Final Exam Study Guide for Com 101
Final Exam Study Guide for Com 101 Com 101
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This 42 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annabelle Hutson on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Com 101 at Washington State University taught by Taflinger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 224 views. For similar materials see Media and Society in Communication at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
Final Exam Study Guide Professor Richard Taflinger A note from professor Taftlinger: The exam is half comprehensive and half the material you have been learning since the last exam. That material includes ethics, contact hypothesis (how it works and why its there), and the laws/regulations and their effects. You should also know the different supreme court decisions that were made. You need to know the influences on the media and what they mean. As far as people go: you only need to know people without whom the media they made would not exist, in other words, the people who had the original genius to create the new media. Also know how these different medias (radio, tv, movies, ect.) affected society. Finally, for the media theories, you should only pay attention to the theories that were discussed in class. Don’t be nervous (yet)! Cumulative Information There are several channels of communications: - Chemical: communications through chemicals - Pheromones: these are molecules of sent that can be picked up to send messages. For example, insects do this during mating season to attract a mate and communicate that they are ready to mate - Visual: This is a visual display (something that can be seen) to convey a message - Aurally (sound): noises or sound vibrations that communicate something The primary way of human communication is talking. Talking is the intricate manipulation of oral sound to convey meaning. The purpose of communication is to connect with other members of the same species (other humans). Why communications is important: - Survival o Safety in numbers – means less of a chance of being picked off o Being the biggest and strongest Hominids had neither natural weapons nor numbers. What they did have was cooperation, they banded together (in small bands) so they had to communicate survival strategies. Because they did not show by example they had to make words to talk it out first. Hunters in the animal kingdom (wolf, lions, etc.) tend to cooperate, but only on the hunt. Humans did not have packs and they did not hunt. They had to talk, so they created a mutual support group. - Reproduction: This is not as strait forward for humans as it is for other animals. People choose partners based on other’s communication and if they like the way they communicate. - To bind groups together: This is a way of helping an organism (people or animals, ect.) know they belong to a group and identify those who are not part of the group. Humans like to use language that shows they are a part of a certain group. This does not have to be language it can also be dialect, such as the southern accent. People have to translate what they here, decode it into something they understand, and then translate their thoughts/response into something that they can reply with. Denotative: - Meanings of words in the literal sense - Usually have a concrete reference Connotative (applies to almost everything, especially things that are not physical objects): - Personal definition of the word (not literal) o What the word means to the individual o Sometimes there is a strong emotional element ( the feelings that apply to the word) o Abstract (not concrete) - Sometimes problems arise when someone thinks someone else has the same definition for an abstraction that they have. It is not the media who creates the definitions of beauty, it simply follows culture’s definition of beauty. A problem for mass media is that the sender of the mass media (such as a TV show producer) is that it is difficult to get feedback/ response for their messages. Thus they are conservative and repeat the same kinds of media over and over because it was successful once (such as ideas for TV shows or movies. Think of how many doctor shows there are, or vampire movies). Media Literacy: It is important because if we are not media literate we cannot understand what the media are doing for/to us. - It is the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and process messages that come from the media - The US produces the most media, but is, however, the least media literate of the countries - It is a continuum rather than a category (from Low to High) - High Literacy = the ability to actively process the message and put it into context, more control over the interpretation of the message - Low Literacy = not consciously processing the message, more likely to just accept the message at face value rather than interpret it. - Someone who is media literate has the skill of critical thinking, enabling them (the audience) to develop independent judgments about media content. - Someone who is media literate understands the process of mass communication (written to be read vs. written to be said) - Someone who is media literate has an awareness of the impact of media on the individual and society, as well as the ability to enjoy, understand, and appreciate media content. Third Person Effect: This when people think they are not affected by the media but they think everyone else is so they complain about the media. For example: “well violence in video games doesn’t make me thing violent thoughts, but it must make other people think violence is ok, therefore the media is affecting them badly.” This was proposed by W. Philips Davidson (1983). - Perceptual component - Message desirability (pro – or antisocial) - Overestimate the effects on others Social Distance Corollary: - The more general/ social distant “other” leads to larger perceived effects o Lower class “others” are more likely to be effected Importance of perceived exposure: - “others” are estimated due to perceived exposure Linking 3 person perception to support for censorships: - Censorship: o Pornography o Violent TV Content o Violent and misogynistic rap and death metal lyrics in music - People support censorship because they assume people are being affected by this content - There is no evidence from any of this, it is just someone using anecdotal evidence Qualitative Analysis of media messages: Qualitative: trying to find out potential effects on the audience, because of how they will receive it. Critical Theories: Help us to understand how audiences perceive a message 1. Semiotics – the science of signs and symbols o Looks at how people create and understand signs and symbols in order to comprehend communications o Trying to figure out how people know what symbols mean, who will interpret a sign and why they will o What does a symbol mean to those who see it o Takes a media message