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Here is the FINAL study guide for Psychology 150. It covers all the key terms & concepts from the beginning of the year up until now. I have included ALL of the notes on the last two chapters (Trea...
Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1)
Adam Lazarewicz
Study Guide
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"No all-nighter needed with these notes...Thank you!!!"
Justyn Oberbrunner

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This 34 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gigi on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Adam Lazarewicz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 538 views. For similar materials see Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1) in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.



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Date Created: 12/10/15
Psych 150 FINAL Study Guide Chapter 1: History and Approaches to Psychology Psychology Scientific study of behavior and mental processes Hindsight bias After learning an outcome you have the tendency to believe that you would have foreseen it. “I knew it all along” Gestalt psych Our understanding of “the whole” is greater and more meaningful than the individual elements that make up our perceptions. Perceptual units = way brain organizes incoming info to simplify the world Psychoanalysis Unconscious inner forces that the individual has little control over motivate behavior - Tension between thoughts & behavior - Sigmund Freud Behaviorism Suggests that observable, measurable behaviors & how we learn them should be the focus of study Humanistic psychology Emphasized the growth potential of innately good people Cognitive psychology Focuses on how people think & understand the world; brains = hardware & mental processes = software Chapter 2: Research Methods Descriptive research Describes characteristics of a certain group. -Insight into relationships, cannot determine causality Correlational research Examines two sets of variables to determine whether they are associated -Offers insight into relationships, cannot determine causality Experimental research IV = manipulated DV = measured 1. Reliability: Consistency in results 2. Valid: Internal- Confidence that the IV manipulated caused group difference in DV External- findings can be generalized to situations outside lab 3. Bias-free: placebo, control, double-blind Chapter 3: Biological Bases of Behavior Neuron Nerve cells Basic elements of the nervous system - Dendrites: cluster of fibers at end of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons - Axon: carries messages destined to other neurons - Terminal buttons: bulges at the end of axons that send messages to other neurons - Myelin sheath: protective coating around the axon Neural firing Like a gun, neurons either fire (transmit an electrical impulse along the axon) or don’t fire (all or none law) Excitatory message: causes fire Inhibitory message: prevents fire Action potential: electric nerve impulse travels through axon when a “trigger” changes the neuron’s charge from negative to positive Neurotransmitters: carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite Threshold: reached if there are enough excitatory signals for the neuron to fire Neurotransmitter Chemical that sends signals from one neuron to another over synapse through an electrochemical process Acetylcholine: muscle movement & cognitive functioning Dopamine: movement control, pleasure & reward, attention Norepinephrine: controls alertness & arousal “fight or flight” Serotonin: Sleeping, eating, mood, pain, depression Agonists: promote neurotransmission, mimic structure of neurotransmitters (morphine & endorphins) Antagonists: Inhibit neurotransmissions, similar enough to occupy receptor but not enough to activate (curare) or may prevent release of neurotransmitter (botox) Neuroimaging EEG: function techniques CT: brain structure PET: brain function MRI: structure fMRI: function 1.Hindbrain “Older brain”, comprised of brainstem & cerebellum Life sustaining, mostly bodily processes Medulla Heartbeat, breathing, swallowing Pons Sleep, coordinating motor movements Reticular formation Regulates alertness fight or flight response Cerebellum “Little brain” at rear of brainstem, coordinates physical movement, posture, balance, timing Integrates sensory info to fine tune movement 2. Midbrain Bridge between hindbrain & forebrain Thalamus Brains sensory switchboard, relays signals to the appropriate brain structures 3. Forebrain Responsible for emotion, motivation, memory- “emotional Limbic system brain” (fighting, fleeing, feeding, sex, etc.) Amygdala Anger & fear Hypothalamus Maintains homeostasis “pleasure center” Hippocampus & HM: H.M. had epilepsy, removed hippocampi surgically anterograde amnesia, -after he was unable to form new memories (anterograde retrograde amnesia amnesia) *memory consolidation, procedural memories (how to do things) -His short term memory was intact but he was unable to commit info to long term memory as opposed to the inability to retrieve old memories (retrograde amnesia) Cerebral Cortex Convoluted outer surface of the brain, most higher level mental processes 2 parts: Cerebral Hemispheres Corpus Callosum: “split brain” (connects left