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Exam #4 Study Guide

by: Emilie Vainer

Exam #4 Study Guide PSYC 4220

Emilie Vainer
GPA 3.8

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Here is the study guide for the final exam in the class covering chapters 13 to 16 powerpoint notes as well as book notes. Enjoy!
Developmental Psychology
Kacy Welsh
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This 34 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emilie Vainer on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 298 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 12/10/15
PSYC4220  Exam  #4  Study  Guide:  PowerPoint   Notes,  Lecture  Notes  and  Book  Notes     PowerPoint  and  Lecture  Notes:   Chapter  13:  Social  and  Personality  Development  in   Middle  Childhood   Erikson’s  Psychosocial  Stages   • Industry  vs.  Inferiority  (6-­‐12)   o Industry   § Developing  a  sense  of  competence  at  skills  and  social  rules   important  in  your  culture     • Includes  social  norms  and  cues  as  well  as  gender  roles   • A  lot  of  social  growth  happening   • Skills  in  industrialized  countries  learned  through  school   • Mainly  successful;  learn  competence   o Inferiority   § Child  is  unable  to  master  most  of  important  skills   § Pessimism  and  lack  of  confidence  in  own  ability  to  do  things   well   o Industry  in  childhood  more  closely  correlated  to  adult  success  than  IQ   or  background   Self-­‐Concept   • Self  concept  becomes  more  complex,  more  abstract  across  middle  childhood   o Start  giving  psychological  descriptors   § Ex:  I  am  nice  when  I  want  to  be   o Begin  dividing  self-­‐concept  in  multiple  parts   § Academic,  social,  emotional,  physical     o Begin  engaging  in  social  comparison   § Evaluating  one’s  appearance,  abilities,  opinions,  behavior  in   relation  to  others   § May  engage  in  downward  social  comparison  to  protect  self-­‐ esteem   • Compare  themselves  to  people  worse  than  them     Self-­‐Esteem   • Self-­‐esteem  also  becomes  differentiated   Development  of  Self-­‐Esteem   • Self  esteem  increases  steadily  (does  not  drop  much)  during  middle   childhood,  with  slight  drop  around  23   • Influences  on  self  esteem:   o Cultural:   § Children  from  cultures  with  emphasis  on  social  comparison   often  have  lower  self  esteem   • Seen  in  kids  in  China,  Japan  and  Korea   o Collectivistic  cultures  value  humble  and  modesty   and  appreciate  others  for  doing  weel   o Gender:   § US  girls  higher  in  language-­‐arts,  boys  in  math,  science,  and   physical  ability   § Boys  and  girls  overall  levels  of  self  esteem  very  similar  in   middle  childhood   o Race/Ethnicity:   § In  early  childhood,  African-­‐American  and  Hispanic  Children   have  lower  self-­‐esteem  than  Caucasian  children   • But  by  the  end  of  middle  childhood,  self-­‐esteem   increases  in  both  groups,  with  African  American  kids   having  the  highest  self-­‐esteem  by  age  11   o Parenting  Styles:   § Authoritative  parents  =  kids  with  higher  self  esteem     § Controlling  or  authoritarian  parents  =  lower  self  esteem   children   § Permissive  parents  =  kids  with  unrealistically  high  self-­‐esteem,   adjustment  problems   § In  US,  self-­‐esteem  has  risen  sharply  as  achievement  has  fallen,   anti-­‐social/narcissistic  behaviors  have  increased     § Don’t  just  praise:  urge  kids  to  set  goals  and  achieve  them   • Want  kids  to  grow  up  believing  they  can  get  better  at   things     Attribution   • Stability  Dimension:  unstable  vs.  stable  cause   o Unstable  =  effort/mood/fatigue   o Stable  =  ability/intelligence   • Internal  –  External  Dimension   Influences  of  Self-­‐Esteem:   • Achievement  attributions:   o Mastery-­‐oriented  attributions:  credit  success  to  high  ability,  failure  to   insufficient  effort   § Good  for  academics   • Able  to  fix  when  fail   § Leads  to  high  self-­‐esteem  and  willingness  to  approach   challenging  tasks   o Learned  helplessness:  credit  success  to  external  factors  (like  luck),   failure  to  low  ability   § Leads  to  low  self  esteem,  anxiety  in  face  of  challenges,  giving   up     Relationship  With  Peers   • During  middle  childhood,  children  start  spending  more  time  with  their  peers   and  less  with  adults   • Peer  relationships  are  highly  important   o Allow  children  to  learn  to  argue  because  peers  are  on  the  same  level   § So,  children  learn  how  to  compromise  and  deal  with  arguments   • During  middle  childhood,  friendships  evolve,  but  can  be  long  lasting  if  they   are  high  quality   o Stage  1:  Basing  Friendship  on  Other’s  Behavior’s  (4-­‐7  y.o.)   § Friends  are  who  you  have  fun  with     § Friends  because  they  like  me  and  I  like  them  –  they  are  fun   § Friend  is  who  they  are  playing  with  at  the  time   § Share  toys   • Friendships  can  end  easily   • Friendships  can  also  be  easily  made     § Do  treat  friends  differently  than  strangers   o Stage  2:  Basing  Friendship  on  Trust  (8-­‐10  y.o.)   § Friends  are  people  who  are  similar  to  you  and  friends  trust   each  other   • By  academic  level,  same  race,  same  social  level   § Trust:  friend  is  kind,  does  not  bully,  does  not  violate  trust   • Important  to  kids  at  this  age   § Selective  at  choosing  friends   § More  enduring   • Arguments   § Kids  who  are  kind  with  friends,  promote  good  behaviors  in   friends  and  same  with  opposite     o Stage  3:  Basing  Friendship  on  Psychological  Closeness  (11  and  up)   § Friends  are  people  you  share  intimate  thoughts  with  and   friends  are  loyal   • Share  deeper  thoughts  and  feelings   • Friends  provide  support  and  are  there  for  you  when   you  need     Relationships  With  Peers  Continued   • Peer  Groups:  social  units  who  generate  values,  standards  for  behavior  and  a   social  hierarchy   o In  beginning,  develop  with  kids  in  same  class  then  based  on   similarities   o Membership  stable  for  short  periods  of  time  but  changes  from  year  to   year  as  kids  change  classrooms     o Kids  that  stay  in  same  class  =  50-­‐70%  of  groups  stable   • When  looking  at  in-­‐group,  positive  outlook   o Out-­‐group  negative  and  all  out-­‐group  people  are  seen  the  same     • Kids  start  excluding  other  kids   • View  excluding  kids  wrong,  less  likely  to  do  so  for  superficial  reasons  as  they   age   o Are  okay  with  excluding  due  to  the  kids  always  disrupting  group   (disrupt  group  function)   § Kick  kid  out  of  group  if  no  one  in  group  respects/likes  them   anymore   o Excluded  kids  turn  to  other  low  status  (excluded)  kids  or  withdraw   from  peers   § Group  with  lack  of  social  skills  =  chances  to  improve  social   skills  decreases   • Peer  Acceptance:  extent  to  which  a  child  is  viewed  by  a  group  of  peers  as  a   worthy  social  partner   o Researchers  use  sociometric  techniques  to  determine  peer  acceptance   § Kids  rate  other  kids  in  classroom  on  Likert  type  scales     Categories  of  Peer  Acceptance   • Popular:  often  liked,  rarely  disliked   o Socially  and  academically  skilled,  cooperative,  helpful,  low  level  of   intense  negative  emotions   § Socially  skilled  enough  to  join  convo  or  game   § Do  not  get  upset  very  easily   • Rejected:  rarely  liked,  often  disliked   o Rejected-­‐aggressive:   § Hostile,  disruptive,  lacking  social  skills  and  see  other  people   that  way  too;  become  more  disliked  over  time     o Rejected-­‐withdrawn:   § Socially  anxious,  passive,  often  bullied   o Both  types  may  lead  to  academic  problems,  depressions,  loneliness   § Hard  for  kids  to  come  out  of  these  categories   • Neglected:  neither  liked  nor  disliked   o Ignored  by  peers   o Shy,  withdrawn,  but  good  social  skills   § Happy  with  peer  relationships  even  with  fewer  friends;  easy  to   move  out  of  category   • Controversial:  liked  by  many,  disliked  by  many   o Aggressive,  disruptive  but  also  socially  skilled,  leaders   o Often  in  popular  group,  but  bullies  and  class  clowns   • Average:  some  like,  some  dislike,  in  the  middle       Gender  Differences  in  Friendships   • Become  more  flexible  about  gender  during  middle  childhood   • But  gender  segregation  continues,  intensifies   o Border  Work:  briefly  interacting  with  the  opposite  gender  group  to   help  define  boundaries  between  groups;  kind  of  romantic   § Both  groups  enjoy  games  mostly   • Boys’  friendships  =  larger  groups,  clear  