apart, breaks it into pieces, they try to understand what those pieces mean, and then put them back together to understand what the target audience will interpret the whole message as. o “symbolic interactionism” is another term for semiotics 2. Psychoanalysis (“psychoanalytic theory”): o Examines the way in which mass media messages influence the audience’s social rules in order to suppress instinctive antisocial impulses o Freud was the first to come up with this o Id: selfish, only about you, nothing else matters o Superego: about everyone else except you o The id and the superego fighting against each other, id is self- centered and only concerned with avoiding discomfort at all costs. The superego counters the id, the superego is learned so that the superego keeps the id in check so that the person is socially acceptable. Those who don’t have a superego do not follow the rules of society and this is where psychopaths come from. Id and superego simply react to the situation. No one has the same superego as another person. Trapped between the id and the superego is the ego, which is the combination of the id and superego. Tries to balance the demands of id and superego which tells you what you're going to do for real o Looks at the balance of the id and superego. So many rules from our superego comes from the media o Who you are is the balance of id’s demands and the superego’s demands o Every form of media tries to reinforce the superego except for advertising which tries to get the id stimulated without getting the superego involved o All about the subconscious mind to influence conscious behavior 3. Sociological Analysis (the most common): o Comes in many forms that have evolved over the years o 500+ kinds The Story: The Neoaristotelian analysis: - All stories had elements in common: o Action- something needs to happen to be interesting, there are certain parts that have to be there such as exposition (what audience needs to know to understand the story, the universe in which the story happens, when, where, basic starting point. Establishes an equilibrium). Next there is a problem (something throws off the equilibrium, everything in the rest of the story is about fixing the problem) in stories there is only one problem there is. Next there is the Crisis (the solution is applied, often it is the wrong solution and makes the problem worse) which allows the story to continue because it creates a complication (obstacle to solving the problem, keeps getting in the way) most stories more than 15 seconds have multiple complication and crisis. Finally, there is the climax - ultimate crisis, where the protagonist finds the solution and it is over. Finally, there is the denouement where it illustrates the universe back in balance. o Character- agents who carry out the action, there are two words which are vital to storytelling. Every character wants something, and each one wants something different. o Conflict - because the character wants something and each character wants something different, they are constantly in conflict with every other character. Without the conflict there is no story, the problem starts the conflict, the climax is the resolution of the problem, and thus ends the conflict. o Thought - why they story is being told in the first place. Sometimes this influences what the audience’s reality. Most stories use the rules of society they are written for to inforce them. o Diction/ Music/ Spectacle - How the story is told, diction = the words used and how they're said for example characters of a certain status might speak in a way that conveys that whereas characters who are supposed to be "dumb" have an accent that conveys that (such as a southern accent), music = what we hear, including music and sound effects, spectacle = what is seen, including setting, lighting, costumes, make-up, relationships, angles, etc. (they recreate reality). Why is this important? - Humans do not live in reality - Humans tell stories about reality and that is how we understand everything we know - We want to understand things in a “clean” way and stories are clean when reality is messy - Humans have a great sense of the past, present, and future. We can remember the past, apply it to the present to project the future. Stories give us the magic of life: - Three kinds of magic: o Magic of nature: things we see every day (ex: The Grand Canyon) o Spells: saying you want something and it happens (ex: “abracadabra, and “please”) o Technology: How does it work? Do you really know? (ex: cell phones) What is a society? - It is a shared, learned, symbolic system of values, belief and attitude that shapes and influences perception and behavior - All groups which get together have the same basic values and world views (ex: Christians vs. Jews, republicans vs. democrats) - They are a shared perception of reality Ways of knowing: - Tradition: a belief that has lasted for a long time, this is hard to change after someone believes something (ex: eating turkey on thanksgiving) - Authority: someone (who should know) says so, hard to change and may not consider new info (ex: a doctor’s diagnosis) - Intuition or Logic: where the truth is self-evident Problems with “everyday” ways of knowing things: - Filters how info is processed: false premise, illogical reasoning - Everyday ways of knowing can lead to conflict ideas about “truth”: belief in two completely contradictory things at once Why bother with societies and culture: - Humans are weak - Societies are mutual support packs: sociability mutual support/protection packs - Rules are designed to keep friction at bay between different opinions - As more rules are added the freedom of the individual is limited more and more for the benefit of the group Print and Journalism: - News had always driven the plot of people’s social stories - Events would have to be put into context of the social story - Often in the old world this was explained in religion: if something bad happened it was because the gods were displeased - In general people did not used to care about the outside world unless it got too close to them - Printing was invented, so new sheets were published. These were not for average people, they were for rich people. Therefore, they contained information that would be of interest to people with money, and this informatiothwas to help them make more money. - In the 19 century newspapers began being printed for normal people. - News became a very large part of the world view. - Newspapers had no pretense of objectivity. - In 1833 the Sun was the first newspaper everyone could afford. The Penny Press, where the price was a penny and most people could afford it. - Canons of journalism and statement of principles 1923 - Today the same thing exists, the newspaper provides the information and facts, and each person forms their own opinion. What is News? - The definition is fuzzy - Criteria for newsworthiness: o Timeliness – hearing about something in time to do