HDF213 FINAL Study Guide
HDF213 FINAL Study Guide HDF 213
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacobi Johnson on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HDF 213 at Central Michigan University taught by Angera, Jeffrey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Sexuality in Human Development at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
HDF213 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 15 Sexually Transmitted Infections • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) infections that are transmitted through sexual contact. • Some infections are curable, others are not. Consequences such as compromised health, pain and discomfort, infertility, and even death may occur. • Common STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, genital warts, pubic lice, etc. • The spread of STIs is often facilitated by the fact that many do not produce obvious symptoms. Bacterial Infections • Infections such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, nongonococcal urethritis, etc. • Chlamydia a urogenital infection caused by bacteria. It is the most frequently reported infectious disease in the United States. • It is transmitted primarily through oral, anal, or vaginal contact, and can be spread from one area of the body to another via touch. • Teenagers and young women are most susceptible, mainly because their cervixes are not yet fully matured. • The main symptom of this disease is inflammation of the urethral tube or infection of the cervix. • Many women experience few or no symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they include a mild irritation or itching of the genitals, a burning sensation during urination, and a slight vaginal discharge. • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) an invasive infection in the upper reproductive tract, including the uterus and pelvic cavity an estimated 40% of women with untreated chlamydia will develop PID. • PID symptoms include disrupted menstrual periods, chronic pelvic pain, lower back pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and headache. • After the infection has been effectively treated, and residual scar tissue in the fallopian tubes can leave some women sterile. • In men, untreated chlamydia may result in a discharge from the penis, a burning sensation during urination, itching around the opening of the penis, and less commonly, pain and swelling in the testicles. • Trachoma a chronic contagious form of conjunctivitis caused by chlamydia infections. • Conjunctivitis inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelid in the exposed surface of the eyeball. Trachoma is the world's leading cause of preventable blindness, and is often seen in babies who have mothers that are infected with chlamydia. • Treatment involved taking a 7 day regimen of doxycycline or a single gram dose of azithromycin. • Gonorrhea a sexually transmitted infection that initially causes inflammation of the mucus membranes. It is the second most reported infectious condition in the United States. • It is transmitted by any type of sexual contact. • Early symptoms of gonorrhea infection are more likely to be evident in men than women. • The symptoms typically appear 2 to 5 days after sexual contact with an infected person, and the two most common signs of infection are a bad smelling, cloudy discharge from the penis and a burning sensation during urination. • These may clear up, but the man could still be contagious and the infection may spread up the vas deferens and into the testes, causing reproductive problems. • Women often cannot tell they are infected, as the main site of the disease (the cervix) can become inflamed without producing any noticeable symptoms but if they do notice any, it is a burning sensation during urination and increased vaginal discharge. • Gonorrhea can cause PID in women as well. • Gonococcal PID tends to be more severe. • In about 2% of adult men and women with gonorrhea, the bacteria can enter the bloodstream and spread throughout the body, producing a variety of symptoms including chills, fever, loss of appetite, skin lesions, and arthritic pain in the joints. • Similar to chlamydia, an infant can develop an eye infection after passing through the birth canal of an infected woman. • Oral contact with the genitals can also cause infection. • Chlamydia infections often accompany gonorrhea, so health practitioners use a treatment that is effective against both. A single dose of an antibiotic and azithromycin or doxycycline for seven days will help treat the infection. • Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) an inflammation of the urethral tube caused by organisms other then gonococcus. • Other than sexual contact, and you can also be caused by invasion of other infectious agents, allergic reaction to vaginal secretions, irritation from soaps, vaginal contraceptive's, or deodorant sprays. • NGU is quite common among men occurring more frequently than gonorrhea. • Symptoms include discharge from the penis and a mild burning sensation during urination. The symptoms usually disappear after 2 to 3 months without treatment but the infection may still be present. If left untreated in women, it can result in cervical inflammation or PID, in men, it can spread to the prostate, epididymis, or both. • Azithromycin and doxycycline are also used to treat NGU. • Syphilis A bacterial infection that is transmitted exclusively from open lesions of infected individuals to mucous membranes are skin abrasions of sexual partners. • Chancre a raised, red, painless sore that is occurs about 3 weeks after initial infection. It indicates the primary phase of syphilis. • In the secondary phase, which usually occurs 2 to 8 weeks after exposure, a skin rash appears on the body, often on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. • The latent stage of syphilis