New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Final Review Part 2

by: Sydney Miller

Final Review Part 2 ANTH 161 001

Sydney Miller

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Dr. De La Cova
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr

This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydney Miller on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 161 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. De La Cova in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of South Carolina.

Similar to ANTH 161 001 at USC

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr


Reviews for Final Review Part 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 12/09/15
Homo Habilis:  Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania  2.2-1.7 million years ago o earliest member of Homo genus  found by Leakey’s  post-cranial skeleton similar to Australopithicus  much bigger brain (600-700cc)  Doesn’t have complete zygomatic arches  Marked brow ridge  Short prognathic face  Smaller Molars  Stone Tools Homo rudolfensis:  2.2-1.8 million years ago  Kenya  More vertical forehead  Skull more rounded  Larger molars  Longer flatter face  Less brow ridge  Shares lots of similarities to H. habilis Stone Tools:  Suggests fundamental differences  Larger brain= larger capacity for culture  Stone tools= evidence for problem solving Advantages of Stone Tools:  H. habilis probably was a scavenger not a hunter  Tools made it easier to scavenge Oldowan Tools:  Found in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania  Associated with H. habilis: Producer of tools  Pebbles with flakes struck off to make a sharp edge  1.8 million years ago Language:  shape of basicranium of Australopiths is flat & similar to Apes (breathe & swallow)  lack of modern Larynx & Pharynx shows not capable of modern speech  Range of sounds Pleistocene – Ice Age:  1.6 million years- 10 thousand years ago  cooling begins 3.2 million years ago and becomes more intense 2 million years ago  Widely acknowledged as key part of our lineage  Glacials: o Periods of glacial advance o Glaciers covered much of Europe & North America  Interglacials o Warm periods between glacials  Fluctuations of colder & warmer periods led to fragmentation of environments & development of environments such as tundras. Paranthropus boisei:  2 million years ago  540 cc brain size  very specialized & very robust  extinct by 1.2 million years ago Homo erectus:  1.8 million years ago  Brain nearly 1000 cc  Modern body shape  Modern height  Encephalization quotient becoming higher (more intelligent)  Rapid acceleration of evolution Erectus vs. habilis  Flatter face more pragnathic  Smaller brow large brow ridge  1000cc brain 680cc brain  Modern size/morphology lower forehead & less rounded back of cranium  Body size=modern Humans Body size=Australophithicus Nariokotome Boy:  9-12 years old  Modern body  5’6” would have grown to 6’ based on modern growth tendencies  Leakey’s found in Kenya  Originally thought to be H. erectus P. Boisei vs. erectus:  Large molars smaller molars  Small front teeth larger front teeth Supraorbital Torus:  Big brown ridges  Possibly related to big front teeth used as tools  Brow is part of reinforcing/bossing 1 or 2 more species?  A broad pattern of H. erectus was stable for over 1 million years  Some group more modern looking African fossils as H. ergaster (higher cranium, smaller facial bones, thinner bones) & Eastern Asian finds as H. erectus  H. antecessor used for some migrant into Europe o Its brain is 1000 cc but face is modern (Gran Dolina, Spain)  After 400000 years brain still increasing Homo erectus “Old Story”:  Homo habilis---erectus---sapiens  Evolved in Africa  Developed Achulean tools  Eventually left for Asia & Europe  Gradual change in brain size, culture etc. Technology:  Paleolithic= Old Stone Age  Lower Paleolithic= Olduwan & Achulean tools Movius Line:  Acheulean technology made by “Homo erectus” is not found East of the Movius line  The Movius line is coterminous with East India  Drawn almost horizontal through South West Asia New finds, New dates:  Southeastern Asia: Indonesia  Redating with absolute (chronometric) dating methods of Southeastern Asian specimens showed them to be nearly 1 million years older than previously