something about it o Proximity – how close the news is to you, and how major to your area o Prominence – what makes someone prominent is that they are reported on, but this is problematic o Consequence – for it to be news it should affect people so they can make an informed decisions about what is being reported on o Rarity – an event being out of the norm, these are unusual o Human interest – what people have interest in, often have no consequences in the real world - Another definition: this is a matter of opinion on what is important, individual to each person and what is important in their world Problems with Objectivity: - Not everyone agrees on what objective is - Says all points are of equal validity - Concept of objectivity can be taken too far o Ignoring context o Not making judgement calls - If providing all the details favors one view, so if they do not include those details they cannot understand that side Two ways of writing news: - Inverted Pyramid: o Basics of the story in the first paragraph o Ensuing paragraphs provide more details o Hard news and news shorts - Feature Writing: o Written as a story with exposition, problem, crisis, and complications and a climax o People in the story are presented as characters (often as heroes, villains, and victims, rather than well rounded people) o Magazines news stories, television news stories, and newspaper articles and columns Future of Newspapers: - Actual number of newspapers are declining - More people depend on modern media (technology) so they buy newspapers less and less - Newspapers cannot support themselves on subscriptions, newsstands and ads - Newspapers have to live off these small funds so they cut costs by cutting important staff, join a syndicate to share expenses, sell subscriptions to online readers,--- and they reduce operations - Newspapers had to cut reporters in important places such as DC Magazines: - Not as many as there are newspapers - Cannot compete on breaking news because they are once a month, however they do write with better in –depth coverage, meaning there is more detail, especially because there are specialists writing the articles and because it does not come out daily the spend more time on writing each piece. Radio: - Sending sound through the air by attaching it to electric sound - Bagdad Battery 250 BCE said to be the first battery - In the 18 century electricity was taken seriously, however only for fun and games - People began to study electricity to find out what it is exactly - Luigi Galvani - 1786 o Believed everything contained electricity - Alessandro Volta -1796 o Thought Galvani was incorrect, and made his own experiment to test if electricity could be made chemically - Hans Christian Oersted - 1820 o Demonstration that magnetism and electricity were not connected when they actually are. - William Sturgeon - 1825 o Created the first electromagnet - Michael Fareday - 1826 o Reversed Stugeon's experiment - Samuel F.B. Morse - 1838 o Sent a message down a wire o For the first time a message could send over miles in an instant o Morse code was created and thus lead to the telegraph o Takes a lot to learn to send the clicks and understand them - Johannes Muller - 1840 o Studying the senses and trying to figure if they were different - Helmholtz o Student of Muller o Sang into piano to discover sound makes vibrations - Leon Scott de Martinville: o Phonautograph - 18 o Made it so sounds could be seen, etched them into Smokey glass - Bell and Gray both invented the telephone at the same time but Bell got to the patent office first so he gets all the credit - Heinrich Hertz - 1886 o Helmholtz students o Spark gap generator - jumps the gap making the spark, made a receiver to try to pick up the spark o The receiver picked up the spark o Demonstrated that electricity traveled through the air in frequencies, just as it did through wires - Guglielmo Marconi - 1894 o Added an antenna to the spark so it could go father o He made "wireless telegraphy" but people call it a radio - Nikola Tesla o Figured how to boost power with the tesla coil o Raised the voltage of an electric current high enough - Reginald Fessenden: o Tried to send the first voice transmission without wires - Ernst Alexanderson: o Made a generator that was powerful to piggy back voice on radio waves going through the air. o Finally radio is born - Lee de Forest (father of radio) o He would just try to create things for fun o Took a Fleming valve (vacuum tube) added a bent wire, and called it the audion tube (1904) and this amplified the tube - Edwin Howard Armstrong o Took the audion tube and improved it o Designed regeneration, so that whatever was put into the tube it was send back into the tube many times o Amplified radio signals and made good sound o Made the superheterodyne which was a receiver to put into the home and pick up signals - Crystal Radio o Made from Quaker oats boxes - David Sarnoff o First to see the potential for big radio o Wasn’t about the actual radio but rather what you could do with the radio o Started at American Marconi office o Knew wireless telegraphy was point to point media o Radio was a broadcast medium rather than a point to point o He wrong the "radio music box memo" to convince companies to invest in building broadcast buildings and selling broadcast music boxes o Was named as commercial manager o In charge of RCA American Marconi General Electric American telephone and Telegraph Westinghouse o They used Armstrong's inventions - Radio stations start popping up all over the country - KWSU (KWSC) is made on campus and it’s the third in the world - Every kind of entertainment was available on the radio Sound Recording: Orson Welles - 1938 Sound Recording: Leon Scott de Martinville Thomas Edison: tinfoil phonograph 1877 with the intention of being an answering machine, but simply made something that could play back sound Chichester Bell and Tainter's phonograph 1885 Problem: could only make one at a time rather than making multiple Berliner Gramophone - 1887 1890 the first juke box was created Eldridge Johnson got rid of the crank and put in a motor so that songs would no longer die during a song "little nipper" - was a phonograph company with the dog listening to his master's voice from the phonograph There was a race to advance the players more and more, but there was a problem with production Mechanical Recording Session: everyone would have to gather near the cone, which limited how many musicians could be on the recording Electrical Recording: Valdemar Poulsen 1897 made a way to record electrically Telegraphone 1915: it's steel wire was weak and could not be replaced Fritz Pfleumer added magnetic wire to strips of paper. The use of tape was a breakthrough BASF/AEG magnetophone: 1935 people were able to buy these magnetic recording things, Carbon granule mic: very poor quality mic and speakerphone Condenser Mic: used 1925 needed a battery to power, and susceptible to moisture. Ribbon Mic