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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Calder on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Exam at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Mandy Maguire in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Normal Language Development in Classical Studies at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 12/10/15
Exam 1 Review – Normal Language Development 1. What is language? Language is the systematic and conventional use of sounds (signs or symbols) to communicate and express. 2. Systematic: rule based 3. Conventional: agreed upon meaning 4. Sounds/signs/symbols: language vs speech 5. Components of language: phonology, lexical development, syntax/grammar, pragmatics/sociolinguistics, literacy 6. Phonology: sound system, rules and putting sounds together 7. Lexical development: word knowledge (meaning) 8. Syntax/grammar: rules of putting words together 9. Pragmatics/sociolinguistics: social ways to use language 10.Literacy: written forms of language 11.Features of language that make it unique to other communication systems: extremely complex; when exposed to language, development occurs 12.Basic research: driven by curiosity and desire to expand knowledge. 13.Behaviorism: basic research. Our responses to the environment shapes our behavior. Punishments and rewards. No interest in cognition or feeling, not easy to measure 14.Cognitivism: basic research. We can’t understand behavior without understanding what happens in the mind of the organism. 15.Applied research: designed to answer a single question or solve a problem 16.Psammetichus experiment: Assumes language is innate to humans. He isolated two infants to see who in the world represented original human race. The first word was a Phrygian word. He was a nativist because he thought they would learn language due to the innate knowledge. 17.Wild Boy of Aveyron (Vicktor): Revolutions and questions of innate abilities, what it means to be human. He was able to speak words, show empathy, but not use full syntax. He was so interesting because people wanted to learn about human development outside of a society. 18.The change of studying language development: The focus has gone away from establishing norms and toward observation. 19.Baby biographies: keep diaries of child’s development 20.Normative studies: All of psychology between WWI and 1950’s focused on what behaviors are, norms 21.Normative studies relate to behaviorism because the goal wasn’t to ask questions of nature vs nurture, but to describe observations. 22.Skinners theory: Language is learned through rewards and punishments. Correct imitation is rewarded with social interactions, incorrect doesn’t get the desired response. Book : “Verbal Behavior” 1957 23.Chomsky’s theory: nativist/nature argument. Language is biologically programmed in humans and innate. Noted similarities between languages Behaviorist theories are wrong because language develops: rapidly, effortlessly, without direct instruction. (Not imitation: novel sentences. No feedback: correct content not structure). With limited input we are able to learn grammar because we are programmed, as humans, to do so. 24.Universal Grammar (UG): rules underlying structure of all languages 25.Language Acquisition Device (LAD): innate human mechanism allowing for UG acquisition. 26.Approaches to language development: biological, linguistic, social, domain general, language socialization 27.Biological: View: Language is a biological aspect of humans. Study: genetic and neurological structures for language development, compare species, biological time table. Example: chimps and sign 28.Linguistic: View: Grammar is complex. How can we explain how children acquire such complexities? Study: (ex.) Finding cross-linguistic similarities in language structures to better understand what children “know” about language vs “learn” in their language. Example: inherent vs temporary states and “to be” in English. 29.Social: View: language is how we socialize & communicate. Study: social- cognitive abilities and social-communicative experiences associated with language. Example: how drive to socialize relates to language (gestures) 30.Domain general: View: language is the same as other cognitive development. Study: study general cognitive development and how it relates to, or explains, language development. Example: memory and syntax 31.Language socialization: child’s language use in social contexts and an account of social processes which child comes to use language in their culture 32.Which would study genetic basics of autism? Biological 33.Which would study Chinese rural vs Chinese urban? Language socialization 34.Which would study how children’s early attempts to communicate with parents influence language development? Linguistic 35.Empiricist theory of language acquisition: mind at birth is blank. Knowledge and reason come from experience 36.Nativist theory: knowledge can’t come from experience alone. Mind must have preexisting structure to organize and interpret experience 37.Interactionist theory: greater burden on accounting for language development on nature of experiences than nativists do. Social interactionism. Humans have special abilities that when exposed to language allow for language development 38.Generative linguistic theory: universal grammar is innate. Language experience triggers innate knowledge and sets language-specific parameters. 