dominance  hierarchy     o Attempt  to  maintain,  improve  status  =  competitive  interactions   o More  accepting  of  new  comers     o Play  outside,  cover  large  areas     • Girls’  friendships  =  1-­‐2  best  friends,  equality  in  status   o More  cooperation,  compromising   o More  self-­‐disclosure,  social  support   o Play  inside,  or  in  smaller  areas  closer  to  school/home   Chapter  14:  Physical  Development  in  Adolescence   (puberty  to  18  years  old)   Physical  Development   • Adolescent  growth  spurt:  period  of  rapid  growth  hen  body  takes  on  adult   proportions   o Females:     § Start  at  10.5  years   • Fastest  for  height  age  12,  weight  12.5  years   • Finish:  16  years;  when  most  girls  will  reach  adult  height   § Develop  more  fat  in  breasts,  hips;  hips  widen   o Males:   § Starts  at  13  years   • Fastest  for  height  at  age  13.5  years,  weight  14  years   • Finish:  18-­‐20  years   § Develop  more  muscle  mass,  broader  shoulders   o Cephalocaudal  Principle  reverses   § Kids  grow  from  the  feet  up   • Feet  à  legs  à  hands  à  torso   o Face  also  takes  on  adult  shape   • Puberty:  biological  change  resulting  in  sexual,  reproductive  maturity   o Females:   § Starts  at  9-­‐11  years:  development  of  breast  buds   § Menarche  (first  menstruation):  average  in  US  =  12.5  years   § Other  changes:   • Hair  growth   • Widening  of  hips,  rounding  of  body   • Maturation  of  reproductive  organs     • Changes  to  primary  and  secondary  characteristics   o Male:   § Begins  at  11-­‐12  years  with  enlargement  of  testes   • Scrotum  thickens,  testes  fully  descend   § Spermarche  (initial  ejaculation):  average  age  of  13  year  old   • May  not  have  live  sperm  or  be  fertile  at  this  time  though   § Sperm  production:  average  age  14  years   § Other  changes:   • Increase  in  muscle  mass   • Hair  growth:  pubic  hair  then  leg  hair   • Voice  changes   • Sexual  organs  mature   Reactions  to  Puberty   • Both  positive  and  negative  reactions   o More  positive  if  prepared   § Girls  likely  to  tell  mom/friends(s)   § Boys  likely  to  tell  no  one   • Gender  differences  in  reactions  to  body  image:   o Girls  more  negative:  do  not  like  weight  gain,  hair  growth,   menstruation   § Very  few  with  positive  body  image,  regardless  of  body  shape   § Focus  on  fat,  leads  to  dieting     o Boys  more  positive:  like  increase  in  muscle,  like  hair   § Negative  body  image  if  too  skinny,  overweight   • Focus  on  muscle,  leads  to  exercise,  supplements   o Teens  with  very  negative  body  image  at  risk  for  depression,  anxiety,   eating  disorders,  low  self-­‐esteem   Timing  of  Puberty   • Mostly  studied  in  girls   o Affected  by:   § Body  weight,  nutrition,  exercise   § Heredity:  identical  twins  start  near  the  same  time  as  the  other     • Environmental  factors:   o High  levels  of  stress,  harsh  parenting,  parental  separation  associated   with  earlier  start  of  menarche   • Secular  trend:  shift  in  pattern  of  characteristic  overtime   o Secular  trend  in  puberty:  industrialized  nations  =  earlier  maturation   over  time   § 7-­‐8  y.o.  =  Precocious  puberty   § None  of  the  following  at  the  following  ages  is  considered  late:   • 13:  breast   • 14:  pubic  hair   • 16:  menstruation   • If  not  testicular  growth  by  14  and  no  pubic  hair  by  15,   considered  delayed   o The  better  the  nutrition,  the  earlier  the  puberty   • Early  vs  on  time  vs  late   o Boys:   § Early  maturation  mostly  advantageous   • More  socially  competent,  confident,  athletic,  leaders   • Adults  see  earlier  maturing  boys  are  more  competent   and  responsible   o Parents  fight  with  them  less     • More  stress,  depression,  problem  behaviors  because  of   how  adults  are  treating  them   § Late  maturation  disadvantageous   • More  anxious,  less  athletic   • Lower  scores  on  academic  tests  lower  educational   aspirations     • Girls:   o Early  maturation  disadvantageous   § Less  popular,  less  focused  on  academics   § Higher  risk  of  depression,  anxiety,  problem  behaviors   o Later  maturation  advantageous     § More  popular  and  academic     • Impact  of  timing  fades  somewhat  but  may  still  have  effects  into  early   adulthood   Brain  