Exam #4 Study Guide
Exam #4 Study Guide PSYC 4220
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This 34 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emilie Vainer on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 298 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 12/10/15
PSYC4220 Exam #4 Study Guide: PowerPoint Notes, Lecture Notes and Book Notes PowerPoint and Lecture Notes: Chapter 13: Social and Personality Development in Middle Childhood Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages • Industry vs. Inferiority (6-‐12) o Industry § Developing a sense of competence at skills and social rules important in your culture • Includes social norms and cues as well as gender roles • A lot of social growth happening • Skills in industrialized countries learned through school • Mainly successful; learn competence o Inferiority § Child is unable to master most of important skills § Pessimism and lack of confidence in own ability to do things well o Industry in childhood more closely correlated to adult success than IQ or background Self-‐Concept • Self concept becomes more complex, more abstract across middle childhood o Start giving psychological descriptors § Ex: I am nice when I want to be o Begin dividing self-‐concept in multiple parts § Academic, social, emotional, physical o Begin engaging in social comparison § Evaluating one’s appearance, abilities, opinions, behavior in relation to others § May engage in downward social comparison to protect self-‐ esteem • Compare themselves to people worse than them Self-‐Esteem • Self-‐esteem also becomes differentiated Development of Self-‐Esteem • Self esteem increases steadily (does not drop much) during middle childhood, with slight drop around 23 • Influences on self esteem: o Cultural: § Children from cultures with emphasis on social comparison often have lower self esteem • Seen in kids in China, Japan and Korea o Collectivistic cultures value humble and modesty and appreciate others for doing weel o Gender: § US girls higher in language-‐arts, boys in math, science, and physical ability § Boys and girls overall levels of self esteem very similar in middle childhood o Race/Ethnicity: § In early childhood, African-‐American and Hispanic Children have lower self-‐esteem than Caucasian children • But by the end of middle childhood, self-‐esteem increases in both groups, with African American kids having the highest self-‐esteem by age 11 o Parenting Styles: § Authoritative parents = kids with higher self esteem § Controlling or authoritarian parents = lower self esteem children § Permissive parents = kids with unrealistically high self-‐esteem, adjustment problems § In US, self-‐esteem has risen sharply as achievement has fallen, anti-‐social/narcissistic behaviors have increased § Don’t just praise: urge kids to set goals and achieve them • Want kids to grow up believing they can get better at things Attribution • Stability Dimension: unstable vs. stable cause o Unstable = effort/mood/fatigue o Stable = ability/intelligence • Internal – External Dimension Influences of Self-‐Esteem: • Achievement attributions: o Mastery-‐oriented attributions: credit success to high ability, failure to insufficient effort § Good for academics • Able to fix when fail § Leads to high self-‐esteem and willingness to approach challenging tasks o Learned helplessness: credit success to external factors (like luck), failure to low ability § Leads to low self esteem, anxiety in face of challenges, giving up Relationship With Peers • During middle childhood, children start spending more time with their peers and less with adults • Peer relationships are highly important o Allow children to learn to argue because peers are on the same level § So, children learn how to compromise and deal with arguments • During middle childhood, friendships evolve, but can be long lasting if they are high quality o Stage 1: Basing Friendship on Other’s Behavior’s (4-‐7 y.o.) § Friends are who you have fun with § Friends because they like me and I like them – they are fun § Friend is who they are playing with at the time § Share toys • Friendships can end easily • Friendships can also be easily made § Do treat friends differently than strangers o Stage 2: Basing Friendship on Trust (8-‐10 y.o.) § Friends are people who are similar to you and friends trust each other • By academic level, same race, same social level § Trust: friend is kind, does not bully, does not violate trust • Important to kids at this age § Selective at choosing friends § More enduring • Arguments § Kids who are kind with friends, promote good behaviors in friends and same with opposite o Stage 3: Basing Friendship on Psychological Closeness (11 and up) § Friends are people you share intimate thoughts with and friends are loyal • Share deeper thoughts and feelings • Friends provide support and are there for you when you need Relationships With Peers Continued • Peer Groups: social units who generate values, standards for behavior and a social hierarchy o In beginning, develop