and right Hemispheres, independent hemispheric functions) 4 Lobes 1. Frontal: Directly behind forehead, uniquely human- planning, personality, language 2. Parietal integrates sensory info 3. Temporal: hearing, understanding language 4. Occipital: vision, separate areas for shape, color, motion Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception Difference between Sensation is the activation of the sense organs by a source of sensation and perception physical energy. Perception is the sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli by the sense organs and brain Bottom-up processing Bottom up processing is initiated by stimulus input begins with and top-down senses and works up to perception processing Top down processing is guided by knowledge, expectations, or beliefs. It works from perceptions to senses. Structures of the eye Cornea Transparent covering to protect eye Pupil Small opening allows light in Iris Colored muscle adjusts size of pupil Lens Bends light to focus image on back of eye Retina Inner back wall of eye (transduction: Transforming sensory input into neural impulses) Cones Color, detailed vision Rods Black & white, dim light Trichromatic theory of 3 kinds of cones in the retina, each of which responds primarily color vision to a specific range of wavelengths. Opponent-process Receptor cells for color are linked in pairs working in theory of color vision opposition to each other Perceptual constancy Our understanding that physical objects are unvarying and consistent even though sensory input about them may vary. It allows us to view objects as having an unchanging size, shape, color, and brightness, even if the image on our retina changes. Absolute threshold Smallest amount of a sensory stimulus needed to notice that the stimulus is there Just noticeable difference Amount of change in a stimulus to notice that a change has occurred Sensory signal that is not registered by our conscious Subliminal sensation awareness Subliminal messages work in a certain way Priming Tendency for recently used words/ideas to come to mind easily, influences the interpretation of new information Sensory Adaptation Decreased sensitivity due to constant stimulation Why don’t things disappear when we stare at them? -Slight ocular (eye) movements Synesthesia Stimulation of one sense leads to automatic experiences in a second sense -Not just cross-metaphors (loud shirt or bitter wind) -Up to 1 in 23 people (but maybe everyone?) -not considered an illness or affliction -60+ forms/ combinations Some common types of: Ø Grapheme-color synesthesia, letters and or numbers associated with specific colors (A and red, S yellow) Ø Music-color, tones/songs with specific colors Ø Lexical-gustatory, certain words/sounds associated with specific tastes, rare Ideasthesia Activation of a concept leads to perception-like experience Ø Numbers – forms, numbers days of week, month of year occupy certain positions in space relative to the person Ø Ordinal-linguistic personification, sequences (numbers, days, months) associated with personality traits Ø Bouba & Kiki connections between visual and auditory Why do they happen? Runs strongly in families Causes: Ø Stroke Ø Psychedelic drugs Ø Epilepsy seizures Ø Deafness, blindness -Due to reduced pruning of neural connection in childhood/adolescence Chapter 5: States of Consciousness Consciousness A person’s awareness of own existence, sensations, cognitions *Consciousness is not merely perception. Libet: Timing of It feels like… Consciousness Consciousness ➡brain activity ➡ behavior Actually… Brain activity ➡consciousness ➡behavior Why do we sleep? 3 Restorative: Helps body recover from wear and tear (energy) Theories Evolutionary: Sleep keeps people out of trouble at night since we have poor night vision and are susceptible to danger Cognitive: Helps consolidate memory Circadian rhythm 24hr cycle (biological clock) -Blood pressure, pulse rate, body temp, blood sugar level, hormone levels, metabolism Hypothalamus ➡ Keeps us balanced & regulates sleep ↪Light sensitive & triggers pineal gland ↪Endocrine gland secrets melatonin ↪Hormone makes you feel sleepy Stages of Sleep Order of sleep stages: 123432 REM 23432 REM -Sleep cycle repeats about every 90 min -Stages 3 & 4 eventually disappear Dreams: Consolidates memory & strengths neural pathways Stage 1 5 minutes, transition from wakefulness to sleep, easily awakened -See lights or geometric patterns Experience falling, floating, or a hypnotic jerk Theta Waves: Less regular, lower frequency Stage 2 20 minutes -Sleep spindles = brief bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain activity -K complexes = single high-amplitude waves -Easily awakened Stages 3 & 4 3: 20-50% delta waves 4: More than 50% delta waves Decreases in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, body temperature, 30 min Delta Waves: Slow, high amplitude waves in deep sleep REM Rapid, irregular breathing & heart rate, quick eye movements -Most likely to have dreams that you remember -REM gets longer as you sleep -20-25% of a full nights sleep is REM Rebound: Longer more frequent REM stages following sleep deprivation Activation Synthesis: Dreams are a product of random bursts of neural activity Freud’s Unconscious Dreams allow us to express & fulfill unconscious desires Wish