Final Review Part 2
Final Review Part 2 ANTH 161 001
Popular in Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydney Miller on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 161 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. De La Cova in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
Homo Habilis: Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania 2.2-1.7 million years ago o earliest member of Homo genus found by Leakey’s post-cranial skeleton similar to Australopithicus much bigger brain (600-700cc) Doesn’t have complete zygomatic arches Marked brow ridge Short prognathic face Smaller Molars Stone Tools Homo rudolfensis: 2.2-1.8 million years ago Kenya More vertical forehead Skull more rounded Larger molars Longer flatter face Less brow ridge Shares lots of similarities to H. habilis Stone Tools: Suggests fundamental differences Larger brain= larger capacity for culture Stone tools= evidence for problem solving Advantages of Stone Tools: H. habilis probably was a scavenger not a hunter Tools made it easier to scavenge Oldowan Tools: Found in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania Associated with H. habilis: Producer of tools Pebbles with flakes struck off to make a sharp edge 1.8 million years ago Language: shape of basicranium of Australopiths is flat & similar to Apes (breathe & swallow) lack of modern Larynx & Pharynx shows not capable of modern speech Range of sounds Pleistocene – Ice Age: 1.6 million years- 10 thousand years ago cooling begins 3.2 million years ago and becomes more intense 2 million years ago Widely acknowledged as key part of our lineage Glacials: o Periods of glacial advance o Glaciers covered much of Europe & North America Interglacials o Warm periods between glacials Fluctuations of colder & warmer periods led to fragmentation of environments & development of environments such as tundras. Paranthropus boisei: 2 million years ago 540 cc brain size very specialized & very robust extinct by 1.2 million years ago Homo erectus: 1.8 million years ago Brain nearly 1000 cc Modern body shape Modern height Encephalization quotient becoming higher (more intelligent) Rapid acceleration of evolution Erectus vs. habilis Flatter face more pragnathic Smaller brow large brow ridge 1000cc brain 680cc brain Modern size/morphology lower forehead & less rounded back of cranium Body size=modern Humans Body size=Australophithicus Nariokotome Boy: 9-12 years old Modern body 5’6” would have grown to 6’ based on modern growth tendencies Leakey’s found in Kenya Originally thought to be H. erectus P. Boisei vs. erectus: Large molars smaller molars Small front teeth larger front teeth Supraorbital Torus: Big brown ridges Possibly related to big front teeth used as tools Brow is part of reinforcing/bossing 1 or 2 more species? A broad pattern of H. erectus was stable for over 1 million years Some group more modern looking African fossils as H. ergaster (higher cranium, smaller facial bones, thinner bones) & Eastern Asian finds as H. erectus H. antecessor used for some migrant into Europe o Its brain is 1000 cc but face is modern (Gran Dolina, Spain) After 400000 years brain still increasing Homo erectus “Old Story”: Homo habilis---erectus---sapiens Evolved in Africa Developed Achulean tools Eventually left for Asia & Europe Gradual change in brain size, culture etc. Technology: Paleolithic= Old Stone Age Lower Paleolithic= Olduwan & Achulean tools Movius Line: Acheulean technology made by “Homo erectus” is not found East of the Movius line The Movius line is coterminous with East India Drawn almost horizontal through South West Asia New finds, New dates: Southeastern Asia: Indonesia Redating with absolute (chronometric) dating methods of Southeastern Asian specimens showed them to be nearly 1 million years older than previously believed Java (Trinil, Sangrian, Modjokerto) date in excess of 1.8 million years ago New dating techniques showed some fossils dated to almost twice as early as originially thought Other new finds, Other new dates: China Longuppo Cave (Dragon Bone Hill) hominid remains that date to 1.8 million years ago These & early Indonesian finds look a lot like