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Review session (for Finals!)

by: Melantha Liu

Review session (for Finals!) PSYCH 202

Melantha Liu

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Hello, guys, this is the last note of the Introduction to Psychology we have been learning so far! This is the review session for our final exam! Are you ready for the final? My notes have consiste...
Introduction to Psychology
Patricia Coffey
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melantha Liu on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 202 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Patricia Coffey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Madison.


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Date Created: 12/10/15
Review session Yiting Liu 1. Stress and health a. Concept of HPA axis i. Hypothalamus: regulate in body; hormones ii. Pituitary glands: activated by hypothalamus; release stress hormone in blood stream 1. Release cortisol and b. Stress for a long timeà exhaustion c. GAS (general adaptation syndrome) Phrases i. Alarm ii. Resistance iii. Exhaustion à get sick more easily d. Chronic i. Type A personality 1. Stress-activity (high level) 2. High achievement drive 3. High degree of competitiveness 4. More likely for heart attackà personality e. Concept of telomeres i. Protect caps of the end of chromosomes 1. Preventing from sticking together 2. High levels of cortisol’sà shortened telomeres ii. Research in how stress can affect chromosomes f. Stress management i. Thinking influences feelings ii. Primary appraisal: stressful or not iii. Secondary appraisal: can I control that iv. If can handle, body release less stress hormone v. Types of coping: 1. Repressive coping: avoiding 2. Rational coping: active coping à facing vi. If can not handle, may use repressive copingà can not solve the stress over time g. Stress training/ inoculation training (think in a positive way) i. Mindfulness stress reduction ii. Reframing h. Mental conditions i. Somatoform disorders: about physical disorders i. Social support i. Stress responses/ oxytocinà seek out social support j. Health promoting filters i. Hardiness ii. Optimism k. Positive psychology i. Focusing on what’s good rather than what’s bad 1. Obituary/ biography 2. Savoring 3. Active/constructive responding 4. Counting your blessings 5. Gratitude visit a. GQ-6 Measure of gratitude (self-report) i. Higher scoresà better ii. Positive emotions iii. Satisfaction iv. Vitality v. Optimism vi. Lower depression vii. Less stress 2. Non-psychotic disorders a. Print out PowerPoint in an outline form b. Diathesis-stress model i. Diathesisà predisposing ii. Stressà triggering iii. Why one twin is bipolar disorder but another one does not c. Reality-testing i. OCD 1. Concerns about germsà still reality-related a. Aware of their disorders 2. Practice 3. Getting control of physical anxiety 4. Negative reinforcement ii. PTSD (similar to the OCD) 1. Expose 2. Teach skills they can cope with this disorders 3. Help them talk about memories iii. Evidences that some people may have brain differences about the hippocampus (more vulnerable to have PTSD or OCD ) iv. Generalized anxiety disorder (highly overlapped with depression) 1. Symptoms a. Excessive anxiety b. Trouble sleeping c. Physical symptomsà exhaustion d. 6 months 2. Depression lasts for more than 2 weeks v. Panic disorders 1. Repetitive panic attacks; panic about the fact 2. Agoraphobia: fear of places they may have panic attack; and they could not escape vi. PTSD (similar to the OCD) 1. Expose 2. Teach skills they can cope with this disorders 3. Help them talk about memories d. Cognitive-behavioral therapy i. Thinking ii. Teaching about relaxation skills e. Medications can be very helpful i. Anxiety disorders 1. Most successful if include cognitive-behavioral therapy 2. If only medicationsà can relapse ii. OCD 1. Response prevention 2. Virtual exposure 3. Medications are not useful on average iii. Panic disorder 1. Placebo is the most effective 2. Combine with Cognitive behavior treatment (CBT) iv. Depression 1. Medications are helpful 2. CBTà help stabilize and change brain chemistry f. Suicidal rates i. Elderly white males after retirement ages g. Mood disorders i. Major depressive episodes 1. Very severe 2. ii. Persistent depressive disorders h. Bipolar disorders i. Bipolar I (manic+ depression) ii. Bipolar II (hypomanic episode; history of manic depression) iii. Cyclothymia (low level) [up and down in mood] [not as severe as bipolar I and bipolar II] 1. Not to the major depressive episodes iv. Differences between manic and hypomanic i. Unipolar disorder i. Depression j. Seasonal affective disorder i. Changes in light ii. Phototherapy k. Video clip: I’m brilliant i. Premeditated ii. Post medicated iii. Became normal person from disorganized person l. Therapies i. Cognitive behavior treatment 1. Understanding thoughts 2. Change into positive ways m. Medications i. Antidepressant ii. SSRI 1. Increase level of serotonin 2. By inhibiting reuptake 3. Increase levels of serotonin, norepinephrine (breaking down the enzymes) 4. Depressionà hard time concentrating à with the medicationsà more norepinephrine, more alert and focused iii. ECT 1. Effective for severe disorders 3. Schizophrenia a. Delusion b. Hallucinations c. Disorganized/ loosened association i. Word salad d. Schizoaffective disorders (mood disturbance+ schizophrenia) e. Causations of schizophrenia i. Disconnected ii. Different parts of the brains à not connected in the same ways iii. Hippocampus à sensory informationà working memoryà linkage (connectivity issues) iv. Cranial cavities 1. MZ twins v. Dopamine 1. Once blocked, the symptoms should go away 2. But in fact, no 3. Have more things to do with the schizophrenia vi. Expressed emotions 1. Can be positive and negative 2. Emotionally demanding to the persons with schizophrenia a. Lost ability for emotional connections 3. High contact, EEà relapse 4. Introduction of family therapy vii. Newer psychotic medications 1. Haloperidol and chlorpromazine a. Sedative and motor side effect s] b. Parkinson’s disease c. Tardive dyskinesia (long-term medications-intake) 2. Clozapine à positive and negative symptoms Q&A Can stress cause diabetes? • It can, cortisol (blood glucose concentration) Comparisons between Psychotic disorders and non-psychotic disorders 1. Non-psychotic disorders a. Never lose connect with reality b. Often triggered by stressful events c. Easier to be treated with medications and treatments d. OCD e. Anxiety disorders i. Panic disorders ii. Phobic disorders 2. Psychotic disorders a. Schizophrenia b. Bipolar disorders i. Can cause delusions and hallucinations If have major depressive disorders and they are hearing voices 1. So its like depressive disorders with psychotic features 2. That’s not psychotic disorders 3. That’s belong to the depression 4. So the major treatment if for the depression 5. When depression is treated, the voices will go away Differences between manic and hypomanic 1. Hypomanicà will not be as severe as the manic episode 2. Talk not too fast 3. If in manic stateà very impaired 4. For a shorter period of time for hypomanic Psychodynamic and psychoanalytic è the same • Help them identify what they are saying to themselves • More about orientation • Help find meaning in their lives Any disorders that are not linked to the genetic factors 1. Phobic disorders 2. Panic disorders 3. Personality disorders Strongly related to genetic factors 1. Bipolar 2. Autism


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