Fulfillment Theory Manifest Content: Obvious content/details, what we remember about the storyline Latent Content: Symbolic content, underlying wish & meaning of dream Insomnia Can't Sleep -Treatments: sedatives that depress central nervous system (ex: Ambien) Narcolepsy Uncontrollable “sleep attack” (5-20 min) cataplexy (loss of muscle control, slurred speech, impaired vision) -Deficit in Hypocretin (keeps us alert) Sleep Apnea Difficulty breathing while sleeping, no memory of waking up, extreme fatigue -CPAP machine treatment Night Terrors Awakening from non REM sleep with extreme fear & panic -Treated with therapy & antidepressants Chapter 6: Learning Learning Relatively permanent change in thought & behavior due to experience *Adaptability Conditioning Process of learning associations Classical Conditioning Stimulus A causes an automatic behavior then stimulus B produces that same behavior on its own Ivan Pavlor -Dogs salivated at sight of food dish & person who brought it Food caused salivation (unconditioned response) *Turned attention to studying learning *Conditioned= learned, unconditioned= automatic Unconditioned Stimulus Stimulus that automatically elicits a response (food) (US) Unconditioned Automatic, reflexive response to the US (salivation) Response (UR) Conditioned Stimulus Originally neutral stimulus (tone of voice) that gains significance (CS) through pairings with US Conditioned Response Learned response (salivation due to tone) to the CS (CR) Acquisition A conditioned and an unconditioned stimulus are presented together (training) Extinction Conditioned response disappears Stimulus Generalization After a stimulus is conditioned to elicit a certain response, similar stimuli produce the same response Ex: don’t cross the street if the car is coming (generalized to trucks, busses, bikes) Stimulus Discrimination The process that occurs if two stimuli are sufficiently different from on another that one evokes a conditioned response and the other does not: the ability to distinguish between stimuli Little Albert (Watson & 11 month old orphan allowed to play with white rat (no fear of Rayner 1920) rat, but he hated loud noises) Loud noise=US, Crying = UR Soon he hated (CR) the rat (CS) & didn’t want to touch it because every time he tried to touch it a loud noise was played Taste aversion Classically conditioned avoidance of a certain food/ taste that made you sick Operant conditioning Conditioning in which behavior is associated with consequences- rewards & punishments Edward Thorndike Puzzle Box – Once cats figure out to push level for escape, they do so faster & faster Law of Effect: rewarded behaviors are more likely to be repeated B.F. Skinner ** Most influential and controversial of behaviorists Developed principles of operant conditioning Skinner Box (aka operant chamber): Floor electric grid to shock, lever that when pushed dispenses food Shaping Process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding the behaviors that get closer & closer to the desired behavior (successive approximations) Reinforcement Reinforcer: Something that comes after a behavior -Increases likelihood of preforming behavior again Positive reinforcement Something is added -Increases future behavior -Skinner box: food pellet, electrical stimulation of hypothalamus -Human: attention, approval, money Negative reinforcement Something is taken away, *still good -Increases future behavior -Skinner box: removal of shock when push the lever -Human: taking aspirin for headache, fastening seatbelt dinging noise Timing of reinforcement More immediate= more learning More delay= less learning -Ex: speeding tickets: getting pulled over vs. getting tickets in the mail Partial Reinforcement Four schedules of partial reinforcement -Interval Schedules: time -Ratio Schedules: # of desired behaviors Fixed interval schedule Reinforcement for desired behavior after a certain interval of time Skinner box: reward for lever press after 5 min- don’t reward behavior until another 5 min. passes Human: paychecks *Behavior slows down after reinforcement, picks up right before reinforcement Variable interval Reinforcement given for behavior after changing interval of time schedule Skinner box: lever reward after 2 min, 8 min, 5 min Human: pop quizzes (students continually study rather than cramming) -Slow but steady behavior Fixed ratio schedule Reinforcement after set number of behaviorsth Skinner box: food pellet after every 10 lever press Human: worker paid for every 10 products made, frequent flyer programs Variable ratio schedule Reinforcement after a variable number of behaviors Skinner box: food pellet after 6 lever presses, then 14, then 2, etc. Human: slot machines, commission sales -Highest rate of responding, most resistant to extinction (don’t know when you’ll be reinforced) Punishment Unpleasant event that occurs as a consequence of an undesired behavior -Decreases the likelihood of behavior in the future Problem: it tells you what not to do rather than what to do* Positive punishment -Adding something Undesired behavior = unpleasant stimulus Negative punishment -Removal of pleasant stimulus following undesired behavior Mirror neurons Neurons that fire when preforming certain actions, or when observing someone else engaging in those actions -Helps us to understand others