H. ergaster from Eastern Africa Still other new finds, new dates: Europe Dmanisi, Georgia o Excavation of walls of medieval well to find at least 3 hominids that look a lot like H. ergaster & date to 1.8 million years ago o Found in what would have been a temperate climate Atapuerca, Spain o Lots of bones dating to 780 thousand years ago but don’t look like erectus H. erectus “New Story”: Habilis---ergaster---erectus (Asia), sapiens (Africa), heidelbergensis (Europe) Early departure from Africa (ergaster?) Acheulean tools develop in Africa after 1 departure Asians develop into erectus Ergaster into sapiens & heidelbergensis? Findings in Dmanisi, Georgia: Has been called Homo georgicus Some claim fossils represent a number of species, others represent variation within one species Pre-Acheulean technology found here Achulean Improvements to Olduwan tools: Straighter edges Thinner tools Sharper edges—bifacially flaked Standardized Specialized More complex Why no Acheulean tools in Eastern Asia? Maybe barrier to population movement? o Southeastern Asia densely forested & humans poorly adapted to survive in jungles with out food production Geographical barrier such as rainforests o Food resources not dense enough for hominid species to survive Soft hammer percussion: Using a bone, antler, or other soft material Makes thinner, flatter flakes More control Allows for more refined flakes & edges H. erectus brain & language Brain size larger (1000cc) but relative to body size o Proportional to earlier hominids Endocasts show clear brain asymmetry o Some near modern capacities Basicranium suggests SOME speech? 6 years old? Cooperative hunting & tool manufacturing required abstract thought & complex communication Later H. erectus Fact that regional populations are distinct species explains why we see the differences in morphology between the Asian and African populations. H. erectus in various parts are known as: Asia=erectus Africa=ergaster Europe= heidelbergensis & antecessor Homo floresiensis: “The Hobbit” found in Flores, Indonesia May/may not be different species Has many morphological similarities to ergaster Late period Archeological sites: Eritrea Ethiopia Olduvai Gorge Southern Africa Findings in China: Zhoukoudian: Found in Zhoukoudian o Cave system in Beijing “Peking Man”: H. erectus 500-300 thousand years ago more than 40 individuals Found tools, hearths, animal bones, plant remains Lantian: Lantian county: North Western China 700 thousand years ago occurred in same time period as Java findings “Lantian Man” looked like H. erectus from Zhoukoudian Findings in Europe: erectus---heidelbergensis Specimen found in Ceprano, Italy dated 800 thousand years ago Specimen found in Atapuerca, Spain dated at least 780 thousand years ago Many Achulean tools have been found in Europe but few skeletal remains of erectus Has culture evolved with erectus? Food o Probably still largely scavenging, foraging, & hunting small animals Tools o Still using Achulean tools Lived o Not many sites found o Moved a lot Asian/European sites with Tool/butchering evidence: Terra Amata 300 thousand years ago Southern France Small bands of hunter/gatherers Seasonal occupation o Late spring/early summer Found shelters o Little huts, could’ve been wind breakers Hunting: Evidence from Terra Amata showed they hunted for large & small animals, birds, fish, mollusks Cooperative hunting by 400 thousand years ago: Spears found in Germany around 400 thousand years ago Torralba & Ambrona (Spain) o Evidence of using fire to drive animals (elephants, deer, horses) into swamps where they couldn’t escape BK II (Olduvai Gorge) o Drove wild cattle into swamp Olorgesailie (Kenya) o 60 baboons killed & butchered (700-900 thousand years ago) Hunting evidence: Sheer numbers o Possible stampede of animal herds Large kill sites o Animals trapped in bogs or swamps Use of weapons o Stones & Clubs Butchering marks found on bones Archaic H. Sapiens: Some erectus start to look like sapiens By 400 thousand years ago there were fossils in Europe & Africa with brain sizes larger than erectus Called Archaic H. sapiens AHS poorly understood due to limited amount of fossils found