believed  Java (Trinil, Sangrian, Modjokerto) date in excess of 1.8 million years ago  New dating techniques showed some fossils dated to almost twice as early as originially thought Other new finds, Other new dates:  China  Longuppo Cave (Dragon Bone Hill) hominid remains that date to 1.8 million years ago  These & early Indonesian finds look a lot like H. ergaster from Eastern Africa Still other new finds, new dates:  Europe  Dmanisi, Georgia o Excavation of walls of medieval well to find at least 3 hominids that look a lot like H. ergaster & date to 1.8 million years ago o Found in what would have been a temperate climate  Atapuerca, Spain o Lots of bones dating to 780 thousand years ago but don’t look like erectus H. erectus “New Story”:  Habilis---ergaster---erectus (Asia), sapiens (Africa), heidelbergensis (Europe)  Early departure from Africa (ergaster?)  Acheulean tools develop in Africa after 1 departure  Asians develop into erectus  Ergaster into sapiens & heidelbergensis? Findings in Dmanisi, Georgia:  Has been called Homo georgicus  Some claim fossils represent a number of species, others represent variation within one species  Pre-Acheulean technology found here Achulean Improvements to Olduwan tools:  Straighter edges  Thinner tools  Sharper edges—bifacially flaked  Standardized  Specialized  More complex Why no Acheulean tools in Eastern Asia?  Maybe barrier to population movement? o Southeastern Asia densely forested & humans poorly adapted to survive in jungles with out food production  Geographical barrier such as rainforests o Food resources not dense enough for hominid species to survive Soft hammer percussion:  Using a bone, antler, or other soft material  Makes thinner, flatter flakes  More control  Allows for more refined flakes & edges H. erectus brain & language  Brain size larger (1000cc) but relative to body size o Proportional to earlier hominids  Endocasts show clear brain asymmetry o Some near modern capacities  Basicranium suggests SOME speech? 6 years old?  Cooperative hunting & tool manufacturing required abstract thought & complex communication Later H. erectus  Fact that regional populations are distinct species explains why we see the differences in morphology between the Asian and African populations. H. erectus in various parts are known as:  Asia=erectus  Africa=ergaster  Europe= heidelbergensis & antecessor Homo floresiensis:  “The Hobbit”  found in Flores, Indonesia  May/may not be different species  Has many morphological similarities to ergaster Late period Archeological sites:  Eritrea  Ethiopia  Olduvai Gorge  Southern Africa Findings in China: Zhoukoudian:  Found in Zhoukoudian o Cave system in Beijing  “Peking Man”: H. erectus  500-300 thousand years ago  more than 40 individuals  Found tools, hearths, animal bones, plant remains Lantian:  Lantian county: North Western China  700 thousand years ago  occurred in same time period as Java findings  “Lantian Man” looked like H. erectus from Zhoukoudian Findings in Europe:  erectus---heidelbergensis  Specimen found in Ceprano, Italy dated 800 thousand years ago  Specimen found in Atapuerca, Spain dated at least 780 thousand years ago  Many Achulean tools have been found in Europe but few skeletal remains of erectus Has culture evolved with erectus?  Food o Probably still largely scavenging, foraging, & hunting small animals  Tools o Still using Achulean tools  Lived o Not many sites found o Moved a lot Asian/European sites with Tool/butchering evidence:  Terra Amata  300 thousand years ago  Southern France  Small bands of hunter/gatherers  Seasonal occupation o Late spring/early summer  Found shelters o Little huts, could’ve been wind breakers Hunting:  Evidence from Terra Amata showed they hunted for large & small animals, birds, fish, mollusks Cooperative hunting by 400 thousand years ago:  Spears found in Germany around 400 thousand years ago  Torralba & Ambrona (Spain) o Evidence of using fire to drive animals (elephants, deer, horses) into swamps where they couldn’t escape  BK II (Olduvai Gorge) o Drove wild cattle into swamp  Olorgesailie (Kenya) o 60 baboons killed & butchered (700-900 thousand years ago) Hunting evidence:  Sheer numbers o Possible stampede of animal herds  Large kill sites o Animals trapped in bogs or swamps  Use of weapons o Stones & Clubs  