Final Exam Study Guide (Spanish 204)
Final Exam Study Guide (Spanish 204) Spanish 204
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This 35 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah James on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Spanish 204 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Denise Castillo in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Fourth Semester Spanish (204) in Spanish at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Spanish Final Review ** Study vocabulary for all chapters and Rosaura ** Chapter 5 Present Perfect Used to express actions you have/have not done Present tense of Haber w/ Past Participle Haber o Yo = he o Tú = has o él/ella = ha o Nosotros = hemos o Vosotros = habéis o Ellos/Ellas = han Past Participle o Ar = ado to stem o Er/Ir = ido to stem Ex: Hablar = hablado/Conocer = conocido The following have accents in the Past Participle: o Creer: Cre í do o Leer: Leído o Oír: Oído o Traer: Traído Irregulars: o Abrir: abierto Hacer: hecho Ver: visto o Decir: dicho Morir: muerto Volver: vuelto o Devolver: devuelto Poner: puesto o Escribir: escrito Romper: roto DOPs, IDOPs, and reflexive pronouns are placed before “haber” The following are often used with the Present Perfect: o Alguna vez (ever) o Todavía no (not…yet, still…not) o Nunca (never) o Recientamente (recently) o Ya (already) Present Perfect Subjunctive Use Haber, but in the subj. form Haber o Yo: haya o T ú : hayas o Él/ella: haya o Nosotros: hayamos o Vosotros: hayáis o Ellos/ellas: hayan Use with WEIRDO and other conditions Subjunctive with Adverbial Clauses (tell where, when, why, or how) Always use subjunctive with these phrases: ESCAPAAAMoS o “En caso de que” (in case) o “Sin que” (without) o “Con tal de que” (as long as) o “Antes de que” (before) o “Para que” (in order that) o “A menos que” (unless) o “A fin de que” (in order that) o “A condición de que” (on condition that) o “Mientras que” (as long as) o “Siempre y cuando” (as long as) Following adverbial clauses require indicative: o Porque (because) o Puesto que (since, as) o Ya que (since, as) Following use subjunctive for future/unknown and indicative for past/known: TEACH DAD C o Tan pronto como (as soon as) o En cuanto (as soon as) o Aunque (although, even though) o Cuando (when) o Hasta que (until) o Despues de que (after) o A donde (where, wherever) o Donde (where, wherever) o Como (as, how, however) *** Some phrases omit “que” when subj. isn’t specific *** Chapter 6 Pluscuamperfecto (Past Perfect/Pluperfect) Imperfect form of “Haber” + Past Participle o Haber: Yo: Había Nosotros: Habíamos Tu: Habías Vosotos: Habíais Ella/Ud: Había Ellos/Ellas: Habían Used to express a past action that already took place before another actoin o Ex: Antes de ganar el premio, la película se había estrenado “Before winning the award, the movie had premiered” **DOP, IDOP, and reflexive pronouns are placed before “haber”** Pluscuamperfecto de Subjuntivo Imperfect Subjunctive form of “Haber” + Past Participle o Haber Yo: Hubiera Nosotros: Hubiéramos Tu: Hubieras Vosotros: Hubierais Ella/Ud: Hubiera Ellos/Ellas: Hubieran Used/refers to an action that takes place in the past (before the action in the main clause) o Ex: No creía que lo hubieran hecho “I didn’t believe that they had done it” Ojalá is used with the past perfect subjunctive to express a wish that something had happened differently o Ex: Ojalá nuestro equipo hubiera ganado “I wish our team had won” **Verb in the main clause is in the preterit or imperfect indicative** Indirect Style Reporting what someone said is known as indirect speech o Common reporting verbs: Añadir que (to add that), comentar (to comment that), contar que (to tell that), contester que (to answer that), decir que (to say that), explicar que (to explain that), mencionar que (to mention that), pedir que (to ask that), preguntar que (to ask if), responder que (to respond that) When the reporting verb is in the present, the verb tense of the action being reported does not change o Ex: Dice que no puede ir porque está enfermo (He says he can’t go because he is sick) The most common reporting verb is preterit (reported action would be imperfect or past perfect) o Ex: Mencionó que Ulises cantaba en el club (He mentioned that Ulises danced in the club) Use the present when the event is still going on or hasn’t happened yet Summary: Narration and Reporting Verb = Reported Action o Past Perfect/Present Perfect/Preterit = Past Perfect o Future/Imperfect/Present = Imperfect Chapter 7 El Futuro “Will,” “Shall,” Wonder, Possibility Infinivitve Verb + Ending o Future Endings Yo: é Nosotros: emos Tu: ás Vosotros: éis Ella/Ud: á Ellos/Ellas: án Irregular stems in future: o Decir: dir Poner: pondr Querer: querr o Hacer: har Salir: saldr Saber: sabr o Haber: habr Tenir: tendr o Poder: podr Venir: vendr The future form of “Haber” is “habrá.” There is only one form, whether it refers to a single/plural noun o Ex: Habrá ganacias este mes? (“Will there be earnings this month?”) The future is also used to express probabilities and to speculate o Translates to “might” or “I wonder” Ex: Si Marta no está aquí, estará enferma “If Marta is not here, she might be sick El Condicional “Would,” “Could,” “Must have,” “Probably” Expresses actions or possible outcomes in response to events Infinitive Verb + Ending o Conditional Ending Yo: ía Nostros: íamos Tu: ías Vosotros: íais Ella/Ud: ía Ellos/Ellas: ían Irregular Stems (Same as future) o Decir: dir Poner: pondr Querer: querr o Hacer: har Salir: saldr Saber: sabr o Haber: habr Tenir: tendr o Poder: podr Venir: vendr Often can be translated as “would + verb” (no habitual events