Originally about 400 thousand years ago in Africa Present in Europe by 320 thousand years ago Present in Asia by 200 thousand years ago but evidence is poor AHS biology: AHS replace erectus Bigger brains o Over 1200 cc Steeper foreheads Thinner cranial bones Flatter faces AHS Culture: Achulean tools Definitely using wooden tools o Evidence found in Kalambo Falls (Tanzania) New tool technology about 200 thousand years ago o Levallois tools brought about shift from core tools to prepared flakes of uniform size Flake tools may have been given handles Tool manufacturing became more efficient AHS Larger Brains: Increasing size & emphasis on frontal section Lessening of post-orbital constriction Higher forehead Face smaller compared to rest of cranium Less prognathism as frontal section gets larger Where do AHS come from? Probably originated in Africa 1 found in Bodo, Ethiopia 600 thousand years ago Findings in Bodo have cut marks on skull congruent with defleshing/scalping Archaics remain present in Africa until they give way to Modern H. sapiens between 200-300 thousand years ago Archaics in Europe: Earliest Archaics in Europe are in 300-500 thousand year ago range Problem with European specimens is that the oldest are least complete o Swanscombe (UK) may be 500 thousand years old but is only back of skull o Mauer (aka H. heidelbergensis) only lower jaw but may be 500 thousand years old Both cases most diagnostic portion (Face) is missing Later AHS: Much more numerous in Europe o Germany, France, Greece, Hungary More developed tool culture than erectus Wooden spears found in German (400 thousand years ago) with horses probably the prey Hunting is important stable food source in increasingly cold areas in which they’re living. New Tool technology: 200 thousand years ago: The Levallois or “prepared core” technique Much more standardized & efficient Not using any old flake The core was pre-shaped so 6-8 similar shaped flakes could be removed Standardized flake tools (points, scrapers, drills) also may have been given handles for easier grip Levallois & Mousterian Technology: Prepared core technology Conserve raw material More cutting edge per pound of raw materials Faster Sharper More standardized 63 types of tools in “toolkit” o expanded to harpoons, needles etc. Variation of toolkit reflects site function Well established hunting-gathering economy o Planned seasonal exploitation of resources Evidence of culture & ideology AHS living in challenging environments: Not like ancestral warmer regions Needed to control fire Perhaps some kind of clothing or covering st 1 uses of fire: For warmth Protection from predators Light source Increased time to think, plan Evidence of fire use: Bone o Burned for extended periods of time at high temperature, not natural Charred organic & plant remains Possible hearth areas Definitely used by AHS times Pleistocene Glaciations: Increasingly humans are able to live through the cold Northern conditions with cultural innovations European sites where evidence of cultural innovation was found o Wurm (75-15 thousand years ago) o Riss (180-130 thousand years ago) o Mindel (300-230 thousand years ago) What happened to AHS? Neanderthals: Neanderthals seem to be an offshoot that don’t appear to have survived or evolved into modern forms Became extinct Were a great success for nearly 200 thousand years Well represented in fossil records o 200-30 thousand years ago o found in Europe & Southwestern Asia Neanderthals have bigger skulls than Archaics: 1400 mL long, low cranium o occipital bun & large brows Mid facial projection o Large nasal passages = warming of air Large front teeth & no chin Big brow ridges Larger nasal area Well worn front teeth Cold Adapted: Many robust features in cranium & body can be interpreted as adaptations to cold environments Enlarged nasal cavity = to warm air Post-cranial robusticity = strong & powerful Short & heavy: Bergmann’s Rule Short limbs: Allan’s Rule Neanderthal skeletons demonstrate “barrel shaped” torso Large head helps conserve heat Modern arctic populations have 100-150 cc larger cranial capacity than equatorial populations Differences in Pelvic Morphology: Initial