with kids in same class then based on similarities o Membership stable for short periods of time but changes from year to year as kids change classrooms o Kids that stay in same class = 50-‐70% of groups stable • When looking at in-‐group, positive outlook o Out-‐group negative and all out-‐group people are seen the same • Kids start excluding other kids • View excluding kids wrong, less likely to do so for superficial reasons as they age o Are okay with excluding due to the kids always disrupting group (disrupt group function) § Kick kid out of group if no one in group respects/likes them anymore o Excluded kids turn to other low status (excluded) kids or withdraw from peers § Group with lack of social skills = chances to improve social skills decreases • Peer Acceptance: extent to which a child is viewed by a group of peers as a worthy social partner o Researchers use sociometric techniques to determine peer acceptance § Kids rate other kids in classroom on Likert type scales Categories of Peer Acceptance • Popular: often liked, rarely disliked o Socially and academically skilled, cooperative, helpful, low level of intense negative emotions § Socially skilled enough to join convo or game § Do not get upset very easily • Rejected: rarely liked, often disliked o Rejected-‐aggressive: § Hostile, disruptive, lacking social skills and see other people that way too; become more disliked over time o Rejected-‐withdrawn: § Socially anxious, passive, often bullied o Both types may lead to academic problems, depressions, loneliness § Hard for kids to come out of these categories • Neglected: neither liked nor disliked o Ignored by peers o Shy, withdrawn, but good social skills § Happy with peer relationships even with fewer friends; easy to move out of category • Controversial: liked by many, disliked by many o Aggressive, disruptive but also socially skilled, leaders o Often in popular group, but bullies and class clowns • Average: some like, some dislike, in the middle Gender Differences in Friendships • Become more flexible about gender during middle childhood • But gender segregation continues, intensifies o Border Work: briefly interacting with the opposite gender group to help define boundaries between groups; kind of romantic § Both groups enjoy games mostly • Boys’ friendships = larger groups, clear dominance hierarchy o Attempt to maintain, improve status = competitive interactions o More accepting of new comers o Play outside, cover large areas • Girls’ friendships = 1-‐2 best friends, equality in status o More cooperation, compromising o More self-‐disclosure, social support o Play inside, or in smaller areas closer to school/home Chapter 14: Physical Development in Adolescence (puberty to 18 years old) Physical Development • Adolescent growth spurt: period of rapid growth hen body takes on adult proportions o Females: § Start at 10.5 years • Fastest for height age 12, weight 12.5 years • Finish: 16 years; when most girls will reach adult height § Develop more fat in breasts, hips; hips widen o Males: § Starts at 13 years • Fastest for height at age 13.5 years, weight 14 years • Finish: 18-‐20 years § Develop more muscle mass, broader shoulders o Cephalocaudal Principle reverses § Kids grow from the feet up • Feet à legs à hands à torso o Face also takes on adult shape • Puberty: biological change resulting in sexual, reproductive maturity o Females: § Starts at 9-‐11 years: development of breast buds § Menarche (first menstruation): average in US = 12.5 years § Other changes: • Hair growth • Widening of hips, rounding of body • Maturation of reproductive organs • Changes to primary and secondary characteristics o Male: § Begins at 11-‐12 years with enlargement of testes • Scrotum thickens, testes fully descend § Spermarche (initial ejaculation): average age of 13 year old • May not have live sperm or be fertile at this time though § Sperm production: average age 14 years § Other changes: • Increase in muscle mass • Hair growth: pubic hair then leg hair • Voice changes • Sexual organs mature Reactions to Puberty • Both positive and negative reactions o More positive if prepared § Girls likely to tell mom/friends(s) § Boys likely to tell no one • Gender differences in reactions to body image: o Girls more negative: do not like weight gain, hair growth, menstruation § Very few with positive body image, regardless of body shape § Focus on fat, leads to dieting o Boys more positive: like increase in muscle, like hair § Negative body image if too skinny, overweight • Focus on muscle, leads to exercise, supplements o Teens with very negative body image at risk for depression, anxiety, eating disorders, low self-‐esteem Timing of Puberty • Mostly studied in girls o Affected by: § Body weight, nutrition, exercise § Heredity: identical twins start near the same time as the other • Environmental factors: o High levels of stress, harsh parenting, parental separation associated with earlier start of menarche • Secular trend: shift in pattern of characteristic overtime o Secular trend