Quick StudyGuide CH 101
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Candace Brooks on Saturday January 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CH 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Paul Rupar in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 304 views.
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Date Created: 01/31/15
Chemistry Study Guide Chapter 1 The Scientific Approach to Knowledge Qualitative observations that are descriptions of the characteristics or behavior of nature Quantitative observations that compare a characteristic to a standard numerical scale Hypothesis a tentative interpretation or explanation for an observation Experiment a set of highly controlled procedures designed to test whether and idea about nature is valid Scientific theory a general explanation for why things in nature are the way they are and behave the way they do Law of Conservation a chemical reaction matter is neither created nor destroyed Chapterl Classifying Matter Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass Matter comes in 3 different states solid liquid and gas Matter can either be a pure substance or a mixture Pure substance matter whose composition does not change from one sample to another made of a single type of atom or molecule Mixture matter whose composition may vary from one sample to another two or more types of atoms or molecules combined in variable proportions Elements pure substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical reactions Compounds pure substances that can be decomposed Homogeneous mixtures mixtures that have uniform composition throughout atoms or molecules mixed uniformly Heterogeneous mixtures mixtures that do not have uniform composition throughout atoms or molecules not mixed uniformly Chapterl Atoms and Elements 339 All matter is made of atoms 0 Atomic Number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom 0 Law of Conservation of Mass matter is neither created or destroyed the mass of what you end up with must equal the mass that you started with 0 Law of definite Proportions all samples of a pure substance always have the same proportions of their constituent elements Chapterl Atomic Mass and Mass Spectrometry 339 A mass spectrometer can measure the mass of atoms and molecules 339 A mass spectrometer works by moving ions past magnets and measuring how much the ions are de ected by the magnets 339 A mass spectrum is a graph that gives the relative mass and relative abundance of each particle Chapter 2 Measurements Density and Energy 0 Accuracy how close to actual value 0 Precision how similar a set of measurements are to each other how reproducible a measurement is 339 Density Equation DMassVolume 0 Kinetic Energy energy of motion 0 Potential Energy energy that is stored in the matter Chapter 3 The Nature of Light 0 Amplitude the height of the wave Wavelength a measure of the distance covered by the wave the distance from one crest to the next Frequency is the number of waves that pass a point in a given period of time Electromagnetic Radiation a form of light O 99 O 9 Speed of Light 300X10A8ms Planck s Constant 6626x10A34 IS Electromagnetic Spectrum a small fraction of all the wavelengths of light comprised by visible light Interference the interaction between waves Constructive Interference when waves interact so that they add to make a larger wave Destructive Interference when waves interact so they cancel each other Diffraction when traveling waves encounter and obstacle or opening in a barrier that is about the same size as the wavelength they bend around it Interference Pattern the diffraction of light through two slits separated by a distance comparable to the wavelength Threshold Frequency in experiments it was observed that there was a minimum frequency needed before electrons would be emitted Chapter 3 Quantum Mechanics and the Atom Schodinger Equation used to calculate orbitals allows us to calculate the wave function Principal Quantum Numbern characterizes the energy of the electron in a particular orbital I n can be any integer greater than or equal to 1 Angular Momentum Quantum Number 1 the angular momentum number determines the shape of the orbital I 1 can have integer values from 0 to nl l s orbitals l p orbitals l d orbitals l l 3 f orbitals gt3 is not usually encounter Magnetic Quantum Number ml the magnetic quantum number is an integer that specifies the orientation of the orbital Principal Energy Level orbitals with the same value of n Sublevel orbitals with the same values of n and l
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