can last for several years, during which there may be no observable symptoms. • Approximately 15% of individuals who did not obtain effective treatment and to the tertiary stage. This can be severe, often resulting in death. It can include conditions such as heart failure, blindness, paralysis, skin ulcers, liver damage, and severe mental disturbance. • Even in these late stages, treatment can be beneficial. Intramuscular injections of benzathine penicillin G are often used, but if the patient is allergic to penicillin, it can be treated with doxycycline, tetracycline, or ceftriaxone. Viral Infect ns • Herpes infection characterized by blisters on the mouth and genitals • Current estimates indicate that more than 100 million Americans have oral herpes and at least 50 million or 1 in 5 people over age 12 have genital herpes. • The presence of painful sores is the main symptom of this virus. A person is highly contagious during the eruption of sores, but may still be transmittable even when there are no visible symptoms. • Prodromal symptoms symptoms that warn of an impending herpes eruption, including burning, tingling, throbbing, or pain in the genital region • Relapse is common and unavoidable, as the virus remains dormant in one’s body. • Herpes has no known cure. Antiviral drugs such as acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir may be prescribed to help manage the infection. • Condoms do provide proper protection against transmission of the virus. • Genital warts viral, sexually transmitted warts that appear on the genitals caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). • it is now the most common viral STI in the United States with 15% infected. • At least 50% of sexually active people will acquire HPV at some point in their lives. • Condoms may reduce transmission but warts may also be present on skin that is not covered, so transmission may still be possible. • HPV passed through oral sex is a common cause of throat cancer it is estimated that about 60% of throat cancer are attributed to this. • Many people may not develop visible symptoms. If they appear, warts will pop up within weeks or months after contact with an infected person. • Genital warts can cause urinary obstruction and bleeding, and studies have linked it to the development of cancers in the genital region. 8590% of cervical cancer cases have been linked to HPV, but mainly if it remains undetected and untreated. • Pregnant women may transmit the virus to their children during birth, causing a respiratory infection that can cause serious complications. • No treatment has been shown to be effective in removing warts or preventing them from reoccurring. • Cryotherapy (freezing of the warts) may be used to remove warts. Larger and persistent warts may be cauterized, vaporized by a laser, or surgically removed. • Even though there is no cure, it will often disappear on its own without treatment. • Vaccines such as Gardasil have been approved by the FDA to protect against HPV. • Viral hepatitis an ailment in liver function caused by a viral infection. • There are three types: hepatitis A, B, and C, each caused by a different virus. • Hepatitis B is the most common. It can be passed through blood, blood products, semen, vaginal secretions, and saliva AND can be passed to baby during birth. • Hepatitis A and B are more likely to be passed through sexual contact anal contact in specific. • It can also be shared through needles Hepatitis C is commonly transmitted this way. • Symptoms can vary from mild to flulike symptoms such as poor appetite, upset stomach, fatigue, etc. to an incapacitating illness characterized by high fever, vomiting, and severe abdominal pain. Jaundicing of the eyes and skin may also occur. • No specific therapy is available to treat hepatitis A. Hepatitis B may be treated with antiviral drugs. Most people will recover in a few weeks with proper bed rest. • Hepatitis C is the moth healththreatening and accounts for the majority of hepatitis deaths. • Combination therapy with antiviral drugs may be used to control hepatitis C. • Bacterial vaginosis A vaginal infection caused by bacterial microorganisms. • It is the most common form of vaginitis among US women. • Sexual contact seems to be a mode of transmission, as BV occurs more frequently amongst sexually active women. It is even more common among women with female sex partners. • The most common symptom of bacterial vaginosis is a grey or white colored foulsmelling, thin discharge. Irritation of the genital tissues and mild burning sensation during urination may also occur. • When men harbor the infectious organisms that cause BV, inflammation of the foreskin and glands of the penis, inflammation of the urethral tube (urethritis), or infection of the bladder (cystitis). • Oral metronidazole or intravaginal application of creams and gels may be used to treat this condition. • Candidiasis (yeast infection) an inflammatory infection of the vaginal tissues caused by a yeastlike fungus. • It is the second most common vaginal infection in North America. • An estimated 75% of women will have at least one genital candidiasis infection in their life. • The organism exists in the vagina normally, but accelerated growth causes the disease state. • Pregnancy, diabetes, and the use of birth control pills and oral antibiotics are often associated with yeast infections. • It can be transmitted through sexual or nonsexual means. • A yeast infection causes white, clumpy discharge that looks something like cottage cheese. • It is also associated with intense itching and soreness of the genitals, which typically become red and dry. • Trichomoniasis a form of vaginitis caused by the one celled protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. • It occurs in both men and women. • The most common symptoms in women is an abundant, frothy, white or yellow green vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor. It can irritate the genital tissues causing them to become inflamed, itchy, and sore. • The recommended treatment for both sexes is a single 2gram oral dose of metronidazole or tinidazole Ectoparasitic Infecti ns • Ectoparasites parasitic organisms that live on the outer skin surfaces of humans. • Pubic lice lice that primarily infest the pubic hair and are transmitted by sexual contact. Although small, they are visible to the naked eye. • They can live away from the body for 1 to 2 days, especially if their stomachs are full of blood meaning a successfully treated person can be reinfected. • The most common symptoms is chronic itching. • Prescription and overthecounter medications are used to treat pubic lice. They are applied to all affected areas and washed off after a few minutes. • Scabies ectoparasitic infestation of tiny mites. • They’re too tiny to be seen by the naked eye & can be transmitted sexually and nonsexually. • The mites can be transferred to clothing and bedding, staying alive for up to 72 hours. • Symptoms may not appear for about two months. Small vesicles or pimple like bumps occur in the area where the female mite tunnels in the skin. A red rash around it indicates where hatched adult mites are feeding. Areas of infestation itch intensely, especially at night. • Treatment includes a topical scabicide, which is applied to areas of infestation and then removed 8 hours later. Acquired Immunodeficiency S yndrome (AIDS ) • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) a catastrophic illness in which a virus invades and destroys the ability of the immune system to fight disease. • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS. It has two types: HIV1 and HIV2. • It seems to have originated by means of crossspecies transmission from a subspecies of African chimpanzees to humans. More than one million people in the United States and 34 million people worldwide are infected with HIV. • HIV has been found in semen, blood, vaginal secretions, saliva, tears, urine, breast milk, etc. • HIV can also be passed from mother to child. • It is more easily passed from men to women than from women to men. • Viral load the amount of HIV present in an infected person’s blood. • High risk behaviors that increase one’s chances of being infected include engaging in unprotected sex, having multiple partners, and sharing injection equipment for drug use. • HIV often causes a brief flulike illness within a few weeks of initial infection. • The symptoms of HIVAIDS are many and varied, depending on the degree to which the immune system is compromised. • The incubation time for AIDS is estimated to range between 8 and 10 years. • There is still no cure for this disease. However, combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs, a treatment approach known as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), can dramatically reduce viral load, improve immune function, and delay progression of the disease. Prevention of STIs • The best hope for stopping the HIV/AIDS epidemic is through education and behavioral change. • To reduce your risk of becoming infected with HIV, follow safer sex strategies such as using condoms (good but not foolproof protection) and avoiding sex with multiple partners or with individuals who are at high risk for HIV infection. • Microbicides may help prevent or minimize the risk of HIV infection. • Medical examinations and laboratory testing help rule out STI's. • Having a conversation with your partner it is crucial. If you are concerned, inspection of the genitals will give clear signs of infection if present. • It is imperative for an infected individuals to tell their sexual partner that they are diagnosed with an STI. Chapter 16 Atypical Sexual Behaviors • Paraphilia a term used to describe uncommon types of sexual expression • The occurrence of one paraphilia can mean that others may manifest. • Atypical sexual behaviors behaviors not typically expressed by most people in society. • These behaviors can either be coercive (forceful) or noncoercive. Noncoercive araphili s • Fetishism a sexual behavior in which a person obtain sexual excitement primarily or exclusively from an inanimate object or particular part of the body • In some instances, a person cannot experience sexual arousal an orgasm in the absence of the fetish object. This may just be caused by association, but could also be derived from childhood. • Fetishism rarely develops into an offense that might harm someone. • Transvestite fetishism a sexual behavior in which a person derives sexual arousal from wearing clothing of the other sex. • Many members of the transgendered community contend that cross dressing is an appropriate in legitimate source of sexual arousal and expression rather than an indicator of disordered behavior or psychological impairment. • This usually occurs with men, but sometimes with women. • Sexual sadism the act of obtaining sexual arousal through giving physical or psychological pain. • Sexual masochism the act of obtaining sexual arousal from receiving physical or psycho logical pain. • This is the only paraphilia that is expressed by women frequently. • Sadomasochistic behavior the association of sexual expression with pain. • These practices have the potential to be physically dangerous, so most participants generally stay within mutually agreed upon limits. • Bondage a sexual behavior in which a person drive sexual pleasure from being bound, tied up, or otherwise restricted. • Many people who engage in SM activities are motivated by a desire to experience dominance or submission, rather than pain. • Most do not rely on these behaviors to achieve sexual arousal an orgasm. Sadomasochism also provides participants with an escape from the controlled, restrictive role they must play in their everyday public lives. • Autoerotic