let the Nazi's use it. So the Brinkley Act was created so that any broadcasting from Mexico but originating in the U.S had to be licensed in the U.S. This shut him down for good.
o Radio Act of 1970:
∙ Airways were a limited natural resource, so they were regulated ∙ Wavelength: distance between reoccurring peaks between waves
∙ The number of frequencies broadcasting can use is limited ∙ Propagation characteristics - ability of a wavelength to pass through objects without being absorbed
∙ This view had a lot of evidence which resulted in clutter in the airwaves because there would be too many stations who tried to broadcast on the same frequency, or one stattion would drown out the other station
∙ Radio act of 1927:
Require stations to get a license which would specify their frequency and power
∙ Public ownership of airwaves
∙ Communications Act of 1934:
Created Federal Communications commission
Said that the radio had to broadcast things of interest and need of the public
Only so many stations can be on the air without interfering with each other
∙ Print media audiences must act affirmatively
∙ Broadcast media audience are captive because they can't skip over the parts they did not want to hear.
∙ The Proxy Concept:
Since the public owns the airwaves, licenses are only acting as a proxy for the public
The first amendment doesn’t prohibit requiring a trustee to do certain things
o 4 ideas which allow for regulations:
∙ Public owns the airwaves
∙ Scarcity of airwaves
∙ Differences between print and broadcast media
∙ Proxy concept
o The arrival of cable:
∙ No public ownership of airwaves
∙ No scarcity of resources
∙ No proxy concept
∙ Only the assumption of TVs effect on the audience o 1978 FCC v. Pacifica:
∙ WBAI aired George Carlin's "seven words you can't say on TV" ∙ Pacifica won because it was protected by 1st amendment ∙ FCC appealed, saying it was indecent, for which there was no definition
∙ There was a restriction placed so that things with bad words, regarding sex or excretion, could only be played after 10pm when children are not likely to be watching or listening
∙ FCC tried to get indecent programming banned all together in 1990, which was too far
o New Media Regulations (internet):
∙ There are no owners or central control to go after
∙ No "contemporary community standards"
∙ The only group they can go after for regulation is internet providers, but they don't create it they simply pass it to users who have the right to see it
∙ Definition: legally binding concept giving the creator of a piece of work exclusive rights
o Gives credit where it is due
o Financial Benefits
o Control over adapting work
o Control over performance
∙ If you make something, you should have control over it and profit from it!
∙ First Law - 1790
o Protected for 14 years + could be renewed for additional 14 years o This only protected to U.S. author but other countries soon followed ∙ Copyright Act of 1976
o Copyrights would last for 50 years after the author's death o Expended protection in new media
∙ 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act
o 70 years after author's death
o Copyright protections to materials recorded digitally
∙ A copyright grants the creator exclusive right to benefit financially from his or her creation
∙ Internet makes copyright violation easy
o Public Domain: when intellectual property rights have expired they enter the public domain
∙ Do not need permissions for clips or samples
∙ Copyright laws diminishing public domain
∙ EX: Wizard of Oz was written in 1900, entered public domain in 1956 so that people can reimagine the story, using the same
characters and retelling it in different ways.
∙ EX: Disney has made huge profits from public domain stories, but now they own the copyrights to these classic tales
∙ Benefits of public domain:
∙ Create new knowledge and culture
∙ Retelling for new audience
∙ Access to cultural heritage
∙ Fairy tales, classical music
∙ Low cost access to information
∙ Books, music
∙ Enabling Competition
o Fair Use: can use copyrighted material under certain situations
∙ News reporting
∙ Public doesn't get much in return for giving away the airwaves ( or extending copyright)
∙ Rubber stamp for licenses prevents innovation
o No competition = no incentive for those currently operating to listen to viewers
∙ Result - poor service, less innovation, higher cost
∙ 4 Points about regulation:
o Media Systems are created by policies and subsidies; they are not "natural"
∙ We shape our social systems
∙ Same with media
∙ Owned by the people who put money into them
∙ Commercial Operations
∙ U.S. = capitalist
∙ People weren't necessarily happy with the proposed commercial system
∙ Advertising has never been popular
o First Amendment does not authorize corporate run media system ∙ Freedom of speech does not mean zero regulations
∙ People argue that there should be no regulation at all
∙ Corporations hire people to speak for them.