though) o Ex: Yo no invertiría en esa compañía “I would not invest in that company” The conditional form of “Haber” is “habría” (only one form used whether it refers to a single/plural noun) Conditional can be used for conjecture about past too (equivalent of “must have”) o Ex: Tendría un préstamo “He must have had a loan” Conditional can also be used to demonstrate politeness or soften a request El Futuro Perfecto y El Condicional Perfecto Future Perfect o What “will have happened” before a different action or specific time o Haber + Past Participle Future Perfect “Haber” Yo: habré Nosotros: habremos Tu: habrás Vosotros: habréis Ella/Ud: habrá Ellos/Ellas: habrán o Ex: Para el año 2025, habrán eliminado algunos trabajos “By the year 2025, they will have eliminated some jobs” Conditional Perfect o Actions that would have been completed prior to a point in time in the past had circumstances been different o What “would have happened” but did not due to some other event/probability that an action has already been completed o Haber + Past Participle Conditional Perfect “Haber” Yo: habría Nosotros: habríamos Tu: habrías Vosotros: habríais Ella/Ud: habría Ellos/Ellas: habrían o Ex: Mi hermana gastó todo su dinero; yo lo habría ahorrado “My sister spent all her Money; I would have saved it” Just like the simple future/conditional, the perfect future/conditional can be used to express probability o Ex: Habrían hecho todo lo posible para evitar la bancarrota “They must have done everything possible to avoid bankruptcy” Chapter 8 Comparisons of Equality/Inequality Equality o Tan + Adj/Adv + Como (“as…as”) Ex: Puebla es tan bonita como Antigua “Puebla is as beautiful as Antigua” o Tant(o,a,os,as) + Noun + Como (“as much/many…as”) Ex: Esta ciudad ofrece tantas oportunidades como aquella “This city offers as many opportunities as that one” o Verb + Tanto Como (“…as much as”) Ex: Quito atrae a los turistas ahora tanto como en el pasado “Quito attracts tourists now as much as in the past” Inequality o Más/Menos +Adj/Noun/Averb + que (“more/less…tan”) Ex: El campo es más tranquilo que la ciudad “The countryside is more peaceful than the city” o Verb + Más/Menos Que (“…more than”) Ex: Una casa en la ciudad cuesta más que una en el campo “A house in the city costs more than one in the countryside” o **The following adj/adverbs do not use más/menos** Bueno/bien = major (better) Joven = menor (younger) Malo/mal = peor (worse) Viejo (age of a person) = mayor (older) Superlatives o Article (el/la) + Noun + Más/Menos + Adj Ex: San Juan es la ciudad más grande de Puerto Rico “San Juan is the largest city in Puerto Rico” o **Use “de” with superlatives to express “in” or “of”** Cláusulas “Si” (Posibles) With a situation that may occur in the future, the present indicative is used with “si” Si + Present Indicative + Future/Present Indicative/Imperative o Future: é, á, án, emos, etc. o Present Indicative: Ex: Si hay mucho ruido, debes buscar un lugar tranquilo “If there is a lot of noise, you should look for a quiet place” o Imperative: Ex: Si no te gusta el barrio, busca uno en otra zona “If you don’t like the neighborhood, look for one in another zone” Mandates Formales Affirmative Commands: o Take the “yo” form, Drop the “o,” Add opposite ending ar = e; er/ir = a o When using a pronoun, add it to the end of the command and add an accent to stress the root part of the verb (if needed) Ex: poder – pida – lo pida – pídalo Negative Commands: o Same conjugation as affirmative commands o Article comes before the verb (unless there are two verbs) Ex: poder – no pida – no lo pida o If two “l” words are together, change the first one to “se” Ex: le la compre– se la compre Irregulars o Dar: dé o Estar: esté o Ir: vaya o Saber: sepa o Ser: sea Mandates Informales Affirmative Commands: o Ar – a/Er – e (change to present indicative Ud. form) o Stem changes occur, but no change for –car, gar, zar verbs Negative Commands: o Same as formal (take “yo,” add opposite ending) o But, add an “s” at the end o Stem changes occur, change in –car, gar, zar verbs, irregular “yo” forms are irregular commands o Pronoun is attached to affirmative, but in front of negative Ex: dile la verdad vs. no le di la verdad Irregulars: o Decir: di; Hacer: haz, Ir: ve, Salir: sal, Ser: sé, Tener: ten, Venir: ven, Poner: pon o “Vin Diesel has ten weapons” (Ven Di Sal Haz Ten Ve Pon Sé) C usulas Si (Hip cticas) Express situations that are unlikely to happen or are not possible Si + Imperfect Subjunctive + Conditional o Ex: Si no hubiera un sistema de transporte público, tendr a que comprar un auto “If there weren’t a public transportation system, I would have to buy a car” o **The “Si” can come at the beginning or the end of the sentence** It is possible to make hypothetical statements about past events (what would’ve happened if circumstances differed) o Si + Past Perfect Subjunctive + Conditional Perfect Ex: Si hubiera crecido en un pueblo, hab a conocido a más personas “If I had grown up in a small town, I would’ve known more people” To compare hypotheticals: o Si + Imp. Subj. + Cond. Si tuviera la oportunidad, visitar í a la ciudad “If I had the opportunity, I would visit the city” o Si + PP Subj. + Cond. Perfect Si hubiera tenido la oportunidad, í a visitado la ciudad “If I had had the opportunity, I would have visited the city” The expression “como si” (as if) expresses an idea that is contrarytofact, and requires the Imperfect Subjunctive/Past Perfect Subjunctive o Ex: Conoce la ciudad como si fuera taxista “He knows the city as if he were a cab driver” Chapter 9 Los Usos de Se Se is used when a person or thing performing an action is either unknown or unimportant