Butchering marks found on bones Archaic H. Sapiens:  Some erectus start to look like sapiens  By 400 thousand years ago there were fossils in Europe & Africa with brain sizes larger than erectus  Called Archaic H. sapiens  AHS poorly understood due to limited amount of fossils found  Originally about 400 thousand years ago in Africa  Present in Europe by 320 thousand years ago  Present in Asia by 200 thousand years ago but evidence is poor AHS biology:  AHS replace erectus  Bigger brains o Over 1200 cc  Steeper foreheads  Thinner cranial bones  Flatter faces AHS Culture:  Achulean tools  Definitely using wooden tools o Evidence found in Kalambo Falls (Tanzania)  New tool technology about 200 thousand years ago o Levallois tools brought about shift from core tools to prepared flakes of uniform size  Flake tools may have been given handles  Tool manufacturing became more efficient AHS Larger Brains:  Increasing size & emphasis on frontal section  Lessening of post-orbital constriction  Higher forehead  Face smaller compared to rest of cranium  Less prognathism as frontal section gets larger Where do AHS come from?  Probably originated in Africa  1 found in Bodo, Ethiopia 600 thousand years ago  Findings in Bodo have cut marks on skull congruent with defleshing/scalping  Archaics remain present in Africa until they give way to Modern H. sapiens between 200-300 thousand years ago Archaics in Europe:  Earliest Archaics in Europe are in 300-500 thousand year ago range  Problem with European specimens is that the oldest are least complete o Swanscombe (UK) may be 500 thousand years old but is only back of skull o Mauer (aka H. heidelbergensis) only lower jaw but may be 500 thousand years old  Both cases most diagnostic portion (Face) is missing Later AHS:  Much more numerous in Europe o Germany, France, Greece, Hungary  More developed tool culture than erectus  Wooden spears found in German (400 thousand years ago) with horses probably the prey  Hunting is important stable food source in increasingly cold areas in which they’re living. New Tool technology: 200 thousand years ago:  The Levallois or “prepared core” technique  Much more standardized & efficient  Not using any old flake  The core was pre-shaped so 6-8 similar shaped flakes could be removed  Standardized flake tools (points, scrapers, drills) also may have been given handles for easier grip Levallois & Mousterian Technology:  Prepared core technology  Conserve raw material  More cutting edge per pound of raw materials  Faster  Sharper  More standardized  63 types of tools in “toolkit” o expanded to harpoons, needles etc.  Variation of toolkit reflects site function  Well established hunting-gathering economy o Planned seasonal exploitation of resources  Evidence of culture & ideology AHS living in challenging environments:  Not like ancestral warmer regions  Needed to control fire  Perhaps some kind of clothing or covering st 1 uses of fire:  For warmth  Protection from predators  Light source  Increased time to think, plan Evidence of fire use:  Bone o Burned for extended periods of time at high temperature, not natural  Charred organic & plant remains  Possible hearth areas  Definitely used by AHS times Pleistocene Glaciations:  Increasingly humans are able to live through the cold Northern conditions with cultural innovations  European sites where evidence of cultural innovation was found o Wurm (75-15 thousand years ago) o Riss (180-130 thousand years ago) o Mindel (300-230 thousand years ago) What happened to AHS? Neanderthals:  Neanderthals seem to be an offshoot that don’t appear to have survived or evolved into modern forms  Became extinct  Were a great success for nearly 200 thousand years  Well represented in fossil records o 200-30 thousand years ago o found in Europe & Southwestern Asia Neanderthals have bigger skulls than Archaics:  1400 mL  long, low cranium o occipital bun & large brows  Mid facial projection o Large nasal passages = warming of air  Large front teeth & no chin  Big brow ridges  Larger nasal area  Well worn front teeth Cold Adapted:  Many robust features in cranium & body can be interpreted as adaptations to cold environments  Enlarged nasal cavity = to warm air  Post-cranial robusticity = strong & powerful  Short & heavy: Bergmann’s Rule  Short limbs: Allan’s Rule  