Development   • Continued  pruning  of  unused  synapses   • Growth  and  myelination  of  stimulated  neurons  speeds  up   • Connections  between  areas  of  the  brain  strengthen   o Mostly  in  corpus  callosum,  prefrontal  cortex,  amygdala   o More  control  of  impulses   o Higher  level  thinking  better   • Maturation  of  the  limbic  system  happens  before  maturation  of  the  prefrontal   cortex   o Emotional  control  not  fully  developed  until  early  adulthood   § Risk  can  be  governed  by  emotion   • Neurons  become  more  responsive  to  excitatory  neurotransmitters   o More  sensitive  to  stressful,  pleasurable  and/or  novel  stimuli   o More  sensitive  to  Oxytocin;  may  help  explain  self-­‐consciousness,   desire  to  please  peers   Brain  Development:  Changing  States  of  Arousal   • Circadian  rhythm  shifts:  get  sleepy  later,  want  to  wake  up  later   o Want  to  get  to  bed  later   • Still  need  ~9  hours  of  sleep,  but  often  do  not  get  that     o If  sleep-­‐deprived:   § Perform  worse  on  cognitive  tasks  in  the  AM   § Academic  difficulties   § Depression,  emotional  outbursts   § More  high  risk  behaviors,  auto  accidents     • Delaying  start  of  school  can  help,  but  not  completely   o If  delay  school  an  hour,  then  problem  with  extracurricular  activities   Motor  Development   • Boys  and  girls  are  equal  in  improvements  until  puberty   o Then  boys  continue  to  increase  in  strength,  skill,  speed;  girls  often   level  off  or  decline   o Why?   § Biological  differences   § Gender  role  socialization   o Girls  who  participate  in  sports  during  childhood  and  adolescence:   § Increase  in  positive  body  image,  perceptions  of  physical   competence,  positive  “masculine”  traits  (used  to  be  seen  as   masculine  but  now  neutral:  aggressive,  leader)   § Correlated  with  higher  self-­‐esteem   Chapter  15:  Cognitive  Development  in  Adolescence     Stages  of  Cognitive  Development:  Formal  Operations  (12  and  older)   • Can  mentally  manipulate  abstract  objects/concepts   o Develop  hypotheticodeductive  reasoning:  can  make  hypothesis   about  objects/events  that  are  not  real   § Thinking  about  what  could  be     • Ex:  if  no  one  had  a  thumb,  the  world  would  change   o Develop  inductive  reasoning:  ability  to  go  from  specific  observations   to  broad  generalization   § Ex:  burnt  cookies:  think  and  test  out  variables  to  make  the   cookies  again  and  not  burnt;  test  out  one  variable  at  a  time   o Pendulum  Problem:  older  kids  understand  weight  or  length  of  string   could  be  the  problem  and  can  test  one  variable  at  a  time  and  younger   kids  cannot  understand  how  to  test  one  variable  at  a  time  and  will  test   multiple  at  one  time  which  will  disenable  them  to  figure  out  the   problem   Implications  of  Formal  Operations   • Ability  to  think  abstractly  +  increases  in  metacognition  =  broader  changes:   o Richer  understanding  of  people   o Ability  to  form  an  identity   § Can  you  imagine  yourself  as  a  number  of  different  thing   o Increased  complexity  of  though   § There  can  be  different  solutions  for  a  problem  and  imagine  a   different  future   o Ability  to  imagine  hypothetical  versions  of  reality   § Can  lead  to  confusion,  rebellion  against  “illogical  rules”,   idealism  because  able  to  imagine  an  ideal  world  versus  the   world  now  (reality)  which  can  lead  to  anger   • Adolescent  Egocentrism:  state  of  self-­‐absorption  in  which  the  world  is   viewed  from  one’s  own  point  of  view   o Imaginary  Audience:  belief  that  everyone  around  is  as  interested  in   their  thoughts  and  behaviors  as  they  are   o Personal  Fable:  part  of  adolescent  egocentrism  that  involves  feeling   special,  unique  and  invincible   § Wouldn’t  happen  to  me  because  I  am  special  and  unique     Formal  Operations   • Research  indicates  that  not  all  adults  reach  formal  operations   • More  schooling  =  more  able  to  reach  formal  operations   o Most  likely  to  show  abstract  thinking  on  areas  that  are  interesting,   relevant  to  your  life  (such  as  your  major)   o All  adults  likely  have  the  ability  to  use  formal  operations,  but  may   have  to  learn  to  do  so  through  experience   