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SYRACUSE / Geography / GEO 103 / what is climate movement?

what is climate movement?

what is climate movement?


School: Syracuse University
Department: Geography
Course: Environment and Society
Professor: Robert wilson
Term: Summer 2015
Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam Study Guide
Description: Use this study guide to study for the final examination! Good luck and happy studying!
Uploaded: 12/10/2015
11 Pages 9 Views 11 Unlocks

Polly Mayer (Rating: )

The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Alyssa for help in class!

Environment and Society

what is climate movement?

GEO 103 Study Guide for Final Exam

Discussion Questions to consider  

∙ How has modern society dramatically altered the carbon cycle?

∙ Klein discusses fossil-fuel divestment (FFD). What is FFD? What is the model for  divestment? Do you think this is a worthwhile movement? Why or why not?  ∙ Klein talks a great deal about “free-market fundamentalism” (aka neoliberalism). What  does she mean by this?  

∙ She talks at length about the Heartland Institute and other groups like it. Who funds  these groups? What does she think is their motivation? And even when people  associated with these groups acknowledge the reality of climate change, why are they  rather indifferent to its consequences?

∙ What is the Ogallala Aquifer? What are the Sand Hills?

∙ What is eminent domain?

∙ What is primitive accumulation?

∙ How do companies distinguish their brands of bottled water, especially through marketing?

what is Clean Water Act-1972?

∙ Why is the concept of purity so important in the marketing of bottled water? ∙ Describe some of the environmental costs of our voracious consumption of French fries. ∙ How has the reintroduction of wolves affected the ecosystem in and around  Yellowstone national park?

Important graphs to know

❖ Keeling Curve

❖ “Hockey Stick” graph

❖ Global Weirdness

what are the Principles for ethical food?

We also discuss several other topics like how to identify strong weak and nonelectrolytes

❖ Temperature, CO2, Sea Level Rise

❖ Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations

❖ Share of energy consumption in the United States

Energy History & U.S. Energy Mix 

The Age of Fossil Fuels

▪ Made possible the rapid growth in human pop. & growth of cities

▪ Creation of new technology ‘clusters’ (simultaneous technical, organizational, and social  innovations)

** FF as ‘fossilized sunshine’ **

1) Two eras: Don't forget about the age old question of ibus 425 study guide

a) 1800-1950: age of coal and 1% pop. Growth

b) 1950-present: age of coal and oil and 2% pop. Growth

** 2nd an era extreme tumult, but also the era that gives rise to environmentalism (E) Lifeblood: Oil and the Making of Car Country 

Oil is important for transportation

Oil Extraction: Don't forget about the age old question of concordia transport

Conventional Oil

∙ Oil extracted using oil well methods

Unconventional Oil

∙ Tar sand/oil sands

∙ Extra heavy oil (very viscous)

**New oil extraction coming from lower-quality reserves, settings w/ complex econ. –political

Deepwater Oil Drilling

Can access oil in very deep water and in rock formations deep beneath ocean floor *E.g. 2009 drill accessed oil 4,000’ deep water and rock formation 30,000’ below ocean floor

∙ Highways and Interstate

o Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 (aka Interstate Highway Act)**

▪ Established an interstate highway system in the US

▪ Interest groups promoting? Auto indust., bus operators, oil companies,  asphalt & const. indust.

o Also, Highway Trust Fund

▪ Allows gov. to tax gasoline

▪ Money allotted for more roads (1% of fund to mass transit)

**Hot Politics 

Response to Climate Change, late-80s and early-90s

∙ Creation of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (1988) o Assesses the scientific, technical, environmental, economic and social aspects of  climate change

Goal of climate change negotiations?

∙ Keep warming to <2 degrees C above pre-industrial level  If you want to learn more check out anth 3265

Obstacles to Action (OTA)

∙ Dangers posed by warming aren’t tangible, immed., visible, so  

people sit on hands and do nothing

∙ Emotional response to knowledge of C. change:




Also, social norms against discussing c. change (response: jokes,  

change the subject)

∙ Climate change is a low priority (see graph)

U.S. Political OTA Republican Pres. Candidates and C. Change

∙ Most deny that it’s happening; none think it is human caused

U.S. Political OTA Democrat Pres. Candidates and C. Change

∙ Both agree it’s happening; its human caused, and have proposed measures to address it OTA- Organized Denial

∙ Manufacturing Doubt

**The Climate Movement 

▪ Climate change is happening and its human caused

▪ 2 degrees C is nearly impossible

▪ Devastating effects

The American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (Waxman-Markey bill)

▪ establish a GHG cap-and-trade system and measures to help address climate change  and build a clean energy economy We also discuss several other topics like syg 1000 fsu
We also discuss several other topics like Inductive reasoning

C. Change, Tar Sands, & Keystone XL

∙ Area in central Alberta

∙ Campaign to keep fossil fuels in the ground

∙ Fight against K. XL examp. Of “blockadia”

∙ Blockadia- groups around the world to try and block fossil fuel development Millenials: 350.org and Social Media

▪ Safety and awareness of the climate crisis

**Activist Climatologists: James Hansen, Michael Mann, and Katherine Hayhoe**

∙ JH: climate change is real and its happening, arrested for civil disobedience on pipeline ∙ MM: hockey-stick graph, criticism for climate change deniers  

∙ KH: climate change is happening and its caused by human activity

Water Basics

97% ocean water (non-drinkable), 3% fresh water (FW)

World Water Use


▪ Water pollution by nutrients

∙ Results?

o Massive growth of blue-green algae

o Decay of algae depletes water of oxygen; decimates aquatic life

*Clean Water Act-1972

∙ Water quality became fed. Concern. CWA recognized national, public interest in  curtailing water pollution.  