theory o Larger size of infants at birth compared to modern humans Modern Theory o Thought to be due to differing centers of gravity & locomotion Neanderthal Settlements: Found at mouths of caves Facing Southward Important during coldest times of year Relatedly occupied o Discarded material built up over time Better preservation o Protected from elements Neanderthal Demography: Grew up to fast Lived to be 40 Young age death= more orphans= fewer opportunities to learn from elders Lived rough life=broken bones Cared for each other: Shanidar, Israel 60 thousand years ago o Burial Kebara burial Neanderthal Ideology: Burial of dead o Shanidar (“Flower Child”) o La Ferraise (“Family burial”) o Teshik Tash “goat boy” Caring for sick & infirmed o Shanidar & La Chapelle Art o Grooved & perforated bones, teeth pendants, polished ivory, ochre, whistle, flute Body decorations How did they cope with the Ice Age? Mobility of resources o Meat-based diet o Animals are highly mobile o Cope by being strong & mobile o Game provided everything they needed Seasonal fluctuations o Food storage, alliance With stand the cold o Clothing, hearths, shelters o Evolved to deal What happened to the Neanderthals? Too specialized for their own good By 40-50 thousand years ago Modern H. sapiens had developed o More sophisticated tool kit, improved hearths & clothing Moderns adapted more quickly with culture than biology & replaced Neanderthals Where did Anatomically Modern H. sapiens come from? About 100-110 thousand years ago moderns in Israel, who are replaced by Neanderthals, than amHs again by 80 thousand years ago About 40 thousand years ago amHs in Eastern Europe with new toolkit o Aurignacian By 36 thousand years ago amHs are in Southern Germany & Southwestern France By 30 thousand years ago amHs are throughout Neanderthal territory & Neanderthals are gone New tool technology: About 35 thousand years ago Neanderthals in France use new tool technology called Chantelperronian o Blend of blade tools (Aurignacian-like) & flake tools (Mousterian) Believed to be evidence of Neanderthals trying to copy Aurignacian tools of amHs What are amHs like? Called Cro-Magnons Bigger, more robust than modern Europeans Taller with longer limbs (Allen’s rule) Theories of Modern Human Origin: Multi-Regional Evolution-MRE-Regional continuity Population Replacement Hypothesis or Recent Africa Origin-RAO-Out of Africa Mostly Out of Africa Model (Hybrid) MRE: AmHs in Europe, Africa, & Asia each evolved from AHS ancestors in each region Model implies that AHS evolved from erectus in same regions Components of MRE: Long term gradual evolution o From erectus---AHS---amHs All erectus world-wide are erectus Continuous gene flow among populations & regions Regional modern populations show affinity to hominid ancestors Fossil Evidence needed of MRE: Parallel changes in each region occurring more or less simultaneously Transitional forms widespread, at least in each region, if not THROUGHOUT each region Simultaneous appearances of traits world-wide “racial” differences have had over 1 million years to evolve in place leading to geographically distinct populations of amHs Genetic Evidence needed for MRE: Since human populations had such long-term in place evolution, substantial genetic variation should be present BETWEEN each region Also expect same amount of genetic diversity WITHIN each population RAO Model: AmHs evolved from AHS in only one region & migrated to other regions out-competing & replacing AHS Component of RAO: Transition to amHs occurs in 1 area & one time AHS & Modern H. sapiens overlap in some time/places Moderns outcompete AHS with superior tools, adaptations, &/or intellect Can have 3 erectus-like species (with only 1, ergaster, evolving into modern humans) Fossil evidence needed for RAO: Transitional finds should appear in only Africa & should be earliest there Outside of Africa, we should see AHS & MHS either co-existing or at least overlapping “racial” differences would have had only a few tens of thousands of years to develop o populations of amHs is relatively recent & biologically insignificant Genetic Evidence needed for RAO: Modern genetic diversity should