in puberty: industrialized nations = earlier maturation over time § 7-‐8 y.o. = Precocious puberty § None of the following at the following ages is considered late: • 13: breast • 14: pubic hair • 16: menstruation • If not testicular growth by 14 and no pubic hair by 15, considered delayed o The better the nutrition, the earlier the puberty • Early vs on time vs late o Boys: § Early maturation mostly advantageous • More socially competent, confident, athletic, leaders • Adults see earlier maturing boys are more competent and responsible o Parents fight with them less • More stress, depression, problem behaviors because of how adults are treating them § Late maturation disadvantageous • More anxious, less athletic • Lower scores on academic tests lower educational aspirations • Girls: o Early maturation disadvantageous § Less popular, less focused on academics § Higher risk of depression, anxiety, problem behaviors o Later maturation advantageous § More popular and academic • Impact of timing fades somewhat but may still have effects into early adulthood Brain Development • Continued pruning of unused synapses • Growth and myelination of stimulated neurons speeds up • Connections between areas of the brain strengthen o Mostly in corpus callosum, prefrontal cortex, amygdala o More control of impulses o Higher level thinking better • Maturation of the limbic system happens before maturation of the prefrontal cortex o Emotional control not fully developed until early adulthood § Risk can be governed by emotion • Neurons become more responsive to excitatory neurotransmitters o More sensitive to stressful, pleasurable and/or novel stimuli o More sensitive to Oxytocin; may help explain self-‐consciousness, desire to please peers Brain Development: Changing States of Arousal • Circadian rhythm shifts: get sleepy later, want to wake up later o Want to get to bed later • Still need ~9 hours of sleep, but often do not get that o If sleep-‐deprived: § Perform worse on cognitive tasks in the AM § Academic difficulties § Depression, emotional outbursts § More high risk behaviors, auto accidents • Delaying start of school can help, but not completely o If delay school an hour, then problem with extracurricular activities Motor Development • Boys and girls are equal in improvements until puberty o Then boys continue to increase in strength, skill, speed; girls often level off or decline o Why? § Biological differences § Gender role socialization o Girls who participate in sports during childhood and adolescence: § Increase in positive body image, perceptions of physical competence, positive “masculine” traits (used to be seen as masculine but now neutral: aggressive, leader) § Correlated with higher self-‐esteem Chapter 15: Cognitive Development in Adolescence Stages of Cognitive Development: Formal Operations (12 and older) • Can mentally manipulate abstract objects/concepts o Develop hypotheticodeductive reasoning: can make hypothesis about objects/events that are not real § Thinking about what could be • Ex: if no one had a thumb, the world would change o Develop inductive reasoning: ability to go from specific observations to broad generalization § Ex: burnt cookies: think and test out variables to make the cookies again and not burnt; test out one variable at a time o Pendulum Problem: older kids understand weight or length of string could be the problem and can test one variable at a time and younger kids cannot understand how to test one variable at a time and will test multiple at one time which will disenable them to figure out the problem Implications of Formal Operations • Ability to think abstractly + increases in metacognition = broader changes: o Richer understanding of people o Ability to form an identity § Can you imagine yourself as a number of different thing o Increased complexity of though § There can be different solutions for a problem and imagine a different future o Ability to imagine hypothetical versions of reality § Can lead to confusion, rebellion against “illogical rules”, idealism because able to imagine an ideal world versus the world now (reality) which can lead to anger • Adolescent Egocentrism: state of self-‐absorption in which the world is viewed from one’s own point of view o Imaginary Audience: belief that everyone around is as interested in their thoughts and behaviors as they are o Personal Fable: part of adolescent egocentrism that involves feeling special, unique and invincible § Wouldn’t happen to me because I am special and unique Formal Operations • Research indicates that not all adults reach formal operations • More schooling = more able to reach formal operations o Most likely to show abstract thinking on areas that are interesting, relevant to your life (such as your major) o All adults likely have the ability to use formal operations, but may have to learn to do so through experience Post Formal Though: Emerging Adulthood and Beyond • Ways of thinking that are more complex than formal operational thinking o Relativistic Thinking: realizing