39.Emergentist: knowledge can arise from the interaction between biology & environment 40.Constructivism: Piaget. Child actively explores to change their knowledge. Constructivism is built from the theory of interactionism. 41.Social interactionism: Snow. Social interaction drives language acquisition. Children want to communicate with others. 42.Modular theory: Aka domain specific. Ability to learn language is specific to language. Language is an innate, self-contained module, not dependent on other skills. Innate. Theorists associated with this: Chomsky, Fodor 43.Domain general theory: Innate. Similar learning mechanism for many cognitive skills including language 44.Connectionist theory: not rule based, syntax is learned by forming associations. Domain general. Network of interconnected nodes between which activation spreads to give “cognition” or thoughts. Thought or concept = particular pattern of activation. Learning = strengthening connections between nodes 45.Continuity vs discontinuity: Is language development just increasing the same information and skills (continuity)? Or is there a pure developmental shift in thinking (discontinuity)? 46.Formalism: independent of communication (more innate view). Overlaps with domain specific and nativism 47.Functionalism: need to communicate pushes acquisition. Overlaps with social interactionism, domain general, and interactionism 48.Longitudinal study: same kids 49.Cross-sectional: different groups of kids 50.Cross-cultural and cross-linguistic research: different cultures provides kids with different language learning environments 51.Language is universal: All people have language. Universal pattern of development. If there is no language, it will be created. 52.Pidgin language: Used between speakers of different languages. “primitive grammar” – nouns and verbs 53.Creoles: grammatically complex language created by the people using a pidgin 54.Nature of language acquisition: Language does not need to be imported. Children create the language. 55.Nicaraguan Sign Language: 1978 school for the deaf opens. Children created their own full language. Over 20 years language evolved. Standards got better over time. The younger children were more fluent and created the structure. 56.Anatomy that helps in speech but causes rick in survival: Teeth are upright. Vocal tract/larynx. 57.Larynx drops allowing for range of sounds. Low larynx: Increases choking. Language is more important to humans than the possibility of choking. 58.Neurolinguistics: brain and language relationship 59.Cerebral cortex: area of brain for higher mental functions 60.Corpus callosum: nerve fibers that connects the two hemispheres. 61.Contralateral connections: right side of brain control left side of body. Vice versa. Important to study with language because speech/language is in left hemisphere more as life goes on. 62.Lesions help us study connection between brain and behavior because lesions are localized and we can study effects of damaged brain tissue and look at function impairment. It shows us where functions occur in the brain. 63.Split-brain patients: severed corpus callosum, which shows us how each hemisphere functions. 64.Early researcher in connections between brain and behavior: Paul Broca. Patient: Tan. He could only say a single syllable. Cyst on left side of brain found when dead. The left side brain damage caused language problems. Aphasia. 65.Lesion studies are rare in children because: Neural plasticity: ability of parts of the brain to take over functions they wouldn’t normally serve. 66.Aphasia: language functions severely impaired because of the brain 67.Broca’s aphasia: damage to front left brain. Can only use nouns and verbs with little grammar (intact meaning). Slow, halting speech. 68.Wernicke’s aphasia: damage to back left brain. No meaning when speaking. Good grammar, but no sense to it. Correct syntax. They think they are saying the correct words, but aren’t. 69.Double dissociation: damage area A: function X damaged, function Y fine; damage area B: function Y damaged, function X fine 70.Dichotic listening: Identifies hemisphere differences 71.Right-ear advantage: more often report hearing language in right ear 72.Split brain: Cut the corpus callosum which connects the two hemispheres is split. Experiments are to see how each hemisphere functions. 73.Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: magnets to measure blood flow. Pros: Measures blood flow, Good at localizing activity. Cons: Expensive. Limited movement. Slow: 1 sample per 2 seconds. 74.Event Related Potentials: measures electrical activity. Pros: Measures electrical activity (good temporal precision), Across a lifespan, Cheap. Cons: Bad at localizing activity, Output hard to understand without training 75.Positron Emission Tomography (PET): inhale or inject low level radioactive substance. 76.Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): uses light to transmit through the skull and blood to determine blood flow. 77.Developmental cognitive neuroscience: exploration of neurological bases of language development. Use multiple imaging techniques at same time to see where and when activity in brain occurs 78.Right hemisphere is active in language: Language impairment in right hemisphere. Right hemisphere lesions that affect speaking and emotional tone of voice. 79. Right hemisphere may be used for pragmatic aspects of language and semantic processes. 80.Left handed people and women are more likely to show more bilateral participation in language. 81.Equipotentiality hypothesis: hemispheres equally able to support language. Wrong. Linneberg. 82.Invariance hypothesis: Left hemisphere is lateralized from birth. correct 83.Neuroimaging studies showed that young infants show greater activation in left hemisphere than the right when presented with acoustic signals. Another research showed greater left hemisphere activity when listening to speech rather than listening to speech in reverse. 84.Child aphasia is different because: most aphasia is Broca’s, and children recover from aphasia quicker and fuller than adults do 85.Neuroplasticity: ability of parts of the brain to take over functions they wouldn’t normally serve 86.Synaptogenesis: formation of the connections between neurons. Starts: 5th week after conception. Largely complete: around age 2. From 2 months after birth to 2 years of age: 1.8 million new synapses per second 87.Synaptic pruning: Used synapses become stronger and faster. Synapses that are not used die away 88.Critical period: biologically determined period during which a behavior must appear 89.Using children who are unexposed to language to support the critical period hypothesis would be unethical and unjust to the treatment of the kids. It is also difficult to understand the cases where children were isolated from society because we don’t know if the language wasn’t acquired due to a critical period or because of an impairment. 90.American Sign Language can help us learn about the critical period of language acquisition because younger children who learn sign can show differences than older children introduced to sign. The conclusion was that adults signed better if they began to learn as infants, but adults who learned ASL after childhood did not perform as well. 91.Studies of people learning a second language help us learn about the critical period because it shows us that better living conditions prior to adoption tend to have a better outcome of language acquisition. The difference is very small, but it is still there. 92.Other features that influence the ability to learn a second language are: gender, living conditions, socioeconomic status, age 93.Not all second language learners are unable to become fluent. This shows us that humans can learn languages after their first language. 94.Language development that is related to genetics: Rate of acquisition, Rate of disorders, Grammar 95.Three features that make language unique from other communication: symbols that stand for things, syntax, intentionality 96.Communication in animals: Complexity not related to intelligence. Primates: African vervet monkey: Howls for snakes, eagles and leopards. Bees: food source dance. Very complex. Bird’s song: Similar in acquisition – but not language 97.Results of trying to teach primates language: never above about 2 year old level in production. 98.Teaching primates didn’t work because the utterances were just imitations. Their brains weren’t set up for language. They never achieved syntax. 99.Dogs are unique because: Social cues - puppies better than chimps or human infants because of evolution. Exam 3 Answers 1. Productivity or generativity of language: the capacity to produce and understand an infinite number of novel sentences Syntax: the component of grammar that governs the ordering of words in sentences (phrases, etc). A set of rules for how words go together must allow us to create all sentences. 2. Abstract based grammar: One set of rules about nouns, verbs, adjectives, articles, etc. Basically what we learned in grammar school. Adults use this. Semantically based: Many rules to create sentences. Ex: Agent + action + recipient, Object/Person + IS + description, Agent + intransitive action. Kids use this. 3. Openclass (lexical class words): new items can be created. Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs. Ex: “a selfie” “texting” “i.m.ing” Closed class (function words): serve grammatical function, new items can’t be added. Articles, prepositions, conjunctions. Ex: “A”, “the”, “over”, “under” 4. Hierarchical structure of language: Sentence grows when you go up on hierarchical scale for creating sentences. *Sentence = Noun phrase + verb phrase *Noun phrase = (article) + (adjective) + noun *Verb phrase = verb + (adverb) or (noun phrase). The ugly cat chased the little mouse = noun phrase + verb phrase = sentence 5. Morpheme: smallest element of language that carries meaning. Bound morpheme: cannot stand alone, is bound to a stem (ex. s, ed, ing, pre, post) Free morpheme: morpheme that stands alone and has meaning (cat, run, shoe, help) Sentence with 6 words and 9 morphemes: Horses eat apples on grassy mountains. English is a weak morpheme language. Example: to arrive: Person: I arrive, she arrives, you arrive, they arrive. Tense: I arrived late, she