A very thorough guide for biopsych pt 1
A very thorough guide for biopsych pt 1
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Benny Ye on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.
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Date Created: 12/10/15
PSY 351 Communication 1 Know that speech is lateralized and what it means for people with split brain disorders Left brain hemisphere dominance in speech amp producing words 90 Right brain speech dominance 1820 15 for ambidextrous Know where speech tends to located in the brains of left and right handers and how you use the WADA procedure to gure it out Wada procedure injection of painkiller into carotid artery to nd out which part of brain is responsible for speech amp memory Know what a mirror neuron is and where they tend to be located Primary motor cortex upon hearing a familiar sound our brain may cause us to repeat those syllables back quietly mirror neuron Know the de cits associated with the different types of aphasia and the brain areas associated with them Pure alexia ability to write but loss of the ability to read Aphasia any signi cant disturbance with speech production Broca s aphasia left frontal lobe damage tip of the tongue can t supply the right word but meaning is retain Anomia dif culty in nding the word to describe inner mental dialogue Wernicke s area superior temporal gyrus of left hemisphere loss of comphrension when speaking amp produces meaningless speech 0 Pure word deafness Transcortical sensory aphasia re peat the words heard but unable to understand them Conduction aphasia meaningful speech full comphrension but unable to repeat things heard Anomic aphasia circumlocutionsroundabout way of talking Broca s area Wernicke s area posterior language area arcuate fasciculis transcortial sensory aphasia conduction aphasia anomic aphasia pure alexia visual word form area mirror neurons Visual word form area is in the left fusiform gyrus critical to whole word recognition Arcuate fasciculus A curved bundle of axons forming a portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus known to show critical involvement in human language comprehension and construction Broca s area into the ventral premotor cortex and middle frontal gyrus regions associated with language comprehension and production Speech pathway 1 Wernicke to arcuate fasiculus to Broca learning new language repeat unfamiliar words Speech pathway 2 posterior area to Broca comprehension of speech Table 131 Know what Dejarine s patient de cit was and the brain damage responsible for it Had pure alexia because of damage found in the left occipital lobe amp posterior end of callosum 8 Know the difference between surface vs phonological dyslexia Surface dyslexia has trouble reading by whole word method visual word form area Phonological able to speak familiar words but not unfamiliar ones frontal cortex to temporal parietal lobe Developmental and Neurological disorders 1 Know what meiotic nondisjunction is and how it relates to trisomy Trisomy an extra chromosome on a 2 chromosome pair eg trisomy of 21 cause down syndrome Usually when a cell divides pairs of chromosomes go into separate daughter cells In meiotic nondisjunction the pairs go into the same cell Know the common types of trisomy and the basic facts about them Edward syndromeC18 Patau syndrome13 Understand the chromosomal basis for fragile x syndrome Related to Autism spectrum disorder fragile X happens when there is just one X chromosome Normal CGG repeat amount roughly 2030 Fragile X CGG repeats over 100 to 200 Understand how strokes lead to cell death the role of the sodium potassium pump the role of glutamate and its receptors and the effect of excessive calcium into the cell Thrombus causes stroke since it is any blood clot formed within a blood vessel The obstruction that blocks ow in a vessel is an embolus usually in the brain blood vessel An embolus could be formed from a clot a small piece of clot leaves and ends up somewhere that blocks ow Sodium potassium pump maintains resting AP charge 70 mV Cell death occurs when brain vessels clogged the excess of Ca cause cell suicide All membranes quickly depolarize an excess release of glutamate an excess release of Ca Type of Strokes A stroke is dangerous because brain is rapidly losing oxygen amp sugar Hemorrhagic stroke when a brain blood vessel pops Obstructive stroke when a brain blood vessel gets blocked Stroke Victims brain are very swollen or in amed their cells mitochondria releases toxic free radicals Know the most common types of brain tumor Gliomas glial cells getting 60 bigger Meningioma abnormal growth of the meninges Pituitary gland tumor Nuerinoma Angioma Pinealoma Possible Causes for these tumors Encephalitis brain infection eg rabies polio herpes etc Know how HSV can affect the brain and facial tissue Genital or oral herpes HSV 1 oral is more common once enter it lives in the trigeminal nerve