knowledge is subjective and relative § Teens are absolutists: there is only one truth, correct solution § Adults may be relativists § Students get more relativistic during college years – there is not one absolute truth so everyone is right but by end of college, pick opinions that make more sense with evidence to support it Moral Development • Moral Reasoning: thinking process that occurs when we decide what is right or wrong • Kohlberg tested people by asking how they would respond to moral dilemmas o Actual decision is not as important as reasons why they made the decision § Reason is what determines stage • Developed stage theory of moral development o Cannot skip a stage or go back • 3 Levels: o Level 1: Preconventional Morality § Rules are external rather than internalized § What is right is what you can get away with, what is personally satisfying • Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment Orientation o What is moral to kids has to do with punishment o Punishment if doing something wrong o Characterized by desire to avoid punishment o Intentions are ignored: does not matter if reasons are good or bad § Only punishment matters • Stage 2: Instrumental Hedonism o What is right gets you the most reward o Characterized by desire to gain rewards or satisfy needs o Reward more important than punishment o Level 2: Conventional Morality § Guided by internalized morals • Societal norms are internal § Punishments, rewards become more abstract • Ex: are other people going to see me as a good or bad person; society continues to function normally § Typically reached in early adolescence • Most adults stayed at this level • Stage 3: “Good Boy” or “Good Girl” Morality o What is right pleases others § “Meaning well”, being nice is valued o Intention now considered o Seeking approval, avoiding disapproval now reinforcing factor • Stage 4: Authority and Social Order Maintaining Morality o Morality associated with following “will of society”, reflected in laws, social norms o Rigid sense of right and wrong based on law adopted o Conforms to rules of authority (laws), concerned with upholding social order and doing one’s duty o Going against law causes chaos o Level 3: Postconventional Morality § Develop broadly defined ethical principles not set by authority • Recognizes laws are not always moral • Looks beyond authority to take perspective of all, instead of one social group o Challenge the law o Understanding legality and morality sometimes does not match • Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation o One’s conduct is defined according to a “social contract”: should be linked to common good, not just focusing on benefit to self o People have basic rights that we must prove it § Try to change law to benefit all people o Laws should be democratic, maximize welfare of all o If laws compromise basic human rights, have moral obligation to challenge law • Stage 6: Morality of Individual Principles of Conscience o “Right” and “wrong” based on self-‐generated principles o Principles adhered to regardless of consequence to individual § Value principles more than their own lives o So rare and hard to determine, Kohlberg stopped looking it Is Moral Reasoning Related to Moral Behavior? • Not in early childhood o Even if know something is wrong, will still do it • Moderately related after early childhood o Kohlberg used dilemmas to determine level of morality of students § Then tempted them to cheat • Preconventional morals: 70% cheated • Conventional morals: 55% cheated • Postconventional: 15% cheated Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory • Western theory bias o Democratic laws important à very much of a western bias • A gender biased model towards men o Logic, rights, abstract thinking: ways men think o Women will get stuck at level 3 § Despite what he thought though, women could get to all levels Chapter 16: Social & Personality Development in Adolescence Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory • Identity vs. Role Confusion (teens – early 20s) o Identity: mature self-‐definition, sense of who one is, where one is going, how one fits into society o Identity Crisis: a time of uncertainty, anxiety about identity o Unsuccessful at developing identity = aimless, directionless, may adopt socially unacceptable behavior § End up with people who do not know what they want in life § Easier time with this stage if successful in earlier stages Identity Development • James Marcia identified 4 identity states based on 4 criteria: (For different parts of identity such as one for politics, one for dating, etc.) o Level of commitment to a particular aspect of identity o Time spent exploring options regarding that aspect of identity • Marcia’s Identity Statuses o Have not Experience Crisis Experienced Crisis (Haven’t explored options) (Explored options) Not Committed Identity Confusion: do not Identity care about aspect of Moratorium: do not identity know identity, but Ex: do not care about exploring to figure it religion so never think out about it Committed