arrived late, they arrived late. Inflectional morphemes: plurals, case, tense, etc. ex: Walk vs. Walked Derivational morphemes: bound morphemes that change the meaning or class of a word. Ex: run + er runner; psyche psychology psychologist 6. Descriptive language: the grammar used to communicate in one’s environment. We care about this one. Prescriptive language: learned in syntax class. We don’t care about this one. Ex: Me and him ain’t never gone there. (This is okay) 7. Productive syntactic development studied with diaries, transcripts, MLU. MLU: mean length of utterance. Reflects how many morphemes used in each utterance. Used to study production of language and grammatical abilities. This is better than counting words because you count free and bound morphemes, which shows more growth in language than just counting words. MLU of 4, words count of 2: Dad’s crackers 8. Transitional forms: Starts after the one word phase. Transition period: Not quite multiword. Vertical constructions: single words that seem to be related. Ex: “ow” “eye”. Pause between and each word has intonation of an isolated word. Unanalyzed combinations: Chunk together words to have one meaning. Ex: “Iwanna” or “elemeno”.Not 3 words with distinct meanings. “Word + jargon” combos: blahdamaba blankie bablahda 9. Two word speech: Productivity not just repetition. Not random order. 10. Relational meaning: the order of words provides meaning beyond the words themselves. Ex: possessive and descriptive With 3 word phrases: same meanings, but filling in some words. Use content words mostly and miss grammatical morphemes 11. Telegraphic speech: contains content words, drops most everything else. Missing grammatical morphemes: word and word endings that mark grammatical relations. Ex: articles (the), verb endings (ing), and prepositions (of). Because: Not stressed by adults, not needed for meaning, memory load. 12. Children differ in their RATE of syntactic development: Some start 2word utterances before 18 months, while others don’t until after 24 months. Children differ in their STYLE of acquisition: Holistic and Analytic Differences found crosslinguistically in morphological development: between high morpheme and low morpheme languages 13. Imperatives (commands): Gimme juice! Declaratives (statements): I like juice. And Questions: Got juice? Shifts from Imperative to Declarative. Question slowly increases 14. Negation: First: shake head with positive statement (gesture). Second: marker before a positive, then embedded. Ex: “No you go” “You no go”. Third: Single morpheme constructions. Ex: Can’t & don’t before can & do. Ex: So don’t is used as a single meaning (not “do” and “not”). Last: full meaning. Ex: “I do NOT want that”. Yes/no questions: easier because it is a simpler inversion. Wh questions: harder because of inversion of the sentences. Passive forms difficult for children because it is more complex. Learn at 3 ½ 5 years old. 15. Holistic children mastering grammatical development: use chunking and doesn’t build up their syntax. Ex: “Iwanna”. Analytical children mastering grammatical development: they use the words only when they truly understand the meaning. 16. Comprehension of syntax: What children understand. Hard to track, hard to test. Precedes production. Comprehension strategies: *Response strategies: Respond with an action based on key words they know, not syntax. Ex: Where are your shoes? Vs. Who made your shoes? *Word order. Order of mention. Ex: Anne hit Jim. Vs. Jim was hit by Anne. *World knowledge: Use common sense to determine meaning. Ex: Put your shoes on after your socks. 17. Preferential looking investigates relation meanings in word combinations because it shows that children can comprehend the relationship between the words. Study on preferential looking and relation meanings: “Where is she kissing the ball?” Show two pictures and see where child looks. (15 m/o) 18. Study on simple word order: Where is cookie monster washing big bird? Vs. Where is big bird washing cookie monster? (18 m/o) (agent vs direct object) Study on complex object/action pairings: Where are Cookie Monster and Big Bird turning? Vs. Where is Cookie Monster turning big bird? (30 m/o) Problem of coreference: Expect verbs to refer to closest noun. Sometimes up to 9 y/o. Nature/nurture debate revisited because: if it is innate, it shouldn’t take that long to figure out. 19. Arguments for children having abstract grammar and productivity in grammar: there is evidence because children use overregularizations. Ex: Feets, goed. 20. We see that children apply syntactic rules with… Patterns in early word comprehension: they apply grammatical rules to new words and situations Overregularizations: apply a rule to the exception. Ex: goed, braked, feets, childrens Experimental tests of rule knowledge: Applying rules to completely new situations. Ex: I have one wug now I have two ______. Correct by age 2 (for nouns). 