Passive Se o The object affected by the action is the subject; this is passive voice o The verb is conjugated in the third person form to agree with the object (singular form uses singular nouns; plural form uses plural nouns) o Ex: Jazz is listened to here (Jazz is obj./subj., verb is conjugated to agree with it) Spanish: Se escucha el jazz aquí Se Impersonal o Impersonal Se is not used with a noun (verb is always conjugated in sing. form) Se translates to “one, you, or they” in this case Ex: They say it’s a good concert; Se dice que un buen concierto o When the noun receiving the action is a specific person, it becomes a direct object and must have a personal “a” Se accidental o Used for unplanned or accidental occurrences Verb is third person, and is used with the indirect object pronoun (me, te, le, nos, or les) o Ex: We (accidentally) left the instruments (Verb agrees with instruments; IDOP agrees with person doing the action) Spanish: Se nos quedaron los instrumentos When you want to clarify the indirect object (person in the sentence), use the personal “a” and a noun/pronoun o Ex: He (unintentionally) los his guitar Spanish: A él se le perdió la guitarra Se Pasiva Se Impersonal Se Accidental 3rd Pers. Singular/Plural 3rd Pers. Singular 3rd pers sing./pl. + le,les,etc. Agrees w/ object No agr. ; always uses sing. Agrees w/ object **Uses noun; noun at the end **No noun in sentence of conjugation (subject is unstated) Ex: Las canciones se deben Ex: No se puede entrar tarde Ex: Al cantante se le cayó el bajar de este sitio al concierto micrófono (The songs should be (You can’t get into the (The singer accidentally downloaded from this site) concert late) dropped the microphone) La Voz Pasiva Passive sentences are formed two ways in spanish: the passive “se,” and “ser” + past participle o The “ser” passive is mostly used in historical context where the emphasis is on the event rather than the agent Used very little in spoken Spanish Ser + past participle + (por + agent) Ex: El grupo mexicano Maná fue formado en 1986 “The Mexican group Maná was formed in 1986” In passive voice, the past participle acts as an adjective (therefore is must agree with the noun it decribes) o In Maná example above, “formado” agrees with “el grupo” The passive voice with “ser” is not commonly used in the present indicative (that is usually passive “se”) Participio Pasado con Estar The past participle is used with “estar” to indicate the condition or result of an action o PP functions as an adjective, thus is agrees with the noun is describes o Ex: Todas están acostumbradas a escuchar la música fuerte “Everyone is accustomed to listening to loud music” o **When forming a PP with a reflexive verb (like “acostumbrarse”), the pronoun is not used When describing a past condition, the focus is not on the beginning or end of the condition o Therefore, “estar” is used in the imperfect in these cases o Ex: Creí que mi MP3 estaba perdido “I thought my MP3 was lost” The use of “ser” or “estar” with the PP is determined by whether the focus is on the action or the result of the action o If the focus is on whether or not something was done (or when, how, by whom, etc.), use “ser” o If the PP describes a condition (the result of an action), use “estar” Rosaura a Las Diez Week 1 (Chapters 1,2, and 3) Part 1 Chapter 1: The narrator talks to an inspector about a boarder who has lived at her boarding house for twelve years o She describes to the inspector how this young man arrived on her doorstep carrying an enormous suitcase He is awkward and painfully shy o She interrogates the young man to help her decide whether or not he was worthy to live in her boarding house Her first impression of the man is favorable o She thinks he might be a law clerk or a solicitor o He wears a toobig black overcoat on his scrawny frame and a large black hat over his fuzzy blond hair He tells her that he is a painter, and she is not impressed by this because she doesn't think painting pictures is steady, honest work o However, he shows her his bank book, which has a large sum in it, so she accepts him He is a bachelor and claims to have no relations in the world o His father has just passed away, which explains the allblack clothing, and this softens the narrator's view of him o She assumes that the young man's father drank himself to death because that is what her husband did The young man protests, but falls silent when she refers to his father's death again She accepts his money and tells him the rules of the house o She emphasizes that the house is to be clean and respectable because she's raising three daughters by herself She takes him up to a room that she deems appropriate for an artist o He gives her his business card, which says, "Camilo Canegato Painter Picture Restorer Specialist in Oils" o She's impressed with the card but laughs at his name, Canegato dog and cat Once she goes down to the dining room, she bursts out laughing at his name o She then feels badly about it because she knows that from his room he can hear everything that happens in the dining room Chapter 2: Continuing her report, the narrator describes Camilo Canegato as the ideal boarder o In the past twelve years he has proven to be quiet, wellbehaved, and humble o He doesn't stay out late or drink alcohol At first, he brings lots of bottles filled with medicine him to the dining table o He says the medicines are for his brain, but he doesn't explain because the other boarders give him such a hard time about it o After a while, he quits bringing the bottles to the table Several weeks after he moves in, the narrator follows Camilo to his studio to see it o She is impressed by his business