intentions by recreating their experiences-Mimicry -Causes empathy Chapters 7 & 8: Cognition Encoding Memory construction-initial recording of info Storage Info saved for future use Retrieval Recovery of stored info in long term memory for use in working memory = Memory reconstruction 1. Sensory Memory Lowest level of memory -all senses (sight, sound) 2. Short Term Memory Working Memory (attention) Repetitive Rehearsal (Ebbinghaus tested) Stores info based upon meaning instead of sensation: Chunking*: grouping info into clusters 3. Long term memory Elaborative rehearsal Memory store that keeps lots of info for a long time Levels of Processing -Deeper processing = better recall -Memory is better w/ imagery in studying Self Referent Effect Better memory for self-relevant info Serial Position Effect Primacy: good memory for beginning of a list of words for example Recency: good memory for end of the list Declarative Memory Memory of facts & experiences -Conscious recollection of info Hippocampus Episodic: Events & context (remembering where and how you learned how to ride a bike) Semantic: Concepts & general facts (knowing how to ride a bike) Semantic Networks Spreading activation model = activation of one unit in network spreads to related concepts Procedural Memory Memory of how to do something (skills & habits) –somewhat automatically (not consciously aware of) -Cerebellum Amnesia Retrograde= old memories lost Anterograde= prevents new ones -hippocampus damage Clive Wearing had both= stuck in permanent present Long Term Potentiation Making neural connections stronger with repeated stimulation Potentiation: neural basis for learning Flashbulb Memories Extremely vivid memory of a traumatic event (photographic quality) -Intense emotions= norepinephrine increase = hippocampus functioning -still susceptible to errors 3 reasons for forgetting: 1. Encoding Failure 2. Storage Decay 3. Retrieval Failure Proactive Interference Info learned earlier disrupts the recall of memory learned later Past interferes with present Retroactive Interference Material that was learned later disrupts the retrieval of info learned earlier Present interferes with past Repression Banishing anxiety-provoking thoughts to unconscious (Freud)- Little scientific evidence-causes failed retrieval Concepts Mental groupings of similar objects, events, people Prototypes Typical highly representative examples of a concept Ex: someone says vehicle, "car" comes to mind "Car" is a prototype of vehicles Heuristic A thinking strategy that may lead us to a solution for a problem but may lead to errors Example: placing an "x" in the center when playing tic-tac-toe, it doesn't insure success but from experience you do it Availability Heuristic Judging the likely hood of an event occurring on the basis of how easy it is to think of examples Example: we are more afraid of dying in a plane crash than in an auto accident even though air travel is much safer Fixation Tendency to think of an object only in terms of its typical use Example: Thinking of a book as something to read not a door stop Confirmation Bias Tendency to apply info that supports one's initial & ignore info that doesn’t support it Language Communication *Language is generative= we don’t just find sentences stored in our memory and use them Phonemes Smallest sound units in a language Morphemes Smallest language units that have meaning, combined to form more complex words Ex: Previewed pre, view, ed (3 morphemes) Syntax Rules for word order “Kicked the girl ball red” or “The girl kicked the red ball” Semantics Rules for deriving meaning from morphemes, words, sentences “ed” = past, “s” = plural Pragmatics Indirect implications of language -Right hemisphere skill Nature (Nativism) Noam Chomsky Language Acquisition Device (LAD): innate brain mechanism that allegedly contains grammatical rules common to all languages and allows language acquisition Nurture (Empiricism) BF Skinner Argues language learned through Conditioning -Associations between seeing object & hearing words (classical) -Imitation of models & reinforcement (operational) Child-directed speech Adults adjust speech to clarify language (‘motherese’: Nurture) Broca’s area Language production in left frontal lobe Broca’s aphasia Problems producing language due to brain damage (Nature) Wernicke’s area Language comprehension in L frontal lobe Wernicke’s aphasia Problems comprehending language from brain damage (Nature) Critical period Small window when learning a skill is easiest Chapter 10: Motivation & Emotion Motivation Need or desire that energizes & directs behavior Sources of Motivation: 1. Instincts 2. Drive-reduction theory 3. Optimum Arousal Theory 4. Priorities among needs 1. Instincts Inherited, unalterable responses to stimuli 2. Drive Reduction Physiological needs- drive to meet those needs -Motivated to Theory restore homeostasis, like hunger, thirst, sleep 3. Optimum Arousal Desire to avoid stimuli that are too boring or too arousing Theory -Best performance at intermediate level of arousal 4. Priorities among Abraham Maslow: Hierarchy of Needs needs Lateral Hypothalamus Initiates hunger Ventromedial Suppresses hunger Hypothalamus Set Point Theory Hypothalamus strives to maintain optimum body weight (set point) -leptin (hormone released by fat cells) & hunger are negatively correlated Obesity BMI > 30 Why does obesity 1.