21. Constructivist theory: children have very limited productivity; children do NOT initially have abstract rules or categories Generativist theory: children DO have abstract rules and categories from very early on, and use them to be highly productive. Verb island theory: (Tomasello) Nouns are used in abstract ways by kids but not verbs. Kids learn each verbs’ arguments individually. This theory relates to constructivist theory because initially children do not have abstract rules. Evidence for verb island theory: argument structure. Laugh = 1. Hit = 2. Bounce = 1 or 2. Evidence against verb island theory: Fails to extend argument structures to newly learned verbs. Children don’t spontaneously use even wellknown verbs in all forms (but they do for nouns). Dual route: children (and adults) use some abstract rules and some memorized forms (Pinker). Ex: the regular past tense = rules (add –ed) Walk walked. Laugh laughed. 22. Principles and parameters: (Chomsky) Born with a set of universal principles of language structure and set parameters based on language input. Universal Grammar. Constructivist theory of grammar: Children build (construct) their grammatical knowledge from experiences with language. With: statistical learning (regularities of the language) and the social properties of communicative interactions. 23. Parents give negative feedback, not direct, when correcting overgeneralizations made by their children. When the kids use words such as ‘feets’, they show that they acquire grammar. Innate grammar is possible, along with a reliable sequence of language development. People say no, because children are corrected and given feedback. 24. Linguistic Competence: Produce and understand wellformed, meaningful sentences. Communicative competence: Use language appropriately. Communication: Exchange of thoughts, messages or information. Intentionality: Having a purpose or goal. Important developmentally. Sharing one’s mind and actively creating a belief in the listeners mind. Not all communication is intentional. We communicate from birth, but intentional communication is hard to develop. Speech acts: doing things with language. Separate the content of the sentence from its intended function(s) and effect. Illocutionary forces: Intended function. Ex: Get sugar. Locution: Form. Question and imperative. Ex: Can I have some sugar? Give me sugar! Perlocution: Effect. Ex: obtaining the requested object (get sugar). Transmitting information. It is not a 1to1 mapping between linguistic form and intentional functions. There are multiple goals and forms. 25. Discourse: Sequences of connected speech Conversations & Narratives. Four rules for effective discourse: Quantity, Quality, Relation (how relevant the information is), Manner (clear, brief, orderly, unambiguous) 26. Sociolinguistics: How language varies in relation to social situations, cultures, gender Language socialization: Cultures have different social norms about language Different registers: different speech styles of one person. Ex: formal, neutral, informal 27. Pragmatic knowledge: communicative functions of language and conventions that govern its use. Best linguistic form to all meanings you want to get across. Pragmatic development: learning functions and conventions Intentional communication: *Perlocutionary: (birth 10 months) having effects but not intentional. Ex: crying, fussing, and reaching. Communication before language. *Illocutionary: Having intentions (around 10 months), without language. Fussing with eye contact, good joint attention (around 1012 months). *Locution: (around 12 months) Using language to communicate their intentions. Protoimparatives: use adults to obtain something. Illocutionary phase. Protodeclaratives: use objects to direct adult attention. Illocutionary phase. 28. Two basic findings about how communication and intention interact in young children: *Kids have a range of communicative intentions before they have the language to express them. *These develop quickly over the first few years. Number of prelinguistic communications children have before they have the language to express those communications: 89 29. Piaget’s egocentric child and how idea relates to language development: age 36, you can’t see another person’s perspective. Theory of cognitive abilities. Theory of mind: seeing others as independent thinkers, with different thoughts, beliefs and ideas. 3 mountains task reveals developmental differences in theory of mind. Shows egocentric child. Children under 5 fail at this and can’t see the other person’s perspective. Collective monologue: preschoolers take turns but have unrelated topics so they don’t give the correct information. 30. Private speech: talking to yourself with no outside listener. Also called Solitary monologues or Language Play. Presleep or while playing. Allows children to practice their language skills. Piaget’s take: not really communicating 31. Action responses: Respond with action not words. This helps with turn taking. Contingent responses in early conversations: child stays on the same topic and adds new information. Noncontingent and imitation response decreases with time. Noncontingent responses: child is on a different topic. Imitation: on the same topic but no new information. 