Radio stations needed the records so that they could play things back rather than having a live band come in Radio was mostly entertainment and constantly needed new material Non main stream music came to a rise New forms of music became popular For 20 years the country was bound together by the radio as a common source of info and social norms 1952 Alan Freed "father of rock and roll" he started making rock music a staple for the radio Music aimed at young people started being played more often 1944 Minnesota Manufacturing company came up with rust on tape to give greater sensitivity Reel to reel tape recorder Cassette Tape: 1963 made from plastic and used small tape Norelco CarryCorder 1965 Sony Walkman personal carry your own music entertainment 1979 This was the beginning of decline of records Digital Revolution: CD pits Movies: - Fraz Ucanious made motion pictures as a teaching tool, using it to teach his students how a cannon ball flies - Ludwig Doebler was a magician who stole Ucanious’ idea and started using the machine for motion picture shows which became very popular in England - Aristotle wrote about painting with light, and talked about the pinhole camera, which was a black box with a small hole on one side, which, when pointed at something, would reflect it upside down to be accurately traced - Hyatt came up with Celluloid, which was first used in ivory replacement. It was very flammable - Hannibal Goodwin took celluloid which was created by Hyatt, and turned it into sheets - Edison came up with the kinetiscope which was a movie in a box that had a coin slot, so people could insert a coin and a movie would play while the viewer looked through some goggles. - The Lumiere brothers were the first to play a moving picture on a bedsheet and call it a movie theater - Movie theaters continued from then on to be in theaters, and there were nickel theaters called nickelodeons Lumieres showed movies by shining Edison had a kinetiscope Danish Researches: discovered selenium would generate an electrical signal in direct relation to the amount of Movies and Society: society before movies was all local or parochial Movies reflect the markers' society 1920s Post World War I movies went through a major change Movies started to cater to the young people who wanted to defy the old ways of society and create their own new young society Movies created a sense of community A full evening of entertainment: A cartoon A news reel A short subject, like a comedy bit A movie, sometimes 2 The movies where upbeat, optimistic and filled with dance They left people feeling happy after watching it 1940s war propaganda started cropping up in movie theaters, there are lots of movies about the women waiting for their man to come home from the war, and she sacrifices the things a women has to in war times These movies helped people to change their opinions to whole hearted support of the war It's a Wonderful Life - 1946 was one of the best movies, and helped people to get happy again 4 Movies reflected the way young people felt because they didn't like the way their parents wanted society to be 1950s people wanted to believe everyone was content in the world, everyone has a dog, and 2 kids, and a white picket fence The blackboard jungle in 1955 disproved this, showing the real world With the Cold War it was clear that the world could come to an end, and movies reflected that The fear of nuclear power and war in the 1950s In the 1960s there was a new freedom in the 60s, laws were changed and movies could do more than they could before, they stopped worrying about offending people People stopped worrying about sex It looked at the suburban life and how they didn't care about the restrictions but didn't know what they wanted in place 1970s looked at the myths of society, and which should be held and which should go away One of the big myths was the trust worthiness in the government to work in the public's good People started looking at politicians as people who just wanted power not to actually work for the government Jaws was the first summer block buster movie In the 1970s there started being battles between good and evil (star wars) so literal battles Movies that the industry did not think would be popular became major hits These movies helped bind back together a society that had been fragmented in the 1960s 1980s a problem arose, the studios realized messages in movies were bad for sales, so they merged with companies that knew nothing about movies to put teenagers in the theater Most movies at this time were about teenagers and catered to them For adults, the Vietnam war became a story for movies to use Most movies in the 80s that were anti-war Special Effects took off because of Star Wars, because George Lucas figured out ways to do something that could not really be done except in a computer. Lots of SyFy started, Star Trek came into the play, most of their money went to special effects 1990s a period of establishing new mythologies, as well as reinforcing some old ones (Schindlers list, Saving Private Ryan) New mythologies are changed (Dances with wolves) Conspiracy theories started arising (JFK) Blockbuster films came more and more important, they went year round (Braveheart, Jurassic Park) Reemergence of Animation, started with Snow White from Disney, but the these imaginations where nothing like the original stories, They rewrote them to reflect society to be the way it wants to be today 2000s Movies are still delivering mythology, but it Is not out of our experiences/pasts They were based on fantasies that were not from our past (pirates of the Caribbean, the matrix, lord of the rings) Future: concerned with movies that bring in audiences, lots of sequels, where audiences are already existent (books/ tv shows with a large fan base), Big name actors will be used because they're already known Movies have reverted to the kinetiscope, where it’s all about making money, not about the message Newsreels were important, they started to be produces after the lumieres who made the first movie theater, Pate made the hand held camera so that it could go around, and they filmed WW1. Movie studios sent a camera and writing producer went to the action, the producer would edit content into a news real and sent it to the main office to go to the theater People nowhere near the war saw what the war was like, they saw the dirt, blood and death. These drove home the war to people, they responded emotionally and feel the impact of war. Created newsreels that covered several subjects Television news killed off the newsreels Newsreels laid the ground work for television news - Next invention was color TV, and CBS had the first color system because they created the sequentially color wheel - Because CBS was the only channel that produced color productions that was the only channel people with color TV could watch - NBC was the next to start on color - RCA color TV was in 1954 - Producing color shows was more