“Obese personality” that cannot resist eating? happen? 2. Genes? 3. Environmental factors encourage overeating Anorexia Nervosa -Intense fear of gaining weight -Body image distortion -High Levels of Serotonin Bulimia Nervosa Binge eating & attempt to prevent weight gain, low serotonin -Purging type: intentional vomiting, laxatives -Non-purging type: fasting, excessive exercise The Need to Belong Motive to feel social connectedness If its not met = chronic loneliness & physical illness & symptoms Social exclusion: Being shunned, avoided, receiving silent treatment Achievement Motive for significant accomplishments, predicting life outcomes Motivation • Goleman: found that achievement motivation best predictor of success • Duckworth & Seligman: Achievement motive is a better predictor of school performance, attendance, graduation honors than IQ test scores *Motive depends on what a person cares about Individual Difference Low motivation: chose very easy tasks (guaranteed success) or in Achievement very difficult tasks (failure expected, not embarrassing) Motivation High Motivation: choose moderately difficult tasks (achievable, but challenging) Emotion Positive/negative reaction to a object, event or situation 1. Physiological arousal 2. Expressive behaviors 3. Conscious experience (thoughts and feelings) Paul Ekman Cultural universality of emotional behaviors: facial expressions are the same everywhere (even in blind people) Basic Emotions Fear, anger, disgust, happiness, sadness, surprise Approach Emotions Love & happiness: left frontal lobe Withdraw Emotions Fear & disgust: right frontal lobe James Lange Theory of Emotion= response to emotion-inducing stimulus Emotion Body reacts ➡then your brain responds Cannon Baird Theory Simultaneous experience of emotion & physiological arousal; one does not cause the other Two-Factor Theory 1. Experience physiological arousal 2. Assign cognitive label to emotion (conscious interpretation) Fear Two neural paths: 1. Amygdala (instinctive defensive responses) 2. Cerebral Cortex & Hippocampus (incorporate other info/memories) Both paths lead to hypothalamus • Releases norepinephrine in nervous system & adrenaline • Norepinephrine & adrenaline= "fight or flight" Hippocampus damage= fear response: but no memory Amygdala damage= remember conditioning, but no fear response Anger Catharsis: Emotional release to relieve aggressive urges "venting anger" -temporarily calms us Problem: Expressing anger often leads to more anger-aggression breeds aggression (operant conditioning Chapter 12: Developmental Psychology Prenatal development 1. Zygote: 23 pairs of chromosomes; XX=female XY=male, cell differentiation 2. Embryo: major axis of the body forms and organ development begins (heartbeat) 3. Fetus: 9 weeks through birth, 6 month developed enough to survive premature birth, sensitive to light & sound Teratogens Chemicals, viruses, or radiation that cause damage to the zygote/embryo/fetus Ex: cortisol, HIV, nicotine, and alcohol Down syndrome Trisomy 21 ( third copy of the 21 chromosome) prevents neuronal development -Age of the mother is critical Symptoms: heart, eye, ear defects, sleep apnea Jean Piaget Schemas: organize & interpret info Assimilation: process of interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas Ex: The traits: furry, four legs, tail become the schema ‘dog’. Accommodation is the process of adapting schemas to incorporate new information. For example, adjusting the dog schema so that when you add the traits ‘hooves’ and ‘long noise’ it is now the schema ‘horse’. Piaget’s 4 stages of 1. Sensory Motor Stage: Birth-Age 2, gain world knowledge cognitive development through sensory info, motor activities, Object Permanence (awareness that objects continue to exist even when you cannot see them, develops around 8 mo.) 2. Preoperational Stage: Age 2-7, Ability to create mental representations, conservation (principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape), egocentric, Theory of Mind (ability to attribute mental states to yourself & others which allows us to infer feelings, perceptions, 7 thoughts) 3. Concrete Operational Stage: Age 7-12, ability to engage in concrete operations (manipulating mental representations of concrete objects) 4. Formal Operational Stage: Age 12-Adult, expansions of logical capabilities, concrete knowledge (actual experience) can now become formal representations (abstract, imaginative) Autism Brain development disorder 1. Social Interaction Impairments (less social interactions, does not mean a preference for solitude) 2. Communication Impairments (delayed onset of babbling, echolalia, decreased responsiveness, difficulty understanding pointing) 3. Repetitive Behaviors (self-injury 30%, compulsive behaviors: stacking, organization) - “Extreme male brain” (male brains are typically systemizers rather than empathizers like women) Attachment Strong emotional connection or bond between a child and caregiver such as parents during critical period Harry Harlow monkeys, 2 artificial mothers (wire cylinder and cloth doll), strong preference for the cloth mother, used the cloth doll as a ‘base’ when exploring, shows importance for touch therapy in premature birth Konrad Lorenz studied ducklings and their attachment to the first