Neanderthal skeletons demonstrate “barrel shaped” torso  Large head helps conserve heat  Modern arctic populations have 100-150 cc larger cranial capacity than equatorial populations Differences in Pelvic Morphology:  Initial theory o Larger size of infants at birth compared to modern humans  Modern Theory o Thought to be due to differing centers of gravity & locomotion Neanderthal Settlements:  Found at mouths of caves  Facing Southward  Important during coldest times of year  Relatedly occupied o Discarded material built up over time  Better preservation o Protected from elements Neanderthal Demography:  Grew up to fast  Lived to be 40  Young age death= more orphans= fewer opportunities to learn from elders  Lived rough life=broken bones Cared for each other:  Shanidar, Israel 60 thousand years ago o Burial  Kebara burial Neanderthal Ideology:  Burial of dead o Shanidar (“Flower Child”) o La Ferraise (“Family burial”) o Teshik Tash “goat boy”  Caring for sick & infirmed o Shanidar & La Chapelle  Art o Grooved & perforated bones, teeth pendants, polished ivory, ochre, whistle, flute  Body decorations How did they cope with the Ice Age?  Mobility of resources o Meat-based diet o Animals are highly mobile o Cope by being strong & mobile o Game provided everything they needed  Seasonal fluctuations o Food storage, alliance  With stand the cold o Clothing, hearths, shelters o Evolved to deal What happened to the Neanderthals?  Too specialized for their own good  By 40-50 thousand years ago Modern H. sapiens had developed o More sophisticated tool kit, improved hearths & clothing  Moderns adapted more quickly with culture than biology & replaced Neanderthals Where did Anatomically Modern H. sapiens come from?  About 100-110 thousand years ago moderns in Israel, who are replaced by Neanderthals, than amHs again by 80 thousand years ago  About 40 thousand years ago amHs in Eastern Europe with new toolkit o Aurignacian  By 36 thousand years ago amHs are in Southern Germany & Southwestern France  By 30 thousand years ago amHs are throughout Neanderthal territory & Neanderthals are gone New tool technology:  About 35 thousand years ago Neanderthals in France use new tool technology called Chantelperronian o Blend of blade tools (Aurignacian-like) & flake tools (Mousterian)  Believed to be evidence of Neanderthals trying to copy Aurignacian tools of amHs What are amHs like?  Called Cro-Magnons  Bigger, more robust than modern Europeans  Taller with longer limbs (Allen’s rule) Theories of Modern Human Origin:  Multi-Regional Evolution-MRE-Regional continuity  Population Replacement Hypothesis or Recent Africa Origin-RAO-Out of Africa  Mostly Out of Africa Model (Hybrid) MRE:  AmHs in Europe, Africa, & Asia each evolved from AHS ancestors in each region  Model implies that AHS evolved from erectus in same regions Components of MRE:  Long term gradual evolution o From erectus---AHS---amHs  All erectus world-wide are erectus  Continuous gene flow among populations & regions  Regional modern populations show affinity to hominid ancestors Fossil Evidence needed of MRE:  Parallel changes in each region occurring more or less simultaneously  Transitional forms widespread, at least in each region, if not THROUGHOUT each region  Simultaneous appearances of traits world-wide  “racial” differences have had over 1 million years to evolve in place leading to geographically distinct populations of amHs Genetic Evidence needed for MRE:  Since human populations had such long-term in place evolution, substantial genetic variation should be present BETWEEN each region  Also expect same amount of genetic diversity WITHIN each population RAO Model:  AmHs evolved from AHS in only one region & migrated to other regions out-competing & replacing AHS Component of RAO:  Transition to amHs occurs in 1 area & one time  AHS & Modern H. sapiens overlap in some time/places  Moderns outcompete AHS with superior tools, adaptations, &/or intellect  Can have 3 erectus-like species (with only 1, ergaster, evolving into modern humans) Fossil evidence needed for RAO:  Transitional finds should appear in only Africa & should be earliest there  Outside of Africa, we should see AHS & MHS either co-existing or at least overlapping  “racial” differences would have had only a few tens of thousands of years