be low as all modern humans are recent descendants of 1 st amHs Highest amount of genetic diversity should be present within Africa because it is the older population & would have longest to accumulate variation Fossil evidence needed for Mostly Out of Africa: Transitional finds should be widespread but “hybrids” with regional “racial” traits present amHs should be earliest in one area & later everywhere else Time overlap should be present between AHS & MHS Genetic Evidence needed for Mostly Out of Africa: Modern genetic diversity should be high between regional groups due to continued presence of variation due to regional populations Highest amount of genetic diversity should be present within region of origin because it’s the oldest population MRE vs. RAO: Fossil Evidence in Africa: Earliest amHs found in Africa o Klaises River Mouth (chin) 84-120 thousand years ago o Border Cave (high forehead) 62-115 thousand years ago o Omo 1 (modern looking) 195 thousand years ago Transitionals o Florisbad, Jebel Irhound, Omo 2 (about 200 thousand years ago) o More rounded cranium, larger, larger foreheads, smaller brow ridges MRE vs. RAO: Fossil Evidence in Europe: Moderns by 36 thousand years ago are in Germany & 27 thousand years ago are in France (Cro-Magnon) Neanderthals as late as 35 thousand years ago o Unlikely ancestral to moderns & overlap with moderns No evidence of transitional forms 1 amHs has tropical build o taller, leaner, more slender Europe doesn’t appear to be site of modern evolution o Supports replacement theory & not MRE MRE vs. RAO: Fossil Evidence Middle East: amHs in caves at Skuhl & Qafzeh Israel o 92 thousand years ago Modern/transitional findings o Rounded cranium, higher forehead & chin o BUT large brow ridges & prognathic face Neanderthals at Amud & Kebara in Israel Moderns at Ofzeh from 92 thousand years ago predates end of Neanderthals by 30 thousand years Supports RAO MRE vs. RAO: Fossil Evidence Eastern Asia: Continuity in local traits o Extra cranial sutures, shovel shaped lateral incisors, ridge inside lower mandible (supports MRE) Oldest clear amHs dates to 100 thousand years ago in China Poor dating complicates evidence (not much 100-40 thousand years ago) Moderns appear in Australia by 70 thousand years ago but not Asia Dates for erectus in Indonesia are about 30 thousand years ago o Suggests Replacement “Asian” traits not limited to Asia in ancient times MRE vs. RAO: Fossil Evidence Conclusion: Fossil records support RAO & Africa is source of amHs Africa=earliest fossils & transitional forms No overlap of amHs & AHS forms on Africa unlike Middle East & Europe Earliest amHs in Europe appear tropical (like they came from Africa) Continuity suggested from East Asia is not convincing & earliest amHs dates to 100 thousand years ago MRE vs. RAO: Genetic Evidence: Nuclear & Mitochondrial DNA: Modern humans show little genetic variation o Which suggests recent origins of amHs (RAO) Nuclear DNA o 2 clusters of variation o Sub-Saharan Africans & everyone else o Suggests origins of amHs in Africa because that way variations would have longer to accumulate Mitochondrial DNA o Similar results to Nuclear DNA MRE vs RAO: Genetic Conclusion: All groups very similar African women=most diverse Samples from rest of world appear to have branched later & have less variation Molecular clock suggests origins of amHs 200 thousand years ago Genetic Records support RAO & Africa as source of amHs The Eve Hypothesis: Everyone has Mitochondrial DNA from an African woman 200 thousand years ago Suggests her descendants left Africa no later than 135 thousand years ago Displaced Neanderthals & colonized rest of world Challengers of replacement hypothesis agree there might have been a mitochondrial Eve o Likely H. erectus not amHs MRE vs. RAO: Cultural evidence: Africa: Blade tools associated with amHs around 200 thousand years ago By 90 thousand years ago amHs associated with stone blades o Spear points, bone harpoons, ochre etc. MRE vs. RAO: cultural evidence: Middle East: Qafez o amHs with blades MRE vs. RAO: Cultural Evidence: Europe: Neanderthals in Europe used Mousterian tools 200-36 thousand years ago Around 36 