Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide GEO 103
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa McKenzie on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEO 103 at Syracuse University taught by Robert Wilson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 264 views. For similar materials see Environment and Society in Geography at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 12/10/15
Environment and Society GEO 103 Study Guide for Final Exam Discussion Questions to consider How has modern society dramatically altered the carbon cycle? Klein discusses fossil-fuel divestment (FFD). What is FFD? What is the model for divestment? Do you think this is a worthwhile movement? Why or why not? Klein talks a great deal about “free-market fundamentalism” (aka neoliberalism). What does she mean by this? She talks at length about the Heartland Institute and other groups like it. Who funds these groups? What does she think is their motivation? And even when people associated with these groups acknowledge the reality of climate change, why are they rather indifferent to its consequences? What is the Ogallala Aquifer? What are the Sand Hills? What is eminent domain? What is primitive accumulation? How do companies distinguish their brands of bottled water, especially through marketing? Why is the concept of purity so important in the marketing of bottled water? Describe some of the environmental costs of our voracious consumption of French fries. How has the reintroduction of wolves affected the ecosystem in and around Yellowstone national park? Important graphs to know Keeling Curve “Hockey Stick” graph Global Weirdness Temperature, CO2, Sea Level Rise Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations Share of energy consumption in the United States Energy History & U.S. Energy Mix The Age of Fossil Fuels Made possible the rapid growth in human pop. & growth of cities Creation of new technology ‘clusters’ (simultaneous technical, organizational, and social innovations) ** FF as ‘fossilized sunshine’ ** 1) Two eras: a) 1800-1950: age of coal and 1% pop. Growth b) 1950-present: age of coal and oil and 2% pop. Growth nd ** 2 an era extreme tumult, but also the era that gives rise to environmentalism (E) Lifeblood: Oil and the Making of Car Country Oil is important for transportation Oil Extraction: Conventional Oil Oil extracted using oil well methods Unconventional Oil Tar sand/oil sands Extra heavy oil (very viscous) **New oil extraction coming from lower-quality reserves, settings w/ complex econ. –political Deepwater Oil Drilling Can access oil in very deep water and in rock formations deep beneath ocean floor *E.g. 2009 drill accessed oil 4,000’ deep water and rock formation 30,000’ below ocean floor Highways and Interstate o Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 (aka Interstate Highway Act)** Established an interstate highway system in the US Interest groups promoting? Auto indust., bus operators, oil companies, asphalt & const. indust. o Also, Highway Trust Fund Allows gov. to tax gasoline Money allotted for more roads (1% of fund to mass transit) **Hot Politics Response to Climate Change, late-80s and early-90s Creation of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (1988) o Assesses the scientific, technical, environmental, economic and social aspects of climate change Goal of climate change negotiations? Keep warming to <2 degrees C above pre-industrial level Obstacles to Action (OTA) Dangers posed by warming aren’t tangible, immed., visible, so people sit on hands and do nothing Emotional response to knowledge of C. change: oGuilt oFear oHelplessness Also, social norms against discussing c. change (response: jokes, change the subject) Climate change is a low priority (see graph) U.S. Political OTA Republican Pres. Candidates and C. Change Most deny that it’s happening; none think it is human caused U.S. Political OTA Democrat Pres. Candidates and C. Change Both agree it’s happening; its human caused, and have proposed measures to address it OTA- Organized Denial Manufacturing Doubt **The Climate Movement Climate change is happening and its human caused 2 degrees C is nearly impossible Devastating effects The American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (Waxman-Markey bill) establish a GHG cap-and-trade system and measures to help address climate change and build a clean energy economy C. Change, Tar Sands, & Keystone XL Area in central Alberta Campaign to keep fossil fuels in the ground Fight against K. XL examp. Of “blockadia” Blockadia- groups around the world to try and block fossil fuel development Millenials: 350.org and Social Media Safety and awareness of the climate crisis **Activist Climatologists: James Hansen, Michael Mann, and Katherine Hayhoe** JH: climate change is real and its happening, arrested for civil disobedience on pipeline MM: hockey-stick graph, criticism for climate change deniers KH: climate change is happening and its caused by human activity Water Basics 97% ocean water (non-drinkable), 3% fresh water (FW) World Water Use Eutrophication Water pollution by nutrients Results? o Massive growth of blue-green algae o Decay of algae depletes water