from there it travels anterogradely to the brain Disorders of Advanced Age and Motor Disorders 7 Know the proteins and genes involved in the formation of plaques and tangles in Alzheimer s disease Mutations with these proteins Betaamyloid plaques are consisted of this the more it aggregates the worse the cognitive decline Microtubule tau MAPT tangles polymorphisms of tau protein disrupts what holds nueral pathways together think of it as the neuron s bones Know which genes are associated with early onset Alzheimer s disease and how the proteins they make work and the mutant proteins too Lewy bodies alpha synuclein oillike found in some Alzheimer cases but def found in all Parkinson s cases Know which brain areas are affected in Huntington s HDand Parkinson s PD Two brain pathway Dorsal or Ventral Dorsal consists of substanstia nigra SN to basal ganglia o Ventral consists of VTA to prefrontal cortex In HD the basal ganglia is attacked by the Huntingtin protein In PD the SN is deteriorating because dopamine receptors dying due to the parkin protein 10Know the genetics of Huntington s disease CAG repeats genetic anticipation dominance Just one copy of the huntingtin protein gene 0 Normal people have about 1020 CAG but if you have more than 34CAG you start to get aggregation of the Huntingtin protein and cell death in the striatum 11Know the genetic and potential environmental factors that predispose folks to Parkinson s disease Lewy bodies form alpha synuclein causing toxic effect on cells Parkin is formed and it kills misfolded proteins by the use of ubitquitin Chromosome 6 mutation Toxins in the environment insectides pesticides 12Know the basic symptoms of multiple sclerosis What causes multiple sclerosis How is the immune system involved 0 Strange trend countries near the equator of Earth report less cases of MS winter amp and early spring months are genetically more prone sick during pregnant 0 Female 2 Male 1 so ratio 21 onset 2535 yrs 0 An autoimmunal disease that causes own T cells to attack the myelin protective shealth that surrounds axons 4 subtypes subclinicaworst monosymptom relapseremit 2nCI progressivebest 13Know the what the underlying cause is of Lou Gehrig s disease ie the role of motor neurons What enzyme has been implicated 10 heritable 90 sporadic Relating to inheritance mutation of SOD1 gene on C21 increase of superoxide radicals Current research has riuzoe to be the only effective drug at slowing disease Autism and ADHD 14Know the social motor and speech symptoms that characterize autism o Repetitive motor habitsgaitsmovement Slower language develop or lack of Misunderstanding emotional cues especially face reading 0 Preoccupation with some interests that causes impairment 15Know what is meant by autism spectrum disorder ASD Also note that Rett s disorder is now not considered to be a part of ASD o Idiopathic Autism most heritable form of autism Autism is a developing disconnection syndrome meaning brain connectivity of neural network compromised 16Know the brain changes that are associated with autism What is the fusiform face area Autistic brains smaller size when born then develops rapidly around 1 3 old During adolescence the frontal amp temporal cortex do not develop at normal rate 0 Some prefetal biological factors mom had rubella herpes that got to brain Fusiform face area part of visual association cortex autism lowers receptivity when perceiving other s faces 17What neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in autism based on genetic studies What is oxytocin Glutamate receptors ltNDMA kainite asparategt GABA rec serotonin rec oxytocin rec vasopressin rec Dopamine rec 15 Oxytocin peptide that is what causes people to be more sociable autistic have less pair bonding closeness due to lower oxytocin 18What are copy number variations Segments of DNA usually lt1000 base pair length Unequal crossover of neural reduplication meaning these submicroscopic deletions and duplications of CNV are increasingly thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD 19What neurotransmitter system is implicated in ADHD What evidence supports this implication DAT1 gene receptor is allowing excess reuptake of dopamine sibling studies with categories of race controlled imply those with DAT1 alleles more prone Chromosome 5p153 polymorphisms happen to the tandem repeats 10 repeats or 9 repeats of 40 bp sequence are indicative of symptoms of ADHD 20 How do drugs used to treat ADHD work What is the paradox concerning the use of these drugs 0 Dopamine agonists methylphenidiate Dosage of these agonists must be just right too low or too much interferes with completion and motivation of doing tasks 21Describe the DAT knockdown mouse model of ADHD in what way does this mouse capture aspects of ADHD Amphetamine calms knockdown mouse since they are very hyperactive and seek novel stimuli cocaine administration
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