thing they saw when they were born (imprinting) Attachment Styles 1. Secure (kids are outgoing with strangers, active exploration when the attachment figure is present, may have some distress when the figure leaves, sensitive & reliable parenting) 2. Resistant (cling to the attachment figure, have a lot of distress when they leave, inconsistent parenting) 3. Avoidant (when separated from the attachment figure they have little distress, avoid & ignore strangers, helicopter parents) 4. Disorganized/Disoriented (combination of resistant & avoidant, confusion about whether to approach or avoid attachment figure, common among abused kids) Teenage brain 1. Pruning of neural connections 2. Myelin growth Kohlberg’s Stages of 1. Preconventional: morality of self interest (what is best for Moral Development self) 2. Conventional: care for others, follow rules because they are rules 3. Postconventional: broad, abstract ethical principles of right vs. wrong Dementia Decline of cognitive functioning causes disorientation in time, place & others, majority of cases are due to Alzheimer’s disease Alzheimer’s disease Progressive brain disorder that causes a deterioration of memory, reason, language, and physical functioning Potential causes include: 1. Genetics 2. Loss of Brain Tissue 3. Deterioration of neurons that produce acetylcholine Chapter 13: Personality Psychology Freud & Unconscious: collection of unacceptable thoughts, wishes, psychoanalysis desires, feelings, and memories motivates us to action & can be accessed through dreams Freudian personality 1. ID: unconscious sexual & aggressive urges, demands immediate gratification (pleasure principle) 2. Superego: internalized ideals & standards for judgments, morality, angel compared to id 3. Ego: Mostly conscious part of personality that mediates ID vs. Superego, Seeks to gratify id in ways acceptable to superego (reality principle) Erogenous zones Different parts of the body the ID focuses on as we age, traumatic experiences cause fixation on one zone Defense mechanisms Ways of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality Repression: blocking unacceptable thoughts Projection: disguising own threatening impulses by attributing them to others Reaction Formation: unconsciously switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites Sublimation: redirecting psychic energy away from negative outlets towards positive ones, most “socially useful” Traits Characteristic patterns of behaviors Lexical Approach: important individual differences were encoded in language over time, cross-cultural universality in the synonymous words (the important traits). Statistical Approach: people rate themselves & using factor analysis the huge number of traits is reduced to a more manageable set (the people who rate themselves as funny also say they’re amusing) Big Five (H=high, L=low) 1. Conscientiousness: H=organized, neat L=disorderly, careless 2. Agreeableness: H=sympathetic, kind L=harsh, hard- headed 3. Neuroticism: H=moody, anxious L=calm 4. Openness: H=creative L=practical, set in ways 5. Extroversion: H=talkative L=shy Chapter 9: Intelligence Intelligence Ability to learn from experience General intelligence is the single factor for mental ability that underlies specific mental abilities Gardner’s multiple 1. Linguistic intelligences 2. Logical/Mathematical 3. Naturalist 4. Spatial 5. Bodily/Kinesthetic 6. Musical 7. Interpersonal 8. Intrapersonal Emotional intelligence Ability to perceive, understand & use emotions. High emotional intelligence can lead to much success. Creativity Ability to produce novel and valuable ideas. Convergent thinking is closing in on a single, correct answer, used in an intelligence test. Divergent thinking is imagining multiple possible answers, used in a creativity test Intelligence Tests Binet Simon Test: Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon created the first intelligence test that measured one’s mental age, led to the first intelligence quotient (IQ) test Stanford Binet Test: revised version of the Binet-Simon test for US culture to measure innate intelligence, reliable Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: most commonly used today, differences between scores may indicate learning disabilities, brain disorders, and personal strengths IQ 100 x (mental age/chronological age) Average score= 100 Reliability: consistent results Validity: measure what it claims to Intellectual disability 1. IQ 70 or below 2. Significant limitations in everyday life 3. Present since childhood *islands of excellence: areas where disable people do very well Gifted IQ’s of 130 or above -More likely to have a higher GPA in school, higher-prestige jobs & salaries, relationship stability Brain size and brain Brain Size: Correlation between brain volume & IQ score (but not speed relate to a cause) intelligence Brain Speed: processing speed correlated with IQ -Perceptual speed correlated with IQ -Higher IQ: quicker brain waves Stereotype threat Ex: Teen Talk Barbie that says, "math class is tough" which stereotypes girls’ intelligence. In reality there is no racial gap in intelligence. The expectations set by stereotypes elicit performance. Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Psychological disorder Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional pattern of thoughts, feelings, & behaviors DSM-5 Book that lists diagnostic criteria for all disorders Pros: • Standardized diagnosis (guides treatment) • Fairly reliable Cons: • More disorders= more mental illness • Diagnostic criteria includes everyday behaviors…at what point is it a disorder? Labeling problem: puts labels on people, influences perceptions David Rosenhan’s “On • Can 8 psychologically healthy people get admitted to mental Being Sane In Insane hospitals? Places” • 3 psychologists, 1 psychiatrist, 1 psychology grad student, 1 pediatrician, 1 painter, 1 homemaker presented themselves at 5 hospitals • 3 lies told: 1. False Names 2. False careers for the psychologists/psychiatrists 3. Hearing voices that say "hollow", "empty", "thud" • All 8 admitted with schizophrenia • Normal Behaviors seen as consistent with mental illness • Genuine patients not fooled Research challenged by a mental hospital and Rosenhan sent at least 1 imposter over 3-month span & hospital evaluates all incoming patients for imposter likelihood • Admitted 193, 41 considered imposters, 42 suspicious • Total # actually sent by Rosenhan= 0 *Difficulty in distinguishing sick & healthy (diagnostic system broken/useless) Generalized anxiety • Persistent state of anxiety disorder (gad) • Difficulty concentrating, irritable • Increased heart rate & muscle tension, easily tired • Secondary anxiety Panic disorder • Repeated un-cued panic attacks • Panic attack: sudden period of intense fear (short breath, heart palpitations, sweating, dizziness) • Cued: in response to a trigger (phobias) • Un-cued: unexpected, not connected to a trigger Agoraphobia Fear of future attacks in public • Fear of inescapable situations where help may not be available • Afraid of anxiety itself, not having help, comforted by being with others • Stay close to home, only leave with companions (or don't leave home at all) Phobias Specific phobias & Social phobia (social anxiety disorder: SAD) • Anxiety in social situations of thinking about them • Fear of embarrassment & humiliation: avoid certain situations • Afraid of social disapproval, embarrassment • Comforted by avoiding others Obsessive-compulsive Uncontrollable anxiety due to obsessions, compulsions disorder • Obsessions: unwanted, repetitive thought (e.g. dirt/germs/order) • Compulsions: unwanted, repetitive behaviors (e.g. excessive washing, repeating behaviors, checking) Post traumatic stress • Haunting memories of trauma disorder PTSD • Nightmares • Social withdrawal Easily startled, Irritability Insomnia -War, terrorism, natural disasters, accidents, abuse Closer to the event = more traumatizing Major depression Depressive Episode is 5+ symptoms for several days disorder MDD Depression Symptoms: • Low mood, reduced interest in activities • Weight loss • Insomnia • Suicidal thoughts Dysthymia: Mild form of depression Seasonal affective Depression symptoms in the winter disorder (SAD) • Lack of sunlight • Circadian rhythm Light therapy: shine light on face Bipolar disorder Mania: • Euphoric mood, hyperactivity, high energy • Racing thoughts, short attention span, irritability Bipolar 1: 1+ manic episodes Bipolar 2: Cycling between manic & depressive episodes Cyclothymia: Manic & depressive episodes that do not meet DSM criteria, like Bipolar 2 but more 'subtle' Schizophrenia o Delusions: firmly held beliefs with no basis in reality o Word Salad: jumping from one idea to the next, little coherence in language o Clanging: Pairing of words with no relation other than rhyming, sounding alike o Poverty Of Content: using many words all grammatically correct, but conveying very little o Neologisms: creating new words by combining regular words using words in new ways o Hallucinations: sensory experiences without sensory input, happens to any sense but auditory is most common Dimensions of 1. Reactive vs. Process Schizophrenia o Reactive: rapid development, often in response to stress (likely to recover from) o Process: more gradual onset, slow development 2. Positive vs. Negative o Positive: presence of inappropriate behaviors, respond well to medication o Negative: absence of appropriate behaviors, not as responsive to medication Causes of Genetics, excess dopamine receptors (intensifies neural signals)- Schizophrenia medications blocks receptors, tissue loss in the cortex, thalamus Environmental factors (flu during pregnancy?) Antisocial personality Lack of conscious for wrongdoing, even toward close others, disorder superficial Dissociative identity Multiple personalities, each with distinct names, speech, and disorder mannerisms. They alternate control of person and usually has no memory of events when not in control Lecture 13: Treatment of Psychological Disorders Psychotherapy Psychologically based therapy where a therapist uses psychological techniques to help someone over-come difficulties & disorders through discussions and interactions with the therapist Biomedical therapy Relies on drugs and medical procedures to improve psychological functioning Eclectic approach Combines aspects of two or more different approaches to meet the needs of a client Clinical psychologist Specialize in assessment and treatment of psychological difficulties, providing psychotherapy Psychiatrist Treat the most severe disorders since they prescribe medication Counseling