Identity Foreclosure: Identity commit to aspect of Achievement: figure identity without exploring out the aspect options Was Erikson Correct About Identity Development? • Timing o Believed “identity crisis” resolved by end of HS (ages 15-‐18) o Research does not support this: § Males aged 12-‐18: most in foreclosure or diffusion § 21 and up: most in moratorium or achievement § Women similar, but place more emphasis on gender roles, sexuality and balancing career/kids o May go back into moratorium or other stages after o Development is uneven: may be in different stages for different aspects of identity • Is development crisis-‐like? o Erikson believed teens would experience anxiety, confusion, pain o Research does not support this: § Teens in moratorium are happier, more helpful than those in diffusion or foreclosure o But Erikson was correct that having an Achieved Identity is healthy: § Achievement = closer relationships, higher self esteem, achievement motivation and moral reasoning § Diffusion = increased depression, low self esteem, academic problems, anti-‐social acts, drug abuse § Foreclosure = happy, but greater need for social approval, dogmatic/inflexible thinking style (not open to hearing other points of view) – closed off Factors Influence Identity Development • Cognitive Development: o Mastery of formal operations • Relationships with parents: o Long term diffusion correlated with being neglected or rejected o Long term foreclosure correlated with very close, rigid and controlling parents § Want acceptance of parents so do what parents want and like o Reaching achievement quickly correlated with affection, feelings of unconditional support (authoritative parenting) • Scholastic Influence: o Attending college: § Faster achievement of occupational identity § Slower achievement of political and spiritual identity • Broader social and historical context: culture plays role in formation of identity o Marcia’s model = western view of identity Self-‐Concept • Becomes even less concrete, more abstract • More self aware: see self from own and others’ perspective • More multifaceted: have different “selves” for different situations o 13, 15, 17 year olds asked what they were like in different situations § 13: had inconsistencies, did not notice and were not bothered § 15: had inconsistencies, noticed, were bothered, especially if engaging in false self behavior: goes against what you think you are – to please people § 17: had inconsistencies, noticed, were not bothered Self-‐Esteem • Further differentiate self-‐esteem, evaluating different aspects of self separately o Relational self worth: self-‐esteem in particular relationship contexts § Girls: being liked and accepted by friends § Boys: having influence over friends, attracting romantic partners • Self esteem may show temporary declines during transitional periods, but generally increases over time of adolescent years o Much individual variation, however § More likely to show decline if undergoing many transitions at once • Early adolescent girls – slightly lower, more fragile self-‐esteem (easier to show decline) o More concerned with appearance, more negative body image after puberty o Concern with social success can conflict with concern about academic success • Higher SES = higher self-‐esteem • For racial/ethnic minorities, strong/positive racial identity = higher self-‐ esteem o African Americans and Latinos highest, then Caucasians, then Asian Americans Gender Development • During early adolescence: Gender Intensification o Increased stereotyping about gender, movement toward more traditional gender identity o Declines by mid late adolescence Relationship with Parents • Teens strive for independence and autonomy o Shift focus from family to peers o Cognitive development + older appearance = more freedom, responsibilities o Teens de-‐idealize parents § Good to start to see parents as people and can make mistakes § Can cause problems: stop doing what parents say Relationship with Parents • At/after puberty, parent-‐child conflict increases in # and intensity o Typical arguments are over everyday issues o More tension between daughters and parents, than with son § Girls start puberty earlier so push for independence at younger age § Parents give greater freedom, less restrictions to sons o Parents own development adds tension § Parents also going through changes • Menopause, retiring • Hard to let go • Realize child is about to leave so want to spend a lot of time with them § ~20% of families have very rough time during children’s adolescence • Good parent-‐child relationship, extremely important for teens o Most consistent predictor of teen mental health o Must balance warmth, control and increasing independence § Be supportive and accepting to create good parent-‐child relationship § Monitor activities with teen’s willing participation § Democratic decision making, discipline with explanation § Provide needed info, remain open/honest o Coercive, controlling parents = more likely to have negative outcomes • Some