and can't believe that people pay him so much money to restore their paintings During some point over the twelve years, Camilo paints a large portrait of the narrator and her daughters and doesn't charge them anything for it. The narrator then notices signs of his wanting to settle down o He hangs pictures on his walls and becomes more familiar with the narrator and her children They speak to each other with more familiar language and Camilo takes the girls to the zoo, helps them with their work, and buys them candy o The narrator and her children become the family that Camilo has never had She notices that he never receives letters or visitors The narrator tells Camilo that he should get married o He answers that nobody would want to marry him o The girls grow up, however, and they and Camilo stop using the familiar form with each other The narrator said she's beginning to feel old Chapter 3: Mrs. Milagros continues to talk to the inspector o She tells him that everything was fine until one morning about six months ago On this morning, a letter arrives for Camilo Canegato o A retired schoolteacher who lives in the boardinghouse, Miss Eufrasia Morales, always meets the postman at the door and takes the mail from him o Eufrasia examines the mail and uses her inferences to gossip about the other members of the boardinghouse When the mail arrives this particular morning, Eufrasia is intensely interested in the letter for Camilo Canegato because the envelope is pink and reeks of violet perfume Every Wednesday hereafter, a similar letter arrives for Camilo Eufrasia and Mrs. Milagros can hardly stand their curiosity o They mention the letters to Camilo at meals, but Camilo just blushes and doesn't say anything about them The women in the boardinghouse, including the narrator's daughters, become consumed by their curiosity o Finally, Mrs. Milagros discovers where the stack of pink letters is stored in Camilo's room With her daughters, she opens them all and reads them She tells the inspector that she remembers them all very well, even though the letters were not found among Camilo's things The letters are all written by a woman named Rosa o Mrs. Milagros's daughters assume that Rosa is an old maid, and they find great amusement in talking about the letters and making fun of Rosa and Camilo behind their backs Mrs. Milagros is not at all amused by the letters o She feels betrayed by Camilo After all she has done for him, she thinks he should at least talk with her about Rosa At first, she thinks Camilo is carrying on an adulterous affair with a married woman, but the letters make it clear that Rosa is not married, is 26 years old, and lives with an old aunt where Camilo visits her on Mondays o The letters also reveal that Rosa is very well educated and increasingly in love with Camilo Each letter from her is a little less formal and little more ardent This education makes Mrs. Milagros feels inferior to the mysterious Rosa She also feels inferior to her daughter Clotilda, who has received more education than she The other boarders notice that something is wrong with Mrs. Milagros o Mr. Coretti, a bank clerk, asks her what is the matter He says that she wears a pained expression on her face At the same time, Camilo behaves as if he is in another world o Mrs. Milagros complains to the inspector about what a terrible predicament this left her in She had to pretend like she didn't know what was going on, but Eufrasia knew that Mrs. Milagros knew, and she shot a wicked smile at her over the dinner table One day, when Mrs. Milagros and her daughter are reading Camilo's latest letter from Rosa, they find a long silky lock of blond hair o The girls laugh at this gesture, but Mrs. Milagros thinks the hair is lovely One Monday, when Mrs. Milagros suspects that Camilo is visiting Rosa, she sets out for his studio on San Martin Street to confirm her suspicions o The studio is locked, so she is sure that he is off visiting Rosa Chapter 4: On the eighth week of Rosa's pink love letters, the postman brings the mail at 10:00 in the morning as usual, but this time Miss Eufrasia notices that something is different about the letter, and she runs in to Mrs. Milagros all flustered o Camilo's name is missing from the letter Instead, it is addressed to "Mr. La Madrilena, Roja Street" Miss Eufrasia convinces Mrs. Milagros that the letter is addressed to her and that she should open it and read it At first, Mrs. Milagros holds to the moral high ground because she doesn't want Miss Eufrasia to know that she's read all the other pink letters, but she gives in to the pressure and curiosity and reads the entire letter to Miss Eufrasia, her daughters, and all the other boarders who have gathered around for the midday meal o One of the boarders, David Reguel, does not approve of this, and he gives Mrs. Milagros a hard time about it, but she rationalizes by saying that David Reguel is a disagreeable man That night at supper, Camilo arrives at the table, and everyone knows about the love letter and has heard it read in its entirety o The maid spills hot soup on Camilo, and he feels very embarrassed Miss Eufrasia announces at the table that Mrs. Milagros has something for Camilo o Mrs. Milagros pretends that she has just remembered the letter in her pocket She pulls the pink letter out of her pocket and takes it across the table to Camilo; before she can finish explaining why she has opened the letter, Camilo leaves the table and walks out the door o Mr. Coretti shouts, "Bravo, Camilo, bravo!" as he leaves Later that night, Mrs. Milagros asks the maid to get Camilo from his room o She and her daughters wait for him in the dining room Mrs. Milagros