asphyxia The enhancement of sexual excitement in orgasm by pressure induced oxygen deprivation. • This almost always occurs in males and can be lifethreatening. • Klismaphilia a paraphilia that involves achieving sexual pleasure from receiving enemas. • This may occur because as infants or young children, patients were frequently given enemas by concerned and affectionate mothers. • Coprophilia and urophilia are paraphilia's in which a person obtain sexual arousal from contact with feces or urine. Coercive araphili s • Exhibitionism the act of exposing ones genitals to an unwilling observer. • This is almost always seen in males. • These men get off the element of surprise, and often masturbate shortly after using mental images of the observers reaction. • Many individuals who express this have such powerful feelings of personal inadequacy that they are afraid to reach out to another out of fear of rejection. • They may be seeking for affirmation, attention, etc. • This is common in emotionally disturbed, intellectually disabled, or mentally disoriented individuals. • Physical assault is generally not associated with exhibitionism. • Obscene phone callers sure characteristics with exhibitionists. They rarely follow up their verbal assault, just getting off on the concept at the victims were horrified or shocked. • Voyeurism the act of obtaining sexual gratification by observing undressed or sexually interacting people without their consent. • Voyeurs tend to be young males in their 20s often peeping at strangers instead of people they know. • These men tend to be sociosexually under developed, with strong feelings of inferiority and in adequacy. • Video voyeurism a form of voyeurism in which video cameras are used to repetitiously invade the personal privacy of unaware victims. • Frotteurism A fairly common paraphilia in which a person obtain sexual pleasure by pressing or rubbing against another person in a crowded public place. • Zoophilia (beastiality) a paraphilia in which a person has sexual contact with animals • This is commonly transient, occurring when a human sexual partners are inaccessible or forbidden. • Necrophilia a rare sexual paraphilia in which a person obtain sexual gratification by viewing or having intercourse with a corpse. • This occurs almost exclusively among males. These men often always manifest severe emotional disorders. Sexual Addiction: fact, fiction, or misnomer? • The concept of sexual addiction suggested some people who engage in excess of sexual activity are manifesting symptoms of a psychological addiction, in which feelings of depression, anxiety, loneliness, and worthlessness are temporarily relieves through sexual high. • Many sexologists do not believe that sexual addiction should be a distinct diagnostic category, because it is rare in lacking in distinction from other compulsive disorders and because this label negates individual responsibility for uncontrollable sexual compulsions that victimize others Chapter 17 Sexual Coercion • Rape sexual intercourse that occurs without consent as a result of actual or threatened force. • There are many types: stranger rape, acquaintance rape, date rape, and statutory rape. • The legal definition can vary from state to state. • It is understood that rape is widespread, but it is difficult to gather accurate statistics because many do not report the crime because of selfblame, fear of being blamed by others, concern for the rapist, fear of retaliation, block remembering the event, etc. • Some false beliefs about rape women can resist if they really don’t want it, women say no when they mean yes, women falsely accuse men of rape, all women want to be raped, all rapists are mentally ill, and the male sex drive is so high that it’s impossible to control. Why and how does rape occur? • It is partly a product of socialization processes that glorify masculine violence, teach men to be aggressive, and demean the role of women. • Because of this, many men see aggression as a legitimate means to obtain sexual access to a woman. • Exposure to sexually violent media can contribute to more accepting attitudes towards rape, decrease one’s sensitivity to the tragedy, and perhaps even increase men’s inclination to be sexually aggressive towards women. • Rapists have a strong proclivity towards violence, and often they feel anger towards women. They may be narcissistic, insensitive, and selfcentered. • Men who embrace traditional gender roles are more likely to rape. • Over 50% of US female rape victims report that their first rape occurred before the age of 18. • The younger the rape victim, the more likely the perpetrator is a relative or acquaintance. • Women in physically abusive relationships are more likely to get raped. • Most rapes are acquaintance rapes, where the victim knows the perpetrator. • Sexual coercion in dating situations is prevalent. Both sexes experienced sexual coercion but women are more likely to experience it than men. • Sexual scripts cultural learned ways of behaving in sexual situations lead men to be aggressive and women to be passive. • Date rape drugs maybe used to facilitate sexual conquest or to incapacitate date partners. • Rape has been used as a war tactic throughout history. • Rape can be traumatic and has long term repercussions. • Feelings of shame, anger, fear, guilt, depression, and powerlessness is common. • Revictimization is a sad, but real occurrence. • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) a psychological disorder caused by exposure to overwhelmingly painful events. • Supportive counseling can help with the trauma associated with rape. • Male sexual victimization does occur, just at a less frequent rate. It is also reported less frequently. • Males who are raped experience all the same emotional traumas that women do. Child Sexual Abuse • Child sexual abuse an adult’s engaging in sexual