to develop o populations of amHs is relatively recent & biologically insignificant Genetic Evidence needed for RAO:  Modern genetic diversity should be low as all modern humans are recent descendants of 1 st amHs  Highest amount of genetic diversity should be present within Africa because it is the older population & would have longest to accumulate variation Fossil evidence needed for Mostly Out of Africa:  Transitional finds should be widespread but “hybrids” with regional “racial” traits present  amHs should be earliest in one area & later everywhere else  Time overlap should be present between AHS & MHS Genetic Evidence needed for Mostly Out of Africa:  Modern genetic diversity should be high between regional groups due to continued presence of variation due to regional populations  Highest amount of genetic diversity should be present within region of origin because it’s the oldest population MRE vs. RAO: Fossil Evidence in Africa:  Earliest amHs found in Africa o Klaises River Mouth (chin) 84-120 thousand years ago o Border Cave (high forehead) 62-115 thousand years ago o Omo 1 (modern looking) 195 thousand years ago  Transitionals o Florisbad, Jebel Irhound, Omo 2 (about 200 thousand years ago) o More rounded cranium, larger, larger foreheads, smaller brow ridges MRE vs. RAO: Fossil Evidence in Europe:  Moderns by 36 thousand years ago are in Germany & 27 thousand years ago are in France (Cro-Magnon)  Neanderthals as late as 35 thousand years ago o Unlikely ancestral to moderns & overlap with moderns  No evidence of transitional forms  1 amHs has tropical build o taller, leaner, more slender  Europe doesn’t appear to be site of modern evolution o Supports replacement theory & not MRE MRE vs. RAO: Fossil Evidence Middle East:  amHs in caves at Skuhl & Qafzeh Israel o 92 thousand years ago  Modern/transitional findings o Rounded cranium, higher forehead & chin o BUT large brow ridges & prognathic face  Neanderthals at Amud & Kebara in Israel  Moderns at Ofzeh from 92 thousand years ago predates end of Neanderthals by 30 thousand years  Supports RAO MRE vs. RAO: Fossil Evidence Eastern Asia:  Continuity in local traits o Extra cranial sutures, shovel shaped lateral incisors, ridge inside lower mandible (supports MRE)  Oldest clear amHs dates to 100 thousand years ago in China  Poor dating complicates evidence (not much 100-40 thousand years ago)  Moderns appear in Australia by 70 thousand years ago but not Asia  Dates for erectus in Indonesia are about 30 thousand years ago o Suggests Replacement  “Asian” traits not limited to Asia in ancient times MRE vs. RAO: Fossil Evidence Conclusion:  Fossil records support RAO & Africa is source of amHs  Africa=earliest fossils & transitional forms  No overlap of amHs & AHS forms on Africa unlike Middle East & Europe  Earliest amHs in Europe appear tropical (like they came from Africa)  Continuity suggested from East Asia is not convincing & earliest amHs dates to 100 thousand years ago MRE vs. RAO: Genetic Evidence: Nuclear & Mitochondrial DNA:  Modern humans show little genetic variation o Which suggests recent origins of amHs (RAO)  Nuclear DNA o 2 clusters of variation o Sub-Saharan Africans & everyone else o Suggests origins of amHs in Africa because that way variations would have longer to accumulate  Mitochondrial DNA o Similar results to Nuclear DNA MRE vs RAO: Genetic Conclusion:  All groups very similar  African women=most diverse  Samples from rest of world appear to have branched later & have less variation  Molecular clock suggests origins of amHs 200 thousand years ago  Genetic Records support RAO & Africa as source of amHs The Eve Hypothesis:  Everyone has Mitochondrial DNA from an African woman 200 thousand years ago  Suggests her descendants left Africa no later than 135 thousand years ago  Displaced Neanderthals & colonized rest of world  Challengers of replacement hypothesis agree there might have been a mitochondrial Eve o Likely H. erectus not amHs MRE vs. RAO: Cultural evidence: Africa:  Blade tools associated with amHs around 200 thousand years ago  By 90 thousand years ago amHs associated with stone blades o Spear points, bone harpoons, ochre etc. MRE vs. RAO: cultural evidence: Middle East:  Qafez o amHs with blades MRE vs. RAO: Cultural Evidence: Europe:  Neanderthals in Europe used