expensive than black and white, the networks did not want to produce them, therefore the public did not want to buy color TVs - RCA gave money so that sponsors could produce color TV - Once more things were broadcast in color more people bought color TVs - Digital has replaced analog - TV has been established as one of the most powerful media ever established Television and Society: - Had the same impact as writing and printing - Biggest on 1950s when everyone started having a set in their home - Movies in the home = incredible at the time - Television took mainstream beliefs and stuck with them, promoting them, because sponsors did not ---want to upset people by challenging what people believe Early Television: Everything was done in studios, and turned into an era of experimentation Originally started with everything that was on the radio Musical Variety shows were the most popular at first Small scale sports (boxing wrestling) No close ups or multiple angles Live Dramas (not series) they were plays done in front of a camera Sponsors owned the shows, and they used their marketing teams to run the shows which where fillers between commercials Interference by sponsors in shows could get very petty 50s = the "golden age of television" as culture was brought into the home with these different plays The number of political talk shows during primetime decreased over the years Prime time week: 8-11 and weekends: 7-11 Networks drive was for viewers eyes looking at the commercials, and the political talk shows required thinking When everything was started to be filmed rather than live (except dramas, talk shows) Television: - 1950s: people wanted peace and conformity, and TV did not do that - TV took mainstream beliefs and reinforced them - The TV networks stuck with the bland so they wouldn't upset viewers - A new kind of action drama almost drove out all other action, that was the Cowboy - Westerns were aimed at kids, so the tv producers started to create westerns aimed at adults, the most famous being Gunsmoke in 1955-75 - Some people complained that the Westerns did not have enough action - The anti-western was the opposite of the cowboy, the name of this hero is Maverick, and the purpose if it was to undermine the cowboy, audience saw it as a real western but it was a spoof - Bonanza 1959 - 73 another big western - Society was not really black and white like the westerns, with all bad and all good - The power of television came into people's homes, which gave it the power to expose hypocracy, and show the extremists of good and evil - Joe McCarthy - lead a witch hunt against communism in the government and Hollywood. Accused people of communism with no evidence, and badgered them until they confess. These trials were televised. He destroyed a lot of people's lives, and told people that if they opposed him, they would be accused next. He had power to play on people's fear to get them to follow him. - Edward R. Murrow went after McCarthy, and said it was no time for men who opposed McCarthy to be quiet. - CBS let McCarthy talk about whatever he wanted for 30 minutes on prime time TV, and he just used the time to accuse Murrow, and this lead to him loosing his following. TV destroyed him because it exposed his demi-godery - 1960s: a new type of show came out: the single parent show - It couldn't be the result of divorce, the other parent had to be dead. The Andy Griffith Show - 1960 Showed that small town values were the best values Country life is better Single Parent Rural Comedy Openness and kindness Explored the changes of American Life - 1961 this show put out the message that women are equal to men, long before the women's movement - A popular theme became rural life vs. big city life, taking rural folks and taking them into the big city where they miss behave - These comedies were all canceled because the older folks didn't like it - The news was full of war, and protests, and unrest, where as TV produced funny dumb shows during prime time, idiocy was king - TV needed audiences eyes to sell to sponsors, sponsors didn't want an upset audience because they might not pay attention to the commercial - Tv in the 60s was a vast wasteland - 1970s: Society blew up, and there were great generation differences which left conflict, Race riots, war riots, and a growing generation gap. Baby boomers fought with WW2 generation over how society should proceed - At the end of WW2 the women who had gone into work decided they liked financial freedom and working. This came to a head in late 1960s, when the younger generation rebelled on the constraints on women The Mary Tyler Moore Show - 1970 showed two new ideas: A woman could be at the age of 30 She could be happy without being married, and still has sex She was the first truly liberated woman on television The networks did not like putting divorced women on TV, so they just had her boyfriend dump her Adults unrelated could make a nuclear family and have the same comedy A new show came around: All in the Family 1971 For the first time in any show used taboo subjects for a basis for a plot Taboo subjects: Sex, race, religion, politics, death People found this really funny Introduced a social political views, and had two extremes You do not think in feelings, you think in words All in the family gave you the words from the extreme ends so you can think about the issue in words In the middle of the two extremes was the audeinces oppinion and they now had the facts to support why they think that way Audiences wanted something smart to think about, because they were intelligent and liked being involved in the show, no longer mindlessness. They explored the changes in the social world and actually thought about them The impacts of television on society and society on television - M*A*S*H - 1972 was extremely popular, and its final episode is till the most watch TV show - First sitcom that didn't think laugh-a-minute jokes were the only way, they brought emotions, and dealt with real issues such as death - This show caused conflict with the generation gap, because the younger people thought it was funny but the WW2 people said it wasn't funny at all - Watergate changed Society forever, because Nixon betrayed everyone's trust of the government - Walter Cronkite ("The Most Trusted Man in America") never let his own opinions be in the news, and he played a key role in Watergate, he broadcast 2 big stories on the news, which let it be known to millions via the TV - Even those who didn't think it was true said it was true because Walter said it was true - Prior to Watergate people trusted politicians to do what was best for the country, but afterward people realized politicians are just in it to get the job and get power, so they no longer trust the government - All the old rules of society saying to trust the government were thrown out, and society demanded new rules, and TV went along with it - Sexual Revolution on TV in the late 1960s and early 1970 