Post  Formal  Though:  Emerging  Adulthood  and  Beyond   • Ways  of  thinking  that  are  more  complex  than  formal  operational  thinking   o Relativistic  Thinking:  realizing  knowledge  is  subjective  and  relative   § Teens  are  absolutists:  there  is  only  one  truth,  correct  solution   § Adults  may  be  relativists   § Students  get  more  relativistic  during  college  years  –  there  is   not  one  absolute  truth  so  everyone  is  right  but  by  end  of   college,  pick  opinions  that  make  more  sense  with  evidence  to   support  it     Moral  Development   • Moral  Reasoning:  thinking  process  that  occurs  when  we  decide  what  is  right   or  wrong   • Kohlberg  tested  people  by  asking  how  they  would  respond  to  moral   dilemmas   o Actual  decision  is  not  as  important  as  reasons  why  they  made  the   decision   § Reason  is  what  determines  stage   • Developed  stage  theory  of  moral  development   o Cannot  skip  a  stage  or  go  back     • 3  Levels:   o Level  1:  Preconventional  Morality   § Rules  are  external  rather  than  internalized   § What  is  right  is  what  you  can  get  away  with,  what  is  personally   satisfying   • Stage  1:  Obedience  and  Punishment  Orientation   o What  is  moral  to  kids  has  to  do  with  punishment   o Punishment  if  doing  something  wrong   o Characterized  by  desire  to  avoid  punishment   o Intentions  are  ignored:  does  not  matter  if   reasons  are  good  or  bad   § Only  punishment  matters   • Stage  2:  Instrumental  Hedonism   o What  is  right  gets  you  the  most  reward   o Characterized  by  desire  to  gain  rewards  or   satisfy  needs   o Reward  more  important  than  punishment   o Level  2:  Conventional  Morality   § Guided  by  internalized  morals   • Societal  norms  are  internal   § Punishments,  rewards  become  more  abstract   • Ex:  are  other  people  going  to  see  me  as  a  good  or  bad   person;  society  continues  to  function  normally   § Typically  reached  in  early  adolescence   • Most  adults  stayed  at  this  level   • Stage  3:  “Good  Boy”  or  “Good  Girl”  Morality   o What  is  right  pleases  others   § “Meaning  well”,  being  nice  is  valued   o Intention  now  considered   o Seeking  approval,  avoiding  disapproval  now   reinforcing  factor   • Stage  4:  Authority  and  Social  Order  Maintaining  Morality   o Morality  associated  with  following  “will  of   society”,  reflected  in  laws,  social  norms   o Rigid  sense  of  right  and  wrong  based  on  law   adopted   o Conforms  to  rules  of  authority  (laws),  concerned   with  upholding  social  order  and  doing  one’s  duty   o Going  against  law  causes  chaos   o Level  3:  Postconventional  Morality   § Develop  broadly  defined  ethical  principles  not  set  by  authority   • Recognizes  laws  are  not  always  moral   • Looks  beyond  authority  to  take  perspective  of  all,   instead  of  one  social  group     o Challenge  the  law   o Understanding  legality  and  morality  sometimes   does  not  match   • Stage  5:  Social  Contract  Orientation   o One’s  conduct  is  defined  according  to  a  “social   contract”:  should  be  linked  to  common  good,  not   just  focusing  on  benefit  to  self   o People  have  basic  rights  that  we  must  prove  it   § Try  to  change  law  to  benefit  all  people   o Laws  should  be  democratic,  maximize  welfare  of   all   o If  laws  compromise  basic  human  rights,  have   moral  obligation  to  challenge  law   • Stage  6:  Morality  of  Individual  Principles  of  Conscience   o “Right”  and  “wrong”  based  on  self-­‐generated   principles     o Principles  adhered  to  regardless  of  consequence   to  individual   § Value  principles  more  than  their  own   lives   o So  rare  and  hard  to  determine,  Kohlberg  stopped   looking  it   Is  Moral  Reasoning  Related  to  Moral  Behavior?   • Not  in  early  childhood   o Even  if  know  something  is  wrong,  will  still  do  it   • Moderately  related  after  early  childhood   o Kohlberg  used  dilemmas  to  determine  level  of  morality  of  students   § Then  tempted  them  to  cheat   • Preconventional  morals:  70%  cheated   • Conventional  morals:  55%  cheated   • Postconventional:  15%  cheated   Criticisms  of  Kohlberg’s  Theory   • Western  theory  bias   o Democratic  laws  important  à  very  much  of  a  western  bias   • A  gender  biased  model  towards  men   o Logic,  rights,  abstract  thinking:  ways  men  think   o Women  will  get  stuck  at  level  3   § Despite  what  he  thought  though,  women  could  get  to  all  levels   Chapter  16:  Social  &  Personality  Development  in  Adolescence   Erikson’s  Psychosocial  Theory   • Identity  vs.  