is furious with him and begins to tell him (in a whisper so none of the other boarders can hear) that she thinks he is very ungrateful for not telling her about his love affair o He withdraws even more until Clotilda, the educated daughter, says, "If you don't want to, don't tell us anything, Camilo But we know that you and Rosa love each other, and we're happy!" He then sits down in a chair and begins to speak Chapter 5: Mrs. Milagros says that a man in mourning appears at Camilo's studio one day and asks if he can restore a painting for him at his home o The man had a very authoritative air about him, and he asks Camilo to get in his car A chauffeur drives the man and Camilo to a very large house, and during the drive the man doesn't speak a word to Camilo o The mysterious gentleman takes Camilo all through the large house until he comes to a large portrait of a beautiful woman, the man's deceased wife The painting is on the verge of cracking, and the man wants Camilo to restore it Camilo accepts the job, and they agree that the work will be done at the man's house because the portrait is so large o Every Monday at three o'clock a car arrives at Camilo's studio to pick him up He spends time working on the portrait and then the driver take him back around six o'clock One day Camilo meets a beautiful young woman at the man's house o He assumes that she's his daughter She is interested in art and talks with Camilo about painting o For weeks after this, Camilo wants to see the young woman again o He hopes to catch a glimpse of her while he's working, but he doesn't see her Then, the day Camilo finishes the restoration, the man asks him if he can paint a picture of his daughter o She is the same beautiful young woman Camilo met weeks before Her name is Rosa, and an elderly aunt sits and snores in the room while Camilor paints the portrait Over the weeks he paints her, they fall in love, but Camilo is afraid that their love is impossible because she is so rich and he is so poor Mrs. Milagros tells Camilo to take heart, that it doesn't matter what the girl's father thinks o They're both adults, and they don't need anyone's permission to marry As Camilo tells his story to Mrs. Milagros, the little maid is in the corner listening o Mrs. Milagros tells the inspector that the maid is hardofhearing and dense and that she went off to her room silently after hearing Camilo's story Chapter 6: After the hearttoheart talk between Mrs. Milagros and Camilo, Rosa is frequently and openly discussed at La Madrilena o Mrs. Milagros assumes that Camilo and Rosa will be engaged as soon as things can be worked out with Rosa's father Mrs. Milagros and her daughters long to meet Rosa, and they beg him to bring home a picture of her Camilo tells them that he's been painting a smaller portrait of her to keep for himself and that it's much better than the larger one he has been painting for Rosa's father o One night, he brings the portrait home wrapped in a paper package After supper, Camilo, Mrs. Milagros, and her three daughters congregate in Camilo's room to look at the portrait o They all want to see whether Rosa is beautiful or plain Mrs. Milagros, Clotilda, and Enilda are all very impressed with Rosa, but Matilda, the oldest daughter, is not impressed David Reguel comes into Camilo's room and congratulates Camilo upon seeing the beautiful woman in the portrait o By the next morning, all the boarders know about the portrait, have seen it, and congratulate Camilo David Reguel keeps saying that he knows her from somewhere but can't think where o Miss Eufrasia is the only boarder who doesn't want to see the portrait One Monday, Mrs. Milagros finds Camilo looking downhearted o He tells her than the portrait is nearly finished and that he only has one more Monday at Rosa's house That Wednesday another letter arrives from Rosa that informs Camilo that they must be separated until she can arrange some things with her father The letter ends, "Be patient and wait" The old aunt who has supervised the portrait sitting tells Camilo that she knows all about their love and is on their side, but she too advises him to be patient and wait o As the days pass, Camilo's stoic face returns, and the other boarders, except for Mrs. Milagros, ignore him once more Chapter 7: A letter arrives from Rosa while Camilo is at work o Mrs. Milagros feels that there is something sacred about this letter, so instead of opening it, she puts it in his room and waits patiently for Camilo to come home Her daughters all know about the letter's arrival, and they're all anxious to know whether the letter holds Camilo's salvation or destruction o When Camilo arrives home for dinner he goes to his bedroom and remains there for a long time Mrs. Milagros begins to worry that he's hurt himself Finally, his door opens and she snatches up the letter to read it o In the letter, Rosa tells Camilo goodbye forever Mrs. Milagros encourages Camilo to go and find her, to take her away and marry her o He argues that he must stay away for Rosa's good Mrs. Milagros offers to go talk with Rosa's father herself, to get Rosa and bring her to the boardinghouse o That evening, David Reguel says that he saw Rosa out on the street during the day He says he recognized her from her portrait and called out her name and she turned to look at him Mrs. Milagros is very skeptical that David Reguel has seen Rosa o She asks him what he talked about with Rosa Requel says that there are "certain things that one doesn't ask a gentleman” o She says she knows, and that's why she asked Davide Reguel is speechless after this comment by Mrs. Milagros Chapter 8: At supper at the boardinghouse, the clock