despite the older generation's protests, most sitcoms became TNA - The 1980s this was the lowest time for situational comedy, there are mostly dramas on the air, this had a storyline that went over multiple episodes. Dallas was the first story that went over the whole seasons rather than just a few episodes. - The Cosby Show 1984 brought back the sitcom with the family comedy, and this was the biggest show in the 80s - Roseanne 1988 - broke ground on TV by showing a sexually active overweight woman, and showed fantasies of Roseanne killing her family for comedy to enjoy her bath, this was no longer a "leave it to beaver" world - Married with Children 1987 - was the exact opposite of the Cosby show, sex was a major part of the show, the family didn’t get along, completely rejected the social story everyone wanted. Lead to protests against the show. Campaigns lead to publicity of the show, and kept it on the air. - The Simpsons 1989 - heightened the trend of the idiot, competent father/husband, and the woman rescues him. There were lots of complaints against the show, especially Bart, because he was a poor role model for kids. It is the longest prime time running show on TV. Biggest problems: Social criticism and other cultural ideas. One of the most culturally literate shows on the air. The Rise of Cable: Invented by John Walson 1948 to bring Tv to places that couldn't receive broadcast signals FCC restricted it to prevent competition with broadcast stations until 1972 HBO started in 1972 - first network to use satellite instead of phone lines to deliver content Cable Act of 1984 - cable restrictions lifted and new networks could start - Fox had a hard time getting started, because they needed an affiliation, so only 50 percent of the country can see Fox, but once the cable started Fox could go anywhere in the country - Magazines and Radio fragments the audience because of the competition with television, they had to target niche audiences. Basically this happened with cable too, because there were many more channels that could be created, more than just the big 5 - Every network had to concentrate on a certain audience because they wanted viewers, so they had to change their shows to fit the different social stories, they marketed to audiences not being represented on the air - For decades society showed the same social story but with cable any group had a network that catered to their world view. - There were cross overs: 1999 Will and Grace started changing society, by showing a gay couple, much of the humor was Will and Jack, but overall there weren't many complaints. Will was chill, and Jack was so over the top Gay that no one really took it seriously, it was too funny. TV: In the late 90s TV was changing by showing situations on TV that had never before been ok on Tv before Sex and the City in 1998 showed a lot of single women who were not celibate, and addressed a lot of sexuality, and liberated women TV and Money: When cable came around the networks had to cut costs because there were too many cable networks Shows were often canceled because they cost too much and were not watched enough Syndication was an individual station that simply ran reruns of old shows from other networks TV stations would buy the rights for a show and then started stripping so that they could play the same show at the same time every day during the week day To do syndication there had to be 72 episodes (3 years on the network) Scripted shows are very expensive, where as unscripted (game shows) are much cheaper A new kind of show came along, based on 1973 show "An American Family" and it established a cheap show. Take real people and put them on TV thus "reality TV" was born Writers and actors are the biggest expense for any type of scripted show The participants in reality TV are actually just characters in a drama When you see a reality show you see rearranged reality, they just shoot the footage and write the script afterward Reality shows seem to be crowding out scripted shows on the networks, The effect of reality shows on the public is huge, people think it real and they want a part of it so they apply to be on it, or be in real life situations like they characters in the show Journalism and TV: Local News o Standard format Big Local and regional stories Major national stories Weather Sports Puff Piece - a light weight meaningless story to make the audience feel happy, because it puts all the other things before it on the same level "its not important, non of this show is, don't worry about it" o Part of their licensing agreement for public service National News o Gives national and international news (national disasters, politics, war, famine, ect.) o Ends with a puff piece History o Each network had an evening news show Only 15 minutes, later expanded to 30 minutes o 1980 - Ted Turner begins CNN, the first 24 hours news networks Characteristics of TV News: Short form Shallow - Lots of details have to be omitted and analysis is no longer really there Emotional - they could now show the action, and the news casters reactions are shown The problem is that not everything can be/should be emotional, because having overpowering emotions takes away the ability to think General Characteristics of News (TV News): News is personalized (they put a face, an emotion face, on the TV to tug at heart strings) but the public will dismiss the problems as just specific to the person/ people in the story News is fragmented, there are lots of brief, capsulated story that has no relation to any of the other stories, there is very little news given for perspective. They do not give the how or why events happen, they simply state that they happen. Journalists are obsessed with objectivity, just giving the facts. News is normalized, they try not to make the audience freak out, they really only use the officials to make the audience feel safe and as if they didn’t need to do anything. They follow the standard script of asking officials how the disaster is going. Reinforces that the powerful are able to do their jobs well and make sure everything goes well if no one interferes with their power. Journalism helps create our reality, but the news gives stories, not reality. Modern Communication: Index cards were originally "computers" for finding information on research already done Yes or No answers = digital computing Charles Babbage: designed a calculating "engine" in 1830, which would do arithmetic very quickly but it was analog not digital. Basile Bouchon: o Created Bouchon's loom Jean-Baptiste Falcon: on 1728 improved on bouchon's loom by making card rather than paper, so that it didn't break down as easily Jaques de Vaucanson: 1741 improved the system Joseph Jacquard: perfected the use of cards in the system, so he gets all the credit for making the automated loom, this automated loom was "digital" Article in the constitution says there must be a census every 10 years to count all the people in the US. This was ok