Role  Confusion  (teens  –  early  20s)   o Identity:  mature  self-­‐definition,  sense  of  who  one  is,  where  one  is   going,  how  one  fits  into  society   o Identity  Crisis:  a  time  of  uncertainty,  anxiety  about  identity   o Unsuccessful  at  developing  identity  =  aimless,  directionless,  may   adopt  socially  unacceptable  behavior   § End  up  with  people  who  do  not  know  what  they  want  in  life   § Easier  time  with  this  stage  if  successful  in  earlier  stages   Identity  Development   • James  Marcia  identified  4  identity  states  based  on  4  criteria:  (For  different   parts  of  identity  such  as  one  for  politics,  one  for  dating,  etc.)   o Level  of  commitment  to  a  particular  aspect  of  identity   o Time  spent  exploring  options  regarding  that  aspect  of  identity   • Marcia’s  Identity  Statuses   o     Have  not  Experience  Crisis   Experienced  Crisis   (Haven’t  explored  options)   (Explored  options)   Not  Committed   Identity  Confusion:  do  not   Identity   care  about  aspect  of   Moratorium:  do  not   identity   know  identity,  but   Ex:  do  not  care  about   exploring  to  figure  it   religion  so  never  think   out   about  it   Committed   Identity  Foreclosure:   Identity   commit  to  aspect  of   Achievement:  figure   identity  without  exploring   out  the  aspect   options   Was  Erikson  Correct  About  Identity  Development?   • Timing   o Believed  “identity  crisis”  resolved  by  end  of  HS  (ages  15-­‐18)   o Research  does  not  support  this:   § Males  aged  12-­‐18:  most  in  foreclosure  or  diffusion   § 21  and  up:  most  in  moratorium  or  achievement   § Women  similar,  but  place  more  emphasis  on  gender  roles,   sexuality  and  balancing  career/kids   o May  go  back  into  moratorium  or  other  stages  after   o Development  is  uneven:  may  be  in  different  stages  for  different   aspects  of  identity   • Is  development  crisis-­‐like?   o Erikson  believed  teens  would  experience  anxiety,  confusion,  pain   o Research  does  not  support  this:   § Teens  in  moratorium  are  happier,  more  helpful  than  those  in   diffusion  or  foreclosure   o But  Erikson  was  correct  that  having  an  Achieved  Identity  is  healthy:   § Achievement  =  closer  relationships,  higher  self  esteem,   achievement  motivation  and  moral  reasoning   § Diffusion  =  increased  depression,  low  self  esteem,  academic   problems,  anti-­‐social  acts,  drug  abuse   § Foreclosure  =  happy,  but  greater  need  for  social  approval,   dogmatic/inflexible  thinking  style  (not  open  to  hearing  other   points  of  view)  –  closed  off   Factors  Influence  Identity  Development   • Cognitive  Development:   o Mastery  of  formal  operations   • Relationships  with  parents:   o Long  term  diffusion  correlated  with  being  neglected  or  rejected   o Long  term  foreclosure  correlated  with  very  close,  rigid  and  controlling   parents   § Want  acceptance  of  parents  so  do  what  parents  want  and  like   o Reaching  achievement  quickly  correlated  with  affection,  feelings  of   unconditional  support  (authoritative  parenting)   • Scholastic  Influence:   o Attending  college:     § Faster  achievement  of  occupational  identity   § Slower  achievement  of  political  and  spiritual  identity   • Broader  social  and  historical  context:  culture  plays  role  in  formation  of   identity   o Marcia’s  model  =  western  view  of  identity   Self-­‐Concept   • Becomes  even  less  concrete,  more  abstract   • More  self  aware:  see  self  from  own  and  others’  perspective   • More  multifaceted:  have  different  “selves”  for  different  situations   o 13,  15,  17  year  olds  asked  what  they  were  like  in  different  situations   § 13:  had  inconsistencies,  did  not  notice  and  were  not  bothered   § 15:  had  inconsistencies,  noticed,  were  bothered,  especially  if   engaging  in  false  self  behavior:  goes  against  what  you  think   you  are  –  to  please  people   § 17:  had  inconsistencies,  noticed,  