strikes ten and the doorbell rings Mrs. Milagros sends the maid to see who's at the door, and a woman's voice says, "Is this the home of Mr. Camilo Canegato?" o Mrs. Milagros realizes that Rosa's at the door, and she leaps to her feet Soon, the entire household, except for Camilo, is at the door, welcoming Rosa and inviting her inside o Rosa is completely bewildered by this response and stands there speechless Mrs. Milagros treats her as a mother would, but Rosa seems to not understand what is going on o Mrs. Milagros notices bruises on Rosa's arms and assumes that she's had an awful fight with her father, but Rosa just nods her head when she's asked questions Mrs. Milagros praises Rosa for being so brave to run away from her father, and she calls Camilo a coward After Mrs. Milagros and her daughters condemn Rosa's father, Rosa bursts into tears o Mrs. Milagros rearranges the boarders' rooms to make room for Rosa She asks David Reguel to move into Camilo's room temporarily o At first David resists, but then he gives in and moves his things Mrs. Milagros orders the maid to get some food for Rosa, and Rosa eats ravenously, as if she hasn't eaten for a long time o Mrs. Milagros pulls a chair up next to Rosa and asks questions about where she lives and what she's been doing, but Rosa just remains silent, which infuriates the curious Mrs. Milagros When Mrs. Milagros finally gets to her bedroom that night, her three daughters are waiting for her, eager to talk about Rosa They are skeptical about her age, her bewilderment, her dirty shoes and the run in her stocking, and her strangeness o Mrs. Milagros is upset with her daughters for being so rude about Rosa Clotilda says that she can see inner corruption in Rosa, and Matilda says that it looks like Rosa had time to fix her hair Mrs. Milagros says that Rosa stayed at La Madrilena from that day until yesterday, when Camilo and Rosa were married She continues to describe Rosa as very quiet and lacking in spunk She remarks that Camilo never touches her and doesn't even dare to get near her o Rosa's manners do not seem to be aristocratic She never turns anything down but always says "yes" to everything that is offered Rosa becomes great friends with David Reguel o David and Rosa spend a lot of time talking cosily, and Coretti and Hernandez also enjoy flirting with her Mrs. Milagros says that one afternoon during siesta time, everyone is awakened by a fight and weeping coming from Rosa's room o Camilo and David are shouting at each other, and Rosa is in David's arms, crying After Mrs. Milagros breaks up the fight, she takes Rosa to the dining room and gives her a glass of port o She tries to get Rosa to talk, but Rosa says nothing happened To this day, Mrs. Milagros doesn't know what happened One morning, two police officers come to the door looking for a woman o Mrs. Milagros instructs Enilda to hide Rosa in the maid's room Mrs. Milagros assumes that Rosa's father has called the police to help him search for her o After looking at Miss Eufrasia and the maid, the police officers leave The inspector tells Mrs. Milagros that the police came that day because of an anonymous phone call by a woman A couple of days before the wedding, Rosa confesses to Mrs. Milagros and her daughters that Rosa is not her real name o Her name is Marta Correga Mrs. Milagros asks her if Camilo knows her real name, and Rosa says, "Of course," but Mrs. Milagros remembers that Camilo once told her that he didn't know her last name o Enilda asks Rosa if she can see her identity card, and Rosa leaves to go find it They want to see if she's as old as she says she is The birth dates match up Mrs. Milagros tells the inspector that yesterday Rosa and Camilo were married o There was no trouble at city hall during the ceremony They had a little party at La Madrilena after the wedding with cakes and dancing and cider Around midnight they left in a car for the Hotel Wien, and they both seemed happy o The rest of the boarders stayed up for a while, and no one noticed when David Reguel left, but some time in the night there was noise and the door bell ringing David Reguel was shouting, "He killed her! Camilo killed Rosa in a downtown hotel!" Part II Summary David Reguel gives his testimony to the inspector o He begins by talking about Camilo's motive for killing Rosa o He encourages the inspector to value Mrs. Milagros's statement at "next to nothing" because she can't be taken seriously He assumes that Mrs. Milagros would blame the murder on the victim because the victim can't defend herself David Reguel claims to have foreseen this murder o He thinks that the other boarders at La Madrilena have been living in the clouds in regards to Camilo's character o Because of Camilo's physical deficiencies, his small frame, etc., David believes that Camilo's character is deficient and that he should be distrusted "because of his physical vulnerability" Other characters from history who have suffered from this problem include Napoleon and Robespierre o They belong to the category of "potentially dangerous little men" David believes that Camilo is a volcano waiting to burst, that the stones heaped on him by the others, with Mrs. Milagros as the foremost culprit, pushed him toward the brink of disaster o David also thinks that Mrs. Milagros's daughters attributed to Camilo's dangerous character by the way they do not maintain a minimum of coquetry in his presence David explains the love affair between Camilo and Rosa by saying that Rosa has been kept away from the outside world by her protective father o She lives in a somber, old house where she can never be herself Then Camilo comes along, a being from another world, an