thousand years ago they started to use Chatelperronian & Mousterian but added blades (hybrid) Blades were twice as long as they were wide MRE vs. RAO: Conclusion: Fossil, genetic, & cultural evidence all tend to support RAO & Mostly Out of Africa Suggest that amHs evolved in Africa around 200 thousand years ago Recap: Homo sapien sapien emerges in Africa around 200 thousand years ago Leaves Africa 135 thousand years ago Found in Southwestern Asia by 100 thousand years ago o Sikhul & Qafzeh Reaches Europe by 40 thousand years ago Neanderthals gone by 30 thousand years ago Rest of the world? Glacial Maximum: o Ice sheets were at their maximum extension Sunda (New Guinea) & Sahul (Australia) shelves exposed Islands joined or moved closer together Australia: Archaeological sites date to 60 thousand years ago Found artifacts, hearths, ground ochre etc. Ochre: Used as pigment for rock/body art 60 thousand years ago Australia: Lake Mungo: Southern Australia 40 thousand years ago high rounded modern skull earliest human remains in Australia Australia: Mitochondrial DNA: Suggests people migrated to Australia 40-70 thousand years ago Lots of variation o Suggests several migrations Australia: Kow Swamp: Human Remains 30-10 thousand years ago Archaic-like features Earlier skeletons have less archaic features Artificially deformed head Larger brows Rugged face Australia: Conclusion: Mitochondrial DNA & Skeletal evidence support RAO The Creative Explosion/Upper Paleolithic: Not until between 50-60 thousand years ago do we see significantly modern behavior Creative Explosion o Shift from basic sustenance actions to more complex strategies Greater breadth of substances Living in larger groups More complex expressions of humanity More efficient hunters Tools are developing & expanding New forms of art are being seen Burials, caring, etc. Earliest Americans: Last Glaciation occurred between 70-12 thousand years ago Most convincing evidence for humans in Americas post dates 12 thousand years ago Some earlier sites, but controversial Beringia: Land bridge between Europe/Asia & North America Glacier Advances= sea levels dropped Last glaciation occurred 120 meters below modern sea levels Continental shelves exposed Earliest Americans likely followed herds unaware they were entering new continent 2 Routes to Americas: Ice Free Corridor: o As glaciers retreat they could walk over o Last glaciers cleared around 12 thousand years ago Coast Route: o Along exposed continental shelf which is now underwater o No evidence can be collected Oldest Sites in Americas: Clovis o Named for type of site in New Mexico o Type of tool, very spearhead-like Paleoindians: Makers of Clovis Points “earliest” Americans 11,500 years ago Mobile, big game hunters Paleoindian points with handles Pleistocene Megafauna: Giant bison, beaver, sloth, mammoth, & mastodon Paleoindians followed migrating herds Also ate smaller animals, nuts, berries etc. Many sites in Eastern US Many of the earliest sites were in the Southeastern US PreClovis: All controversial Criteria for Legitimateness/ dating sites: Best o Human skeleton o Radiometric Next o Artifacts clearly made by humans o Context which evidence is found o Minimum age of site must be demonstrated by primary association of material suitable for reliable isotopic dating Meadowcroft Rock Shelter: Pennsylvania Archaeological deposits 11 ft deep Earliest dates 19 thousand years ago Monte Verde: Chile Waterlogged Lots of preserved organics 12,500 years ago Problem with both of these: Not certain dates relate to artifacts as well as layer of earth Topper: Allendale County, SC Flakes & Micro-tools found 40 cm below Clovis layer “Hearth” feature o lens of charcoal Date 50 thousand years ago on sediments around this feature Problems with Topper: Are tools of human manufacturing? Are they in context? Is charcoal lens a hearth? Are sediments same age as human occupation? New technology Soultrean: Finely worked bifacial points unlike other European technologies Why couldn’t they have come from Europe? Could before glaciers retreated Explain earlier dates especially in Southeastern US
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