were  not  bothered   Self-­‐Esteem   • Further  differentiate  self-­‐esteem,  evaluating  different  aspects  of  self   separately   o Relational  self  worth:  self-­‐esteem  in  particular  relationship  contexts   § Girls:  being  liked  and  accepted  by  friends   § Boys:  having  influence  over  friends,  attracting  romantic   partners   • Self  esteem  may  show  temporary  declines  during  transitional  periods,  but   generally  increases  over  time  of  adolescent  years   o Much  individual  variation,  however   § More  likely  to  show  decline  if  undergoing  many  transitions  at   once   • Early  adolescent  girls  –  slightly  lower,  more  fragile  self-­‐esteem  (easier  to   show  decline)   o More  concerned  with  appearance,  more  negative  body  image  after   puberty     o Concern  with  social  success  can  conflict  with  concern  about  academic   success   • Higher  SES  =  higher  self-­‐esteem   • For  racial/ethnic  minorities,  strong/positive  racial  identity  =  higher  self-­‐ esteem   o African  Americans  and  Latinos  highest,  then  Caucasians,  then  Asian   Americans   Gender  Development   • During  early  adolescence:  Gender  Intensification   o Increased  stereotyping  about  gender,  movement  toward  more   traditional  gender  identity   o Declines  by  mid  late  adolescence   Relationship  with  Parents   • Teens  strive  for  independence  and  autonomy   o Shift  focus  from  family  to  peers   o Cognitive  development  +  older  appearance  =  more  freedom,   responsibilities   o Teens  de-­‐idealize  parents   § Good  to  start  to  see  parents  as  people  and  can  make  mistakes   § Can  cause  problems:  stop  doing  what  parents  say     Relationship  with  Parents   • At/after  puberty,  parent-­‐child  conflict  increases  in  #  and  intensity   o Typical  arguments  are  over  everyday  issues   o More  tension  between  daughters  and  parents,  than  with  son   § Girls  start  puberty  earlier  so  push  for  independence  at  younger   age   § Parents  give  greater  freedom,  less  restrictions  to  sons   o Parents  own  development  adds  tension   § Parents  also  going  through  changes   • Menopause,  retiring   • Hard  to  let  go   • Realize  child  is  about  to  leave  so  want  to  spend  a  lot  of   time  with  them   § ~20%  of  families  have  very  rough  time  during  children’s   adolescence   • Good  parent-­‐child  relationship,  extremely  important  for  teens   o Most  consistent  predictor  of  teen  mental  health   o Must  balance  warmth,  control  and  increasing  independence   § Be  supportive  and  accepting  to  create  good  parent-­‐child   relationship   § Monitor  activities  with  teen’s  willing  participation   § Democratic  decision  making,  discipline  with  explanation   § Provide  needed  info,  remain  open/honest   o Coercive,  controlling  parents  =  more  likely  to  have  negative  outcomes   • Some  conflict  normal,  adaptive   o Conflict  helps  teenagers  distance  themselves  from  parents  and  create   autonomy   o Conflict  reminds  parents  of  how  too  controlling  they  can  be   • Parents  and  their  children  agree  on  most  issues;  more  on  big  issues  such  as   religion   • By  mid-­‐late  adolescence,  conflict  declines   Peer  Groups:  Cliques   • By  early  adolescence,  form  cliques:  a  small  group  of  friends  who  interact   regularly   o Usually  same-­‐sex  groups  with  2-­‐12  members   § Boys’  cliques  tend  to  be  larger  than  girls’   • By  mid-­‐teens,  cliques  reform  to  include  both  genders   • Children  in  cliques  similar  to  each  other   • Over  teen  years,  kids  begin  belonging  to  more  than  one  clique   o Membership  becomes  more  stable  by  the  10  grade   o During  late  adolescence:  importance  of  being  in  popular  clique,   conforming  to  social  norms  lessens       § More  independent,  spend  more  time  on  individual  friendships,   dating   Peer  Groups:  Crowds   • Large  groups  of  peers  who  have  similar  stereotyped  reputations,  values,   attitudes,  behaviors,  ways  of  expressing  themselves   o Crowd  often  decided  by  consensus  of  peers   o Can  influence  reputation,  treatment   § Kids  in  high-­‐status  crowds  tend  to  have  higher  self-­‐esteem   o Can  also  influence  identity  development     Book  Notes:   Chapter  13:  Social  and  Personality  Development  in   