artist, as opposite to her father as possible, and she falls in love with him o Camilo realizes immediately the impression he has made on her, and he takes advantage of her, emotionally and physically David has read some of her letters, and he reads sexual innuendo into them instead of the romantic promises that Mrs. Milagros reads into them David believes that Camilo compromised Rosa, and she then thinks that she can never be good for anyone else, and that is why she pursues him at all costs o He also thinks that once Camilo has conquered Rosa, he is repulsed by her That is why Camilo stays seated at the dining room table while the other boarders greet her when she shows up at La Madrilena at ten o'clock All the while, David believes that he is the only one who can see the truth and that everyone else is ignorant or stupid o He watches Camilo and prods him, watching his reactions to test his hypotheses David talks about his deepening friendship with Rosa and a conversation he had with her before she marries Camilo David asks her if she really loves Camilo, and she asks to talk about something else Then Rosa asks him what happens when a person gets married under a false name o She wants to know if the marriage will be valid or not o She tells him that her name is Marta, not Rosa She says that Rosa is a name that she and Camilo picked out to protect themselves David advises her to put "Marta" down on the register because she'll have to present her papers at city hall David tells the inspector about the shouting incident mentioned by Mrs. Milagros o He overheard Camilo say to Rosa, "Get out of here! Pack up and get out this minute!" He heard Rosa and Camilo argue more, and then he heard Camilo call Rosa a "slut" David ran into the room and attacked Camilo o He wanted to kill him. The night of the wedding, David feels bitter o He can barely stand to look at Camilo, and Camilo cannot seem to bear to look at Rosa When it comes time for the newlyweds to leave for the hotel, David feels it is his responsibility to follow them to protect Rosa o He gets a cab to follow their car to the hotel He watches as they go into the hotel, and then he sees Camilo come out of the hotel alone David shouts at him to ask why he's left Rosa David goes up the stairs and sees a scarfaced man who looks like he probably works at the hotel o He tells the man that a blond girl has probably been killed and asks the man which room Camilo Canegato was in The man tells him to get out or he'll call the police o David goes back down into the street and finds a policeman to bring back to the hotel He finally gets into the room and Rosa is dead o She has strangle marks on her neck Part III Summary The inspector now interviews the accused, Camilo Canegato o This time, the conversation is twosided, whereas the previous two interviews have not included any dialogue by the inspector The inspector asks Camilo if he smokes, and Camilo declines o The inspector thinks Camilo's fingers look like smoker's fingers, but Camilo explains that the yellowish tint is from the acids he uses to restore paintings Camilo is very talkative about art and expounds on his ideas and theories at length o He seems eager to discuss his passion with anyone who will listen to him o He is especially interested in the idea that modern art has to be phony to survive Because of photographs and cinematography, artists don't have to be skilled anymore at making things look lifelike o In fact, in order to differentiate themselves from artists of previous generations, they have to make their art look different, abstract o Camilo says he is to painting "what the piano tuner is to music. A servant." Camilo tells the inspector that the portrait of Mrs. Milagros and her daughters is simply a photograph projected onto a canvas and then painted with tiny brush strokes o He tells the inspector that some people prefer these imitation portraits to photographs to satisfy their ambition Camilo prides himself in being able to imitate the styles of various painters and has even taken orders to do portraits in particular styles and then sign the name of someone else The inspector asks Camilo about his family o His father was strict/uncommunicative, and his mother died when he was a baby Camilo says that he is fond of the Milagros family and that it's only because of them that he has stayed at the boardinghouse so long o They have been like a family to him The inspector accuses Camilo of falsifying documents because Rosa's identity card for Marta Correga is false o Camilo admits that the identity card could be false, but he says he's not the one who made it Camilo tells the inspector that Rosa never existed o He encourages him to go to the widower's house in Belgrano and ask if it's true that he had a wife that died ten years ago from cancer This is true, but if you ask the man if he has a daughter, he will say that he doesn't have any children If you ask if Camilo Canegato did a portrait of his daughter and if his daughter ran away, he will not understand Camilo explains that Rosa is a creation of his o He wrote the letters to himself and mailed them o He dreamed up Rosa, bought the blond tress at a costume shop, and then somehow she materialized Camilo has had trouble with his dreams in the past o Sometimes he hasn't been able to differentiate between dreams and reality For example, when his father died, he often dreamt that his father was resurrected, and then he thought that the death was the dream He couldn't keep his dreams and reality straight, and that's why he took so much medicine "for his brain" when he first arrived at La Madrilena Now that he's explaining this to the inspector, he