of oxygen; decimates aquatic life *Clean Water Act-1972 Water quality became fed. Concern. CWA recognized national, public interest in curtailing water pollution. Goal? o Make surface waters “fishable and swimmable” by 1982 Fed. Subsidies to pay for upgrades to wastewater treatment plants Types of wastewater treatment: o Pre-treatment o Primary (get out dirt, grease) o Secondary (eliminate organic material, use bacteria to break down this system) o Tertiary (methods to reduce additional phosphorus, ammonia) o Result? Major reductions in pollution from cities and industries But “nonpoint sources” (farms, construction sites, storm water runoff, suburban lawns) exempt for regulations Focused on centralized, expensive, filtration & treat. Facilities Onondaga Lake: The Most Polluted Lake in America? Onondaga Lake Restoration Solvay process o Water softening agent Industrial Agriculture Stories of Two Foods: French Fries and Chicken Early History of the Potato Part of the Columbian Exchange From the potato to the French fry Fast food o Mcdonalds & J.R. Simplot Need for homogeneity Monocrops (one plant growing in the same place, year after year.) o Vulnerabilities Russet potato o Inputs (fertilizers & pesticides) Slicing, freezing and transport The Chicken Dev. Of the broiler (young, meat-type chicken) From the Barnyard to the Factory… Key Innovations o Env. control o Managing deaseaes o Nutrition o Breeding and genetics Conclusion Modern R. potato and broiler chicken products of industrial capitalism Intensifying bio. Productivity almost inevitably leads to new sources of risk and vulnerability o To disease o To pests And greater need for inputs o Fertilizers o Antibiotics Alternative Food & Agriculture Critiques of Industrial Ag. Inhumane to animals Water and air pollution Too dependent on pesticides and act. Fertilizers Fossil-fuel intensive Worker rights and safety Alt. ag. Promotes… Polyculture rather than monoculture farms Limited or to use of pesticides Principles for ethical food Transparency o Right to know how our food is produced Fairness o Producing food shouldn’t impose cost on others Humanity o Wrong to inflict needless suffering on animals Social responsibility o Workers should have decent wages, working conditions Regional Markets and Community Gardens are the way to go Community supported agriculture (CSA) Records of people supporting one farmer growing usually organic food Pay an annual fee for produce Critiques of alt. ag/food mov. Too expensive o Some truth to this.. o Expensive to radically lower by eating vegetables in season Practical to feed entire country this way? Alt. ag supporters o Stereotype white, upper-middle class, well-educated Immense beyond conception: Wildlife abundance and decline Demise of the passenger pigeon o A symbol of abundance; demise a bad omen PP before -1870 o PP as food o Hunting PP as community event PP & Americans -1860s and 1870s o PP as money; a commodified animal o Urban consumers PP Past -1880s o Reasons for extinction Overhunting Loss of habitat (esp. nesting site) Wildlife abundance: the bison & the great plains Consequences: the destruction of the bison o The West o Reasons for bison’s decline: Market hunters and RRs Drought Replacing bison w/ cattle Wolves: the fall and rise of an American predator o How do we explain such viciousness? Land use: Wolf as perceived threat to livestock Biology: humans and wolves as social animals; wolf behavior and hierarchy Folklore: wolves depicted as sadistic, vicious creatures o From predator to prey: wold eradication, 1800s-early 1900s Inducements-bounties for wolf heads, carcasses Community wolf hunts o Wolf reintroduction 1995 yellowstone NP and Idaho o Reasons for changing wolf attitudes? Now: noble, endangered creature Ecology: role of wolf in ecosystem Urban consumers disconnected from livestock (former prey of wolf) Inferno: Wildfire and Vulnerability Yarnell Hill Fire, 2013 Managing Forests Convert the forest into a waste free, productive stand **simplify complexity** Removing the ‘unruliness’ of the old-growth forest; replacing it with regulated, productive, self-sustaining forest Smokey Bear: “Only You Can Prevent Forest Fires” Current Wildfire Issues: Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) Oakland Hills Fire, 1991 Reducing Wildfire Danger Defensible Space around homes Zoning o Prevent/limit construction of homes in vulnerable areas Key Themes and Terms of Climate Change Weather Atmospheric conditions at a particular time Climate Avg. of weather conditions over extended period of time (months, years, centuries) Global Warming Potential (GWP) used to compare heat-trapping ability of different Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Effect when Earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation because of the presence of certain gases Cap and Trade government-mandated approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants Capital Accumulation acquiring more assets that can be used to create more wealth or that will appreciate in value Greenwashing Exaggerated of false marketing of a product, good, or service as environmentally friendly Good luck on your final!
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