Middle  Childhood   Stages  of  Friendship:  Changing  Views  of  Friends   • William  Damon’s  3  Distinct  Stages  of  a  Child’s  Friendship   o Stage  1:  Basing  Friendship  on  Others’  Behaviors  (4-­‐7  years)   § Children  see  friends  as  others  who  like  them  and  with  whom   they  share  toys  and  activities   § Friends  are  the  children  they  spend  the  most  time  with   § Do  not  take  others’  personal  qualities  into  consideration   • Do  not  see  friendship  based  on  their  friends  unique  and   positive  personal  traits   • Use  concrete  approach  that  is  based  on  others’  behavior   o Like  those  that  they  can  share  with  who  share   back   o Do  not  like  those  who  hit,  do  not  share  and  do   not  play  with  them   § In  sum:  friends  viewed  as  people  who  present  opportunities   for  pleasant  interactions   o Stage  2:  Basing  Friendship  on  Trust  (8-­‐10  years)   § Take  others’  personal  qualities  and  traits  and  the  rewards  they   provide  into  consideration   § Centerpiece  of  friendship:  mutual  trust   • Friends  seen  as  those  who  can  be  counted  on  to  help   when  needed     • Violations  of  trust  are  taken  very  seriously   o If  there  is  a  violation  of  trust,  there  is  an   expectation  for  a  formal  explanation  and  apology   for  the  friendship  to  be  reestablished   o Stage  3:  Basing  Friendship  on  Psychological  Closeness  (11-­‐15  years)   § Begin  to  develop  the  view  of  friendship  that  is  held  during   adolescence   § Friendship  characterized  by  feelings  of  closeness  brought  on   by  sharing  personal  thoughts  and  feelings     § Friendships  are  also  exclusive   • Seek  friends  who  will  be  loyal     § View  friendships  in  terms  of  the  psychological  benefits  that   friendship  brings   § Children  develop  clear  ideas  about  which  behaviors  they  seek   in  their  friends     The  Family     Families:  The  Changing  Home  Environment   • One  of  biggest  challenges  facing  children  and  their  parents  is  the  increasing   independence  that  characterizes  children’s  behavior  in  middle  childhood   o Children  move  from  being  almost  completely  controlled  by  parents  to   increasingly  controlling  their  own  destinies     • Middle  childhood  is  a  period  of  coregulation:  a  period  in  which  parents  and   children  jointly  control  children’s  behavior     o Children  have  control  over  their  everyday  behavior   o Parents  provide  broad,  general  guidelines  for  conduct   § Ex:  parents  may  tell  child  to  buy  nutritious  meal  at  lunch  but   child’s  decision  to  buy  pizza  is  her  own     Family  Life     • During  middle  years  of  childhood,  children  spend  less  time  with  parents  than   in  earlier  years   • Still,  parents  remain  the  major  influence  in  their  children’s  lives   o Provide  essential  assistance,  advice  and  direction   • Siblings  also  have  good  and  bad  influences  on  children  during  middle   childhood   o Brothers  and  sisters  can  provide  support,  companionship,  and  a  sense   of  security  but  can  also  be  a  source  of  strife  or  trouble   • Sibling  rivalry:  can  occur  with  siblings  competing  or  quarreling  with  one   another     o Can  be  most  intense  when  siblings  are  similar  in  age  and  are  of  the   same  sex   o Parents  may  intensify  this  rivalry  by  favoring  one  child  over  the  other     § May  not  be  accurate   • Ex:  older  sibling  may  be  permitted  more  freedom  which   the  younger  sibling  may  misinterpret  as  favoritism   o Can  also  damage  the  self-­‐esteem  of  one  of  the  siblings     • Children  with  no  siblings  do  not  have  the  opportunity  to  experience  sibling   rivalry  but  may  miss  benefits  that  siblings  can  bring     o These  children  are  still  as  well  adjusted  as  children  who  have  brothers   and  sisters   o Only  children  are  better-­‐adjusted,  have  higher  self-­‐esteems  and  have   stronger  motivation  to  succeed  and  achieve     § Good  news  for  parents  in  China  where  a  strict  one-­‐child  policy   in  in  effect     § Chinese  only  children  outperform  children  with  siblings   academically     When  Both  Parents  Works  Outside  the  Home:  How  Do  Children  Fare?   • Children  whose


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