Treat day-to-day adjustment problems, often in a university psychologist mental health clinic Clinical social worker Provide therapy for common family & personal problems Psychodynamic Seeks to bring unresolved past conflicts & unacceptable impulses therapy from the unconscious into the conscious, people using defense mechanisms such as repression Psychoanalysis Freud’s psychotherapy in which the goal is to release hidden thoughts and feelings from the unconscious part of the mind in order to reduce their power in controlling behavior • Free association: say aloud whatever comes to mind • Dream Interpretation: looing for clues to unconscious conflicts and problems in dreams Resistance Inability or unwillingness to discuss or reveal particular memories, thoughts, or motivations. For example, a patient discussing a childhood memory may suddenly forget what they were saying or abruptly change the subject Transference The replacement of feelings of love instead of anger that had been originally directed to a patient’s parents of other authority figures. –Recreate relationships that were psychologically difficult Benefits Viable treatment For some, it provides solutions to difficult psychological issues, treatment for psychological disturbance, & permits potential development of an unusual degree of insight into one's life Criticisms Time consuming & expensive Less articulate patients may not do as well Difficulty in establishing whether patients have improved after psychodynamic therapy, reports are biased Humanistic therapy Focuses on self-responsibility in treatment techniques, humanistic therapists view themselves as guides or facilitators. Therapists seek to help people understand themselves and find ways to come closer to the ideal they hold for themselves. Disorders result from the inability to find meaning in life and from loneliness & lack of connection to others. Benefits Clients find a supportive environment for therapy Criticisms Humanistic treatments lack specificity Least scientifically and theoretically developed Works best for the highly verbal client Client-centered Helps people to reach their potential for self-actualization using therapy unconditional positive regard goal is to reach one’s potential for self-actualization. Warm & accepting environment therapists motivate clients to air their problems & feelings Active listening Requires the listener to feed back what they hear to the speaker, by way of re-stating or paraphrasing what they have heard in their own words, to confirm what they have heard and moreover, to confirm the understanding of both parties Behavioral therapy Builds on the basic processes of learning, such as reinforcement & extinction to reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior. They assume that behavior is learned. Focuses on modifying external behavior Benefits of behavioral therapy Works well for eliminating anxiety disorders, treating phobias and compulsions, establishing control over impulses, and learning complex social skills to replace maladaptive behavior Criticisms of behavioral therapy Because it emphasizes changing external behavior people do not necessarily gain insight into thoughts and expectations that may be fostering their maladaptive behavior Classical Conditioning Therapy that reduces the frequency of undesired behavior by Treatments Aversive pairing an unpleasant stimulus with undesired behavior. conditioning Example: pairing alcohol with a drug that causes severe illness. Works well in inhibiting substance abuse. Critics question its long-term effectiveness Systematic Exposure to an anxiety-producing stimulus is paired with deep desensitization relaxation to extinguish the response of anxiety, learning relaxation techniques Flooding Treatment for anxiety in which people are suddenly confronted with a feared stimulus, goal is to allow the maladaptive response of anxiety or avoidance to become extinct, proven effective in many problems such as phobias and people learn to enjoy the things they once feared Operant Conditioning Rewards a person for desired behavior with a token such as a Techniques Token poker chip or play money that can later be exchanged for an economy actual reward, most frequently used in institutional settings for individuals with relatively serious problems and sometimes with children as a school technique Cognitive therapy Teaches people to think in more adaptive ways by changing their dysfunctional cognitions about the world and themselves (focuses on changing the way people think) Cognitive-behavioral A treatment approach that incorporates basic approach that therapy (CBT): incorporates basic principles of learning to change the way people think Rational-emotive Attempts to restructure a person’s belief system into a more therapy (ABC model): realistic, rational, and logical set of views. Irrational beliefs trigger negative emotions and lead to a self-defeating cycle A: negative activating condition (ex: close relationship breaks up) B: irrational belief system (“I’ll never be loved again”) C: emotional consequences (anxiety, loneliness, sadness, depression) Benefits of cognitive therapy: • Proved successful in dealing with broad range of disorders (anxiety, depression, substance abuse, eating disorders) • W


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