Mousterian tools 200-36 thousand years ago  Around 36 thousand years ago they started to use Chatelperronian & Mousterian but added blades (hybrid)  Blades were twice as long as they were wide MRE vs. RAO: Conclusion:  Fossil, genetic, & cultural evidence all tend to support RAO & Mostly Out of Africa  Suggest that amHs evolved in Africa around 200 thousand years ago Recap:  Homo sapien sapien emerges in Africa around 200 thousand years ago  Leaves Africa 135 thousand years ago  Found in Southwestern Asia by 100 thousand years ago o Sikhul & Qafzeh  Reaches Europe by 40 thousand years ago  Neanderthals gone by 30 thousand years ago Rest of the world?  Glacial Maximum: o Ice sheets were at their maximum extension  Sunda (New Guinea) & Sahul (Australia) shelves exposed  Islands joined or moved closer together Australia:  Archaeological sites date to 60 thousand years ago  Found artifacts, hearths, ground ochre etc. Ochre:  Used as pigment for rock/body art  60 thousand years ago Australia: Lake Mungo:  Southern Australia  40 thousand years ago  high rounded modern skull  earliest human remains in Australia Australia: Mitochondrial DNA:  Suggests people migrated to Australia 40-70 thousand years ago  Lots of variation o Suggests several migrations Australia: Kow Swamp:  Human Remains  30-10 thousand years ago  Archaic-like features  Earlier skeletons have less archaic features  Artificially deformed head  Larger brows  Rugged face Australia: Conclusion:  Mitochondrial DNA & Skeletal evidence support RAO The Creative Explosion/Upper Paleolithic:  Not until between 50-60 thousand years ago do we see significantly modern behavior  Creative Explosion o Shift from basic sustenance actions to more complex strategies  Greater breadth of substances  Living in larger groups  More complex expressions of humanity  More efficient hunters  Tools are developing & expanding  New forms of art are being seen  Burials, caring, etc. Earliest Americans:  Last Glaciation occurred between 70-12 thousand years ago  Most convincing evidence for humans in Americas post dates 12 thousand years ago  Some earlier sites, but controversial Beringia:  Land bridge between Europe/Asia & North America  Glacier Advances= sea levels dropped  Last glaciation occurred 120 meters below modern sea levels  Continental shelves exposed  Earliest Americans likely followed herds unaware they were entering new continent 2 Routes to Americas:  Ice Free Corridor: o As glaciers retreat they could walk over o Last glaciers cleared around 12 thousand years ago  Coast Route: o Along exposed continental shelf which is now underwater o No evidence can be collected Oldest Sites in Americas:  Clovis o Named for type of site in New Mexico o Type of tool, very spearhead-like Paleoindians:  Makers of Clovis Points  “earliest” Americans  11,500 years ago  Mobile, big game hunters  Paleoindian points with handles Pleistocene Megafauna:  Giant bison, beaver, sloth, mammoth, & mastodon  Paleoindians followed migrating herds  Also ate smaller animals, nuts, berries etc.  Many sites in Eastern US  Many of the earliest sites were in the Southeastern US PreClovis:  All controversial Criteria for Legitimateness/ dating sites:  Best o Human skeleton o Radiometric  Next o Artifacts clearly made by humans o Context which evidence is found o Minimum age of site must be demonstrated by primary association of material suitable for reliable isotopic dating Meadowcroft Rock Shelter:  Pennsylvania  Archaeological deposits 11 ft deep  Earliest dates 19 thousand years ago Monte Verde:  Chile  Waterlogged  Lots of preserved organics  12,500 years ago Problem with both of these:  Not certain dates relate to artifacts as well as layer of earth Topper:  Allendale County, SC  Flakes & Micro-tools found 40 cm below Clovis layer  “Hearth” feature o lens of charcoal  Date 50 thousand years ago on sediments around this feature Problems with Topper:  Are tools of human manufacturing?  Are they in context?  Is charcoal lens a hearth?  Are sediments same age as human occupation? New technology Soultrean:  Finely worked bifacial points unlike other European technologies Why couldn’t they have come from Europe?  Could before glaciers retreated  Explain earlier dates especially in Southeastern US


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.