until everyone wanted to come to the US Herman Hollerith: came up with the Hollerith Tabulator which used punch cards, when someone new came to the US, it was written down and given to a tabulator, who entered all the new people into the tabulator's punch card. The card was placed in a holder, ending with the Hollerith punch cards in the 1890s census. The new way of finding info with the tabulator cut the time needed to do the census considerably. Both business, and especially war drive technology German Z3 - 1941 was a digital computer which replaced cards with electricity, this kind of digital computer did the math to show where to put a gun to shoot down a plane. It used vacuum tubes rather than cards, which came Binary code You could represent any number or letter or symbol by showing a series of 1s and 0s British Colossus 1944 was a huge computer, they grew in size and the amount of calculations, which lead to programming Eniac 1946 was an absolutely huge computer which could be programed to do anything The problem with the vacuum tube was that they were hot, so they came up with the transistor, which was much smaller and cooler to operate, and could pack several transistor in the same place as 1 vacuum tube Kilby's integrated circuit 1958 allowed several transistors in the same small space, now they could be made cheap Modern Integrated Circuit: was a very tiny circuit These chips stated showing up in everything that used a vacuum tube (radio, TV, ect) They make small portable radios The place that needed the transistors was the space race, which needed the calculating power News of these computers spread Altair personal computer 1975 which geeks loved, it could be programmed to do things Bill Gates and Paul Allen made "Basic" which was computer language in 1975 Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs 1976 they came up with a small computer, the Apple I which replaced the switches with keys, and used Basic written by Gates. In 1977 they made the Apple II which had color display and a floppy disk drive. Average people did not like it. Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston - Visicalc 1978 they made an app that everyone could want to use. It was a spreadsheet and soon everyone wants one. Tim Patterson and QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System) 1980s which ran on more powerful computers. Gates bought it, and tinkered with it before putting it out as MSDOS (Microsoft). Gates licensed it to IBM to put on their computers for cheap, but he licensed it to anyone who wanted it not just IBM. Gates found that the money was not in the operating system, but in the programs that would run on the operating system (word, excel, ect). Sony Betamax was the first thing to record TV VHS VCR was an even newer way to record TV and VHS pushed Betamax out Betamax was better sound and better picture but rentals killed it because the porn industry chose VHS The VCR changed things because programming started to be in the hands of the viewers, not the networks People were watching tapes rather than what was actually on TV, they skipped the unpopular shows, and the ratings for taped shows were destroyed because they could not tell when something was being taped. Viewers could now avoid commercials, and that made the sponsors mad Recording movies off the air, so the movie companies were angry because they no longer received royalties, so the studios would loose income. This changed the field of TV and movies, the sponsors wanted deals from the networks. Networks had to reduce costs Any show that did not immediately get an audience were canceled The kind of movies being made changed, so the movies went more toward making movies that look better on a big screen than a small screen. The main point of targeting teenagers for movies is because they are most likely to go to movies The greatest problem with the VCR is the picture quality 1885 Carl Welsbach was an Austrian chemist who was hired to improve the gas lamp to keep it more popular than the lightbulb. Concentrated with rare minerals, and found a new one Georgia Cayvan was the best actress in the 1880s and she wore a glass dress for a publicity stunt. 1960s people got the idea for the laser, the first was by Gordon Gould, he made the Ruby laser. The laser could go to a very small beam and has very little spread, and the length can be very finely measured The pits are read by the laser as 0s and 1s Almost as soon as the laser was invented the laser read compact disc (CD) was made Sony, Philips, and Toshiba made a disc with mass amounts of storage, so they could now make DVDs The DVD provided better sound and picture but they could not record so the VCR remained the big recorder The DVR then came around and put the VHS out for good. But the problem was that the number of shows that could be recorded depended on the amount of storage on the DVR In the 90s they got rid of the floppy disk and started making CD burners, so people would burn TV shows recorded previously, and able to watch them on DVDs. Blu-ray was the next step, allowed 25 gbyte rather than the 4.7 on a DVD. It was a result of improving the mechanics and from changing from the red laser to the blue laser. Blue is more accurate, and smaller. Early cell phones 1980s Sony Walkman CD - 1984 iPod 2001 play back purely digital file iPhone 2007 this was the first smart phone The smart phone is popular because it has all these apps that do things that are easily usable to people The internet invented by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and was created at the request of Eisenhower in the 1950s, because he wanted to make sure the nuclear war wouldn't take out all the computers. They wanted to connect the computers but in a way that wouldn’t destroy all of them if one place was taken out. Required three changes in computers o Going from analog to digital o Connecting computers through phone lines Packet Switching o Divide any message into chunks of data, or packets Each packet is a small part of the address Each packet has a final destination address Protocols- codes that allow computers to talk to each other regardless of manufacturer or operating system At the beginning it was mostly college professors who used the internet because it was created by college professors When word got out then everyone wanted to be on the internet, and then came around the internet provider Tim Berners-Lee created the World Wide Web (www) invented in 1989 and public in 1993, created HTML which was a set of codes that told the computer how to display the page on the screen. The advantages to HTML had hyperlinks, so you didn't have to know the exact address Marc Andreessen made Mosaic which allowed people to not know all the codes The internet became central to everything Has led to word redefinition "googling" Modern communication and Society: The transistor: before it no computers would have existed. Without the transistor things would run on