32. Contingent conversations help the child’s development when talking to adults, but less contingent responses with peers, which helps less. Scaffolding: provided by a more competent speaker (adult) Elaborative scaffolding: expands information and aids more in development Repetitive scaffolding: asks multiple times for similar information Children tend to tell better narratives: About personal experiences vs recounting fictional stories and about dramatic events (such as injuries) 33. Developmental changes in children’s abilities to repair miscommunications: Increase in number of repairs between 12 and 18 mos. Shift from repeating (13 years) when misunderstood to revising (35 years). 34. Narrative: extended monologue. Starts in a conversation, scaffolded by parents. 4½3 yearolds: simply mention a past event, 1.7 clauses long. 45 yearolds: more structured story lines and longer, more remote events. But are missing information, poor tense system, pronouns unclear. Skills improve in school years. 35. Sociolinguistics: Varying one’s language as a function of situation and speaker. This includes listeners: cognitive ability, social status, and shared knowledge. Piaget tested children’s abilities to change registers by: *Describe how a water spout works to a small child vs. an adult. Fail at 6 y/o. *Referential communication: child describes one picture well enough for another person to pick it out of an array. Shows egocentric child at 5 y/o. Newer research uses: different tasks based on cognitive ability and social status. With cognitive ability: At 4 y/o use shorter sentences, smaller words, directives. But some evidence for 2 y/o. with social status: politeness registers for requesting things. More polite when increase understanding that is less direct at 35 y/o. 36. Gender differences: the word “sorry” and interruptions. We see this in preschool. Boys interrupt, use imperatives, and threats and tell narratives with destruction, lots of characters, and less organization. Girls use cooperation, requests, and negotiations and tell narratives with more cohesion and harmony. 37. It is important to study special populations for applied and basic reasons. Applied reasons: to help in intervention Basic reasons: to learn how various abilities contribute to language. Ex: social and autism, visual context and blindness, IQ and language in intellectual disabilities. 38. Dyslexia affects 517% of the population. A common problem observed in kids with dyslexia: reading abilities lower than IQ would predict. Because of genetic factors. Predictor: phonological awareness deficits (not visual). 39. Sign language and spoken language differences: grammar, signing first words a little earlier Similarities: complete language, same place in brain, same to learn, babbling as a baby 40. Development of sign language: Nearly identical to learning speech, manual babbling, first words and first combinations a little earlier 41. Disadvantages with only signing: having hearing parents, different than signing English, reading, more difficult in hearing community Advantages of signing: good language exposure, better in deaf culture Learning spoken language as a deaf person has a success rate of 1555%. They do this by lip reading and speaking. 42. Phonology affected: Production and comprehension somewhat impacted. Visibility matters: voicing, /ba/ vs. /pa/ Semantics affected: slower and more variable Syntax affected: Delayed and sometimes never fully developed. Common morphological errors th th Reading in deaf people: reach 4 6 grade reading level. Because of phonology and the differences in signed and spoken languages. 43. Cochlear implant: Mechanism that stimulates auditory nerve simulating sound. Because of damage on cochlear hair cells. Sound – digital – electrical – implant – electrodes – auditory nerve – brain Factors that determine if CI is successful: duration of use, Duration of CI use, Greater residual hearing preimplant, Parental involvement, Absence of additional disabilities, Age at implantation Debate in deaf populations because: it ruins any residual hearing and it should be the child’s choice 44. Autism: born without the biological preconditions for psychologically metabolizing the social world. Autism spectrum disorder: scale of severity of autism. Diagnosis change between DSM4 and DSM5: clearer definitions, 3 types (autism spectrum disorder, Asperger’s, PDDNOS). No longer subtypes. Now it is one diagnosis with levels of severity. 45. Perception of autism has changed over time: 50s – Hallucinations and delusions. 60s – Blame parents. 70s – More research. 80s – Pervasive Developmental Disorders. ASD. Now: One diagnosis with severity levels. 46. Skills lacking: social communication and social interaction, restricted repetitive patterns of behavior. Diagnosis changed overtime: because of definition. We have better research and more information. Diagnose with 13 severity level. Usually around 2 y/o because notice delayed language, unengaged or inattentive or loss of skills. IQ ranges a lot. Some use echolalia. 47. Autism influences language acquisition in low functioning kids: delay language. Kids are unengaged and inattentive. Echolalia: repetition with similar intonation of words or phrases from someone else Prelinguistic differences: less responsive to name, mother’s voice, native language. Less gestures, pointing, joint attention. Interested in nonhuman objects more than humans. 48. Causes of autism: genetics. Vaccinations and autism: unrelated. Immunizations do not cause autism.
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