∙ Goal?  

o Make surface waters “fishable and swimmable” by 1982

∙ Fed. Subsidies to pay for upgrades to wastewater treatment plants

∙ Types of wastewater treatment:

o Pre-treatment

o Primary (get out dirt, grease)

o Secondary (eliminate organic material, use bacteria to break down this system) o Tertiary (methods to reduce additional phosphorus, ammonia)

o Result?  

▪ Major reductions in pollution from cities and industries

▪ But “nonpoint sources” (farms, construction sites, storm water runoff,  suburban lawns) exempt for regulations

▪ Focused on centralized, expensive, filtration & treat. Facilities

Onondaga Lake: The Most Polluted Lake in America?

Onondaga Lake Restoration

∙ Solvay process

o Water softening agent

Industrial Agriculture 

Stories of Two Foods: French Fries and Chicken

Early History of the Potato

∙ Part of the Columbian Exchange

From the potato to the French fry

∙ Fast food

o Mcdonalds & J.R. Simplot

∙ Need for homogeneity

∙ Monocrops (one plant growing in the same place, year after year.) o Vulnerabilities

∙ Russet potato

o Inputs (fertilizers & pesticides)

∙ Slicing, freezing and transport

The Chicken

∙ Dev. Of the broiler (young, meat-type chicken)

From the Barnyard to the Factory…

∙ Key Innovations

o Env. control

o Managing deaseaes

o Nutrition

o Breeding and genetics


∙ Modern R. potato and broiler chicken products of industrial capitalism ∙ Intensifying bio. Productivity almost inevitably leads to new sources of risk and  vulnerability

o To disease

o To pests

∙ And greater need for inputs

o Fertilizers

o Antibiotics

Alternative Food & Agriculture 

Critiques of Industrial Ag.

∙ Inhumane to animals

∙ Water and air pollution

∙ Too dependent on pesticides and act. Fertilizers

∙ Fossil-fuel intensive

∙ Worker rights and safety

Alt. ag.


∙ Polyculture rather than monoculture farms

∙ Limited or to use of pesticides

Principles for ethical food

∙ Transparency

o Right to know how our food is produced

∙ Fairness

o Producing food shouldn’t impose cost on others

∙ Humanity

o Wrong to inflict needless suffering on animals

∙ Social responsibility

o Workers should have decent wages, working conditions Regional Markets and Community Gardens are the way to go Community supported agriculture (CSA)

∙ Records of people supporting one farmer growing usually organic food ∙ Pay an annual fee for produce  

Critiques of alt. ag/food mov.

∙ Too expensive

o Some truth to this..

o Expensive to radically lower by eating vegetables in season ∙ Practical to feed entire country this way?

∙ Alt. ag supporters

o Stereotype white, upper-middle class, well-educated

Immense beyond conception: Wildlife abundance and decline 

∙ Demise of the passenger pigeon

o A symbol of abundance; demise a bad omen

∙ PP before -1870

o PP as food

o Hunting PP as community event

∙ PP & Americans -1860s and 1870s

o PP as money; a commodified animal

o Urban consumers

∙ PP Past -1880s

o Reasons for extinction

▪ Overhunting  

▪ Loss of habitat (esp. nesting site)

∙ Wildlife abundance: the bison & the great plains

∙ Consequences: the destruction of the bison

o The West

o Reasons for bison’s decline:

▪ Market hunters and RRs

▪ Drought

▪ Replacing bison w/ cattle

∙ Wolves: the fall and rise of an American predator

o How do we explain such viciousness?

▪ Land use: Wolf as perceived threat to livestock

▪ Biology: humans and wolves as social animals; wolf behavior and  hierarchy

▪ Folklore: wolves depicted as sadistic, vicious creatures

o From predator to prey: wold eradication, 1800s-early 1900s

▪ Inducements-bounties for wolf heads, carcasses

▪ Community wolf hunts

o Wolf reintroduction

▪ 1995 yellowstone NP and Idaho

o Reasons for changing wolf attitudes?

▪ Now: noble, endangered creature

▪ Ecology: role of wolf in ecosystem

▪ Urban consumers disconnected from livestock (former prey of wolf) Inferno: Wildfire and Vulnerability 

Yarnell Hill Fire, 2013

Managing Forests

∙ Convert the forest into a waste free, productive stand

∙ **simplify complexity**

∙ Removing the ‘unruliness’ of the old-growth forest; replacing it with regulated,  productive, self-sustaining forest

Smokey Bear: “Only You Can Prevent Forest Fires”

Current Wildfire Issues: Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI)

∙ Oakland Hills Fire, 1991

Reducing Wildfire Danger

∙ Defensible Space around homes

∙ Zoning

o Prevent/limit construction of homes in vulnerable areas

Key Themes and Terms of Climate Change  


∙ Atmospheric conditions at a particular time


∙ Avg. of weather conditions over extended period of time (months, years, centuries) Global Warming Potential (GWP)

∙ used to compare heat-trapping ability of different Greenhouse Gases

Greenhouse Effect

∙ when Earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation because of the presence of certain gases Cap and Trade

∙ government-mandated approach used to control pollution by providing economic  incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants

Capital Accumulation

∙ acquiring more assets that can be used to create more wealth or that will appreciate in  value


∙ Exaggerated of false marketing of a product, good, or service as environmentally  friendly

Good luck on your final!

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