vacuum tubes and be huge. Lots of transistors in a small space = the IC chip The idea of hand writing letters seems to have disappeared We used to talk or write on paper but now we talk on the phone and text on the phone Facts to consider: Extended plot stories over multiple episodes require audience commitment USA TODAY, the country's most popular newspapers, uses very short stories and lots of graphics Sound Bites have shortened from 42 seconds to 7 seconds = bumper sticker politics, but leaves out anything that might help people decide if it’s a good idea or not Along with bumper sticker politics there are tweets, 140-character limit Result: Short attention span Low threshold of boredom Era of instant gratification TV news relies on people taking videos on their phones, and looking at social media to find material to report on Greatest change in society: The computer o They run everything o They make the decisions o They do what they are told, they cannot think, but people believe they are thinking o They hold all the information about all of us What modern communication has done and is still doing: We're at the beck and call of our devices We've developed a low threshold of boredom We've lost our privacy Anything anybody wants to say they can say to everybody We're in a global electronic village - we have never been closer or further apart Knowledge is in the data base rather than people's heads Qualitative effects are those that create someone's reality about the world and how it works - Research = an attempt to discover something - Social Science = An examination of how people interact with objects in their environment - Giovanni Benedetti decided to test Aristotle's guesses at various things. He performed the ball drop experiment Ways of knowing: Tradition Tied to prior held beliefs Beliefs are hard to change Scientific method: The 4th way of knowing Requires systematic analysis Always open to new information o Nothing is ever "proven" with science Tests questions of fact Differences between hard and social sciences: Hard sciences deal with the inanimate or nonhumans, like elements and forces and animals Social science deals with people Methodologies Observation o Reduce variables as much as possible Surveys o Administers questionnaires to research o Be careful with wording the questions o Be careful of question order Focus Groups o Small panel of people who discuss what the researcher interested in o Problems with maintaining focus o Danger of one person dominating discussion Content Analysis: o Counting things to get statistics o Sample size must be large enough o Time consuming o Must specifically define what you're looking for What are media effects? Media effects approach o Focus on audiences (vs. media system) Try to reduce variables o Specification Types of Outcomes in Effects Research: o Behavioral - buying a product o Attitude o Cognitive o Physiological - jump scene in a scary movie Eras of Media effects: o Magic bullet/ uniform effects Also known as Direct Effects Pre- 1945 Focus on war propaganda o Limited ( or indirect effects) - two step flow o Powerful effects in limited areas Early 1970s to present Move to focus on cognitions and perceptions How do we know what is going on? Get information from news. Relevance: proximity Importance: prominence Interest: conflict oddity Conflict needs to be odd + out of the norm. Agenda Setting: Media tells us what to think about – which leads us to perceptions of what matters Media doesn’t tell us WHAT to think People care more about what gets news coverage even if something else is more of a threat Framing: Media tell you not only WHAT to think about (agenda setting) but HOW to think about it Explains why people have similar opinions/reactions Shanto Lyengar (1991) Examined how issues were presented on television Episodic: there is a problem that is solved at the end of the episode Thematic: a main theme running through all episodes How a story is told Game Frame: Horse race (politics): Who is leading the race and winning. It implies 1 candidate is better than another. Value Framing: Implies the story is around something that the people watching value Frank Luntz: really good at framing by choosing specific words. Chose the wording for estate taxes which = “death” taxes to evoke a stronger emotion Talking Points: words and phrases in a news story which will evoke lots of emotions, and are given to anyone who wants to be interviewed about the subjects will hit them. They become part of the world view. Beginning of Spiral of Silence: Created by Elisabeth Noelle – Nuemann (1984) Examined originally by considering the content of train passengers conversation Certain topics of controversy that don’t come up to keep the peace Individuals who are in the minority will often keep their opinions to themselves = minority views are less often heard. The more the loud voices make noise the more it seems they are the majority The Big Lie: Joseph Goebbels Say something often enough and loud enough, then people will believe them. Basics of the Knowledge Gap: Increasing info in the environment will increase knowledge High SES individuals acquire info at a faster rate than low SES individuals o Essentially the" rich get richer": people with higher SES get better information than lower SES o Societal and democratic implication Why The Gap Exists: Differences in cognitive/ communication skills Less about memorizing new facts, but rather learning to think about the new information People do not like reading because they view it as a chore, especially because reading is slow Listening is a skill that needs to be practiced and mastered Differences in prior information and knowledge Access to information Selective exposure to information Desire for Consistency: People generally like to hear information that agrees with beliefs they already hold Cognitive Dissidence - the personal experiences that create our world Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Cognitions: bits of knowledge individuals have stored in their mind Individual cognitions have one of three relationships with one another o Dissonant relationship o Consonant relationship o Irrelevant relationship Magnitude of Dissonance: Importance of the cognitions Ratio of dissonance to consonant cognitions: the more new cognitions received that conflict with existing thoughts the more discomfort. The fewer = less discomfort and less of the need to escape. Degree of cognitive overlap: the similarity of the choices Necessary Conditions for Cognitions Dissonance: Aversive consequences Freedom of choice Insufficient external justification – can’t find enough outside sources to support what you believe, and reject the new information Rationalization: People rationalize things in absurd situations Selective Exposure: We tend to expose ourselves to info sources that are likely to reinforces our views Happens at three levels: o Selective
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