o American media system is not a free Market system:
∙ Public owns the airwaves ( not the media company)
∙ FCC provides license for companies (and people) to use the airwaves
∙ Licenses are generally free of cost as long as the company (or person) provides a "public service"
∙ They do not give anything back to the public who allows them to use the airwaves
∙ Companies sometimes claim that they only have a narrow slice of the bandwidth, but this is not correct
∙ The government gives this away for free, unlike other industries ∙ There are lots of other subsidies given by the government such as mail, films, government ads
o Policy making process is important for understand the structure of the media system
∙ Radio Act of 1912
∙ Government would license radio stations
∙ Ships needed to have listening to radio transmissions (titanic)
∙ Airwaves broken into:
∙ Commercial - made money from the airwaves
∙ Government - used for military
∙ Amateur (got the worst deal) - for fun
∙ Radio Act 1927
∙ Created the Federal Radio Commission
∙ Limited relation powers
∙ Power to grant licenses
∙ Early Equal time provision
∙ Candidates required to have equal access to
∙ Communication Act of 1934
∙ Creation of the Federal Communication Commission
∙ Debate over commercial vs. non-commercial
∙ Telecommunications act of 1996
∙ Goal: open the markets to everyone
∙ First government regulation since the 1934 (62 years) ∙ They loosened regulations of ownership
∙ The outcome was huge merges
∙ Some rules are not enforced
∙ Lack of competition
Effect on media content:
∙ 1st level: individual level
B. Personal and professional background
i. Executives tend to have more education, which is probably a good thing
ii. Many people choose their taste in media based on the situation we grow up in, and continue to consume the media we are brought up on.
B Personal Attitude
i. Liberal journalist = liberal media
B Role a person plays in the media content (Professional Roles) i. Role of a journalist = cover a story accurately and with as little bias as possible
ii. Owner = goal is to make money for the company and stock holders
∙ 2nd level: Routines
A All organizations need routines to function
i. Allows individuals in the organization to complete tasks ii. Goal is to make a profit
∙ Media attains "raw product"
∙ Obtain product from suppliers
∙ Deliver to audience
∙ They pay attention to what the audience already is accepting, so that they produce something similar that they can understand and feel comfortable with.
∙ Includes what other media outlets are doing
i. If something is a hit in one outlet then other outlets copy o 3rd level: Organizational Influences
∙ Media organizations today largely concerned with profits ∙ Proliferations of mega media
∙ Today there are only 5 media corporations
∙ Big Media:
i. Uniform view of everything
ii. Media diversity & democracy
∙ Consequences of Merging companies:
i. Vertical integration: controlling all aspects of a media project from production, distribution, promotion ect.
ii. Synergy: combining the strengths of different companies ∙ Streamline and efficient and cuts costs
∙ But one company controls all the aspects
iii. Convergence: Different media begin to preform similar tasks ∙ Movie based on a book
∙ Then a video game based on the movie
∙ Then toys based on everything
∙ This is all one company doing everything
o 4th level: External Pressures
∙ Source Pressure - big organizations with power can garner greater coverage
i. Corporations can get their voice heard
∙ Interest group pressure
i. Focus on family, American Family Associations, Christian Parents Television Council - promote 'family values'
ii. Campaigns to voice opinion
∙ Advertisers - threaten to pull money from program i. Advertising will not put money into shows that have messages they do not like.
ii. There are fewer stories that go against the advertising o 5th level: Ideology
∙ Is a formal and articulated system of meanings, values, and beliefs… that can be abstracted as "world views"
∙ U.S ideology:
i. Economic - capitalism, private ownership, free markets ii. Political - liberal democracy, people have equal worth ∙ These values are articulated and reaffirmed in media o From the beginning of media there has been attempts to control them, but every time a new media shows up there will be an attempt to control it.
∙ 1/2 comprehensive
∙ 1/2 ethics, contact hypothesis (how does it work and why is it there), what can and cannot make it work to reduce the conflict and discrimination in a society, know the laws of the regulations and their effects, know why the laws
were passed, know the supreme court decisions that were made, Ohio, Pacifica. Need to know influences on the media, and what they mean. Ethics - theories of being ethical (not the name of inventor), Be able to apply ethical theories to a hypothetical dilemma
∙ Without whom a media would have never come into existence ∙ Franz Ucadius
∙ Whoever had the original genius to create the new media
∙ Talk about how the society was altered when the new media showed up, what caused it and how it changed society
∙ Only the social media theories that were talked about in class (cultivation theory)