conflict normal, adaptive o Conflict helps teenagers distance themselves from parents and create autonomy o Conflict reminds parents of how too controlling they can be • Parents and their children agree on most issues; more on big issues such as religion • By mid-‐late adolescence, conflict declines Peer Groups: Cliques • By early adolescence, form cliques: a small group of friends who interact regularly o Usually same-‐sex groups with 2-‐12 members § Boys’ cliques tend to be larger than girls’ • By mid-‐teens, cliques reform to include both genders • Children in cliques similar to each other • Over teen years, kids begin belonging to more than one clique o Membership becomes more stable by the 10 grade o During late adolescence: importance of being in popular clique, conforming to social norms lessens § More independent, spend more time on individual friendships, dating Peer Groups: Crowds • Large groups of peers who have similar stereotyped reputations, values, attitudes, behaviors, ways of expressing themselves o Crowd often decided by consensus of peers o Can influence reputation, treatment § Kids in high-‐status crowds tend to have higher self-‐esteem o Can also influence identity development Book Notes: Chapter 13: Social and Personality Development in Middle Childhood Stages of Friendship: Changing Views of Friends • William Damon’s 3 Distinct Stages of a Child’s Friendship o Stage 1: Basing Friendship on Others’ Behaviors (4-‐7 years) § Children see friends as others who like them and with whom they share toys and activities § Friends are the children they spend the most time with § Do not take others’ personal qualities into consideration • Do not see friendship based on their friends unique and positive personal traits • Use concrete approach that is based on others’ behavior o Like those that they can share with who share back o Do not like those who hit, do not share and do not play with them § In sum: friends viewed as people who present opportunities for pleasant interactions o Stage 2: Basing Friendship on Trust (8-‐10 years) § Take others’ personal qualities and traits and the rewards they provide into consideration § Centerpiece of friendship: mutual trust • Friends seen as those who can be counted on to help when needed • Violations of trust are taken very seriously o If there is a violation of trust, there is an expectation for a formal explanation and apology for the friendship to be reestablished o Stage 3: Basing Friendship on Psychological Closeness (11-‐15 years) § Begin to develop the view of friendship that is held during adolescence § Friendship characterized by feelings of closeness brought on by sharing personal thoughts and feelings § Friendships are also exclusive • Seek friends who will be loyal § View friendships in terms of the psychological benefits that friendship brings § Children develop clear ideas about which behaviors they seek in their friends The Family Families: The Changing Home Environment • One of biggest challenges facing children and their parents is the increasing independence that characterizes children’s behavior in middle childhood o Children move from being almost completely controlled by parents to increasingly controlling their own destinies • Middle childhood is a period of coregulation: a period in which parents and children jointly control children’s behavior o Children have control over their everyday behavior o Parents provide broad, general guidelines for conduct § Ex: parents may tell child to buy nutritious meal at lunch but child’s decision to buy pizza is her own Family Life • During middle years of childhood, children spend less time with parents than in earlier years • Still, parents remain the major influence in their children’s lives o Provide essential assistance, advice and direction • Siblings also have good and bad influences on children during middle childhood o Brothers and sisters can provide support, companionship, and a sense of security but can also be a source of strife or trouble • Sibling rivalry: can occur with siblings competing or quarreling with one another o Can be most intense when siblings are similar in age and are of the same sex o Parents may intensify this rivalry by favoring one child over the other § May not be accurate • Ex: older sibling may be permitted more freedom which the younger sibling may misinterpret as favoritism o Can also damage the self-‐esteem of one of the siblings • Children with no siblings do not have the opportunity to experience sibling rivalry but may miss benefits that siblings can bring o These children are still as well adjusted as children who have brothers and sisters o Only children are better-‐adjusted, have higher self-‐esteems and have stronger motivation to succeed and achieve § Good news for parents in China where a strict one-‐child policy in in effect § Chinese only children outperform children with siblings academically When Both Parents Works Outside the Home: How Do Children Fare? • Children whose
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