contact of any kind with the child, including inappropriate touching, oral genital stimulation, and coitus. • This interaction is always considered coercive and illegal because a child is not considered mature enough to provide informed consent. • Pedophilia (child molestation) sexual contact between any adult and child who are not related. • Incest sexual contact between two people who are related. • Most pedophiles are heterosexual males and are known to the victim. They also tend to be shy, lonely, poorly informed about sexuality, and moralistic or religious. • They may have alcoholism, severe marital problems, sexual difficulties, poor emotional adjustment, and various brain disorders. • Some pedophiles were sexually victimized themselves. • Childhood sexual abuse often goes unreported at the time it occurs and people are afraid to admit to it later. • Estimates of the number of girls sexually victimized range from 2033% and the number of boys ranges from 916%, but this could be much higher than previously reported. • People debate over whether or not repressed memories can “come back” to someone. • Cyberspace pedophilia is widespread, and it is important to take precautions to protect children against this. • Childhood sexual abuse is extremely traumatic for the victim, and often has long term consequences such as a loss of childhood innocence, disruption of normal sexual development, low self esteem, a sense of betrayal, and difficulty establishing normal relationships in the future. • Treatments range from individual therapy to group and couple oriented approaches. • Talking to children about sexual abuse is important they must know the difference between okay and not okay touching, the fact that they have rights, the fact that they can report abuse without fear, and strategies for escaping negative situations. Sexual Harassment • Sexual harassment unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature in the workplace or an academic setting. • There are two types of sexual harassment, the quid pro quo variety, where someone feels there will be detrimental effects to their academic standing if they don’t comply with sexual advances, in the second form, the perpetrator is guilty of making the workplace hostile or offensive. • Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights act makes sexual harassment punishable by law. • Estimates of women sexually harassed on the job range from 4070%. • Claims of same sex harassment, which is now also punishable by law, have been increasing. • Sexual harassment over the internet may also occur. • Victims of sexual harassment may experience a variety of negative financial, emotional, and physical effects. • Sexual harassment also occurs in an educational setting. most commonly, perpetrators are male professors who prey on teenage students. • Surveys indicate that 2040% of undergraduate women, 3050% of graduate women, and 9 29% of male undergraduates report having been sexually harassed. Chapter 18 Sex for Sale • pornography sexually explicit material (e.g., images, text, video) intended to cause sexual arousal • hardcore porn shows genitals, while softcore porn does not. • erotica respectful, affectionate depictions of sexuality. • can also be soft or hardcore. • Pornographic materials developed for straight men, straight women, gays, and lesbians all have unique characteristics that appeal to each group. • “One person’s porn is another person’s erotica, and one person’s erotica can lead others to lose their lunch.” • Soon after the development of the printing press, photography, film, cable television, the internet, and wireless technologies, they were used to produce pornography. • Internet child pornography is an increasing problem, but the ability to find predators is also increasing. • Many believe US culture has been “pornified”, making sexually explicit materials normal. • Some argue porn is helpful to provide information, while others think its only harmful. History of Porn • Porn dates back all the way to cave drawings. • Ancient Indian, Roman, Greek, and Japanese societies were known to celebrate sexuality. • The Catholic Church introduced more restrictive attitudes to sexuality and began • The Supreme Court, in attempting to determine what is obscene, established these criteria: the dominant theme of the work as a whole must appeal to prurient interest in sex, the work must be patently offensive to contemporary community standards, and the work must be without serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value. • The US Constitution’s First Amendment guarantees of freedom of speech and press do not apply to obscene materials. Prostitution and Sex Work • Prostitution the exchange of sexual services for money • Sex worker a person involved in prostitution and other sexual services, such as phone sex, nude dancing, erotic massage, internet sex, and acting in porn movies. • Prostitution is often called “the oldest profession”, but the importance and meaning in society has varied. • Sex workers are divided by the extent to which they willingly pursue sex work. Economic incentive and necessity is often what push people into the business. • Some may work part time. • brothel a house in which a group of prostitutes work. • The internet has changed how the world of sex work operates, providing safety and autonomy to sex workers. • Almost half of sex workers enter the business before they are 18 years old on average around 12 or 14 years old. • A high percentage of sex workers develop post traumatic stress disorder as a result of the chronic stress, danger, and violence in commercial sex work. • Trafficking of women and children is a worldwide problem, and traffickers pray on people who are vulnerable because of poverty, war, and political instability. • The legal status of commercial sex varies.
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