asks the inspector why he should be held accountable for something he dreamt o The inspector replies that usually when he wakes up there isn't a dead body anywhere as a result of his dream Camilo says that Rosa was an impossible ambition o He felt that if he could get one woman to love him, that other women would then love him as well Since he couldn't get the first woman to love him, he had to invent her o He wanted to make Matilda jealous of Rosa Camilo broke off the artificial affair with Rosa when he felt his purpose had been served, but then David Reguel came home saying he had seen her face o Then, several nights later, Rosa's face appeared at the boardinghouse asking for him Camilo felt like he was going crazy when Rosa appeared o From that point until the wedding, Camilo is frantic, trying to figure out whether he is dreaming or facing some ghost He still believes that she is an invention of his imagination, so he tries to snuff her out He tries to strangle her, but he runs out of the hotel before she is dead o He runs out of the hotel room and sees the scarfaced man called Turk He sees another man who steps into a room as if hiding from him, and then David Reguel grabs him outside Part IV Summary Miss Eufrasia Morales declares that she has known for some time that the romance between Camilo and Rosa has hidden "something abominable” Her first clue came from a friend o This friend asked Eufrasia if she knew of anyone who could do a portrait "from life" Eufrasia referred her friend to Camilo Canegato, and some time later, Eufrasia asked her friend how it had gone Eufrasia's friend reported that it had gone poorly because Camilo had admitted that he couldn't do portraits from life but only painted over enlarged photographs o Therefore, when Camilo talked about his romance with Rosa developing as she sat for a portrait, Eufrasia knew something was amiss Secondly, Eufrasia makes reference to the little maid Elsa, who works at La Madrilena For years, Eufrasia has noticed that the maid has been infatuated by Camilo Canegato o Elsa spends extra time cleaning and straightening Camilo's room, and she gives him extra large portions of food at the dinner table, which Eufrasia notices because her own portions are then smaller o Eufrasia reports that Elsa spilled soup on Camilo the night his affair with Rosa was made public After this, Elsa becomes more withdrawn and ceases speaking altogether The day of the fight between Camilo and David Reguel during siesta time, Eufrasia is awakened by the noise and puts her head to the wall to catch what they are saying o She overhears Rosa saying, "If I leave, what will the people here think?" She can't hear what Camilo says in his low voice, but then she hears Rosa say, "If you want me to leave, you're going to have to give me every last penny you've got in the bank. I wouldn't leave here for anything less” Then Rosa threatens to tell Matilda what Camilo thinks about her and the argument blows up into a fight with David coming in to rescue Rosa o After the hubbub has subsided, Eufrasia sees Elsa lingering about in Rosa's room Later, Eufrasia overhears Camilo and Rosa talking in the garden o Camilo tells Rosa that "there aren't any more letters from Rosa," and Rosa asks if something is torn up She is afraid that someone might find it Eufrasia tells the inspector that she believes there is a letter that contains important information about the investigation, but she doesn't know where it is Soon thereafter, Elsa takes a day off, which she has never done before, and goes to Lujan (Miss Eufrasia finds a secondclass train ticket to Lujan after Elsa returns) o No one knows what she did while she was there During the entire investigation, Elsa has trembled and groaned o After the wedding, Eufrasia finds Elsa weeping bitterly in the kitchen Part V Summary Elsa leads Inspector Julian Aguirre to her bedroom where she pulls a letter out of a book in her bottom dresser drawer o The long letter, written by Marta Correga (actually Maria Chinca) ,does not in any way resemble the perfumed letters Rosa sent to the house for several months The handwriting is wild and the spelling and grammar atrocious The discovery of this letter explains Elsa's anonymous phone calls to the police and her fruitless journey to Lujan in search of Mrs. Ana Chinca o The letter also clears Camilo's name and proclaims his innocence o In addition, it will be the vehicle by which Sarkis Abulaf, alias Slit Turk, is sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder of Marta Correga Here is what the letter contains: o The letter is from Marta to her aunt, Ana Chinca o Marta has just been released from a fiveyear jail sentence She is writing to her aunt to express gratitude for all she's done and to apologize for her former behavior o After being released from prison, Marta found herself on the street with no money, clothes or home She wandered around the city looking for friends or relatives, but she couldn't find anyone that she used to know o Finally, she comes across a woman named Iris that she knew from before she was in prison o The woman feeds and clothes her/involves her in a prostitution ring A man named Slit Turk gets her a false identity card with the name of Marta Correga o Marta and Iris get into a big fight, and Marta leaves her for dead She leaves the house with bruises all over her arms and goes wandering about in the street She doesn't know where to go. She wanders to the Plaza Once and then remembers that Camilo Canegato lives there o Marta's aunt had done laundry for Camilo at one time, and she had given Camilo a picture of her niece Th
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