Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide Comm 2331
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Hageman on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 2331 at Ohio State University taught by Erik Nisbet in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see Strategic Communication Principles in Journalism and Mass Communications at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 12/10/15
COMM 2331 Final Exam Study Guide Wednesday, December 16 th 1) IMC (Integrated Marketing Communications)- coordinating the various promotional elements and other marketing activities that communicate with a firm’s costumers IMC is growing and more companies are adopting it due to factors such as: - the increasing difficulty to target audiences - the growth of info technology and databases - the decline in mass communication - the growth in competition Basic IMC plan: - Detailed situation analysis - Specific marketing objections with time-frame and mechanism for measuring performance - Selection of target markets and plan for 4 elements of the marketing mix - Program for implementing the marketing strategy - Process for monitoring and evaluating performance 2) Promotional Mix- basic tools used to accomplish an organization’s communication objectives. The six elements are: - advertising - sales promotion - direct marketing - publicity/public relation -digital/internet marketing - personal selling Promotion: -builds awareness - helps with brand image - provides info - persuades - provides incentives - provides brand reminders - reinforces past purchases 4 P’s of Marketing(Marketing Mix): - Product - Price - Place - Promotion 3) Promotion equals power: - changes consumers’ tastes - lowers sensitivity to price - builds brand loyalty Promotion equals information: - provides useful information - increases price sensitivity - increases competition 4) Advertising affects on children: Advocates view- children lack knowledge to evaluate ads and can’t differentiate between ads Marketer’s view- children must learn through socialization and must acquire skills to function in the marketplace 5) Product/brand positioning: fitting the brand into one or more segments of the market to set it apart from competitors Ways to position the product: - Attributes and benefits - Price or quality - Use or application - Product class - Product user - Competitor - Cultural symbols - Repositioning 6) Ways customers can be segmented: - psychographic - demographic - socioeconomic - geographic - Buying situation(behavior involvement, usage, knowledge, benefits, outlet type) 7) The Target Market Process: 1. Identify markets with unfulfilled needs 2. Determine market segmentation 3. Select market to target 4. Position through marketing strategies 8) Brand: the combination of the name, logo, symbols, design, packaging, and image of associations held by consumers Brand Functions: - Differentiates from other products - Makes a promise - Serves as a driving, unifying force directing all areas 9) Pull Strategy: advertisements pull in consumer demands who request the product from the retailer who then order the product from wholesalers who finally request it from the manufacturer Push Strategy: Producers make the item, give it to the wholesaler who passes it on to retailers who attempt to explain and motivate consumers to purchase it 10) Consumer decision-making process: 1. Problem Recognition (out of stock, dissatisfaction, new needs/wants, related products/purchases, market-induced recognition, new products) -Psychological process- relates to motivation (Maslow’s hierarchy of needs) 2. Information Search -Psychological process- relates to perception (Cognitive Dissonance, Selective Perception: selective exposure selective attention selective comprehension selective retention) 3. Alternative Evaluation- objective (price, features, warranty, service) and subjective (image, style, performance) -Psychological process- relates to attitude formation (memory-based model- based on accessibility of beliefs and the weight of those beliefs) 4. Purchase Decision- based on purchase intention and brand loyalty -Psychological process- relates to integration (online model- overall impression of a brand/product from all encounters you have had with it) 5. Post-purchase Evaluation- either satisfaction or dissatisfaction, if dissatisfaction then cognitive dissonance -Psychological process- relates to learning (classical conditioning- learning is associate process by building relationships between conditional stimulus and response, operant conditioning- behavior leads to a reward or punishment) 11) Consumers either evaluate brands objectively (price, features, warranty, service) or subjectively (image, style, performance) Memory-based model- attitude toward a brand is based on: accessibility of available beliefs in one’s memory and how much weight each belief is given To change an attitude with this model you have to: - change beliefs about an important attribute - change weight given to an attribute - make a new attribute available - influence the accessibility of available attributes 12) Online Model- the overall impression of a product based on a series of evaluative impressions formed at the time of info exposure Different from memory-based model because you are recalling all information and not just the memory of your attitude towards a product 13) KAB models- decide which is appropriate to use by: - Amount of involvement/motivation - Differentiation between choices/options Learning model (KAB)- supplied info, lead to attitude formation/change, which influences behavior (high involvement, high differentiation) Affinity model (AKB)- product doing well, try to get those who have already purchased to do it again Rational model (KBA)- gain info on a product to make a purchase, then form attitude after using the product (low-involvement, minimal differences) Grudging Acceptance model (BKA)- times when people are forced buy something Dissonance model (BAK)- behaviors lead to attitudes then serve as a basis to gain knowledge (choose between 2 alternatives) 14) Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)- extent to which a person carefully thinks about arguments in a persuasive communication, decide either central or peripheral route by motivation and ability Central Route- information-based, cognitive response, elaboration likelihood is high, strong message arguments (strong argument=positive CR’s, weak argument=negative CRs) Peripheral route- elaboration likelihood is low, heuristic cues 15) Cognitive response- elaboration goes beyond paying attention or comprehending a message but also involves generating one’s own thoughts about a central idea or message 3 categories of thoughts: - Product/message thoughts- counterarguments or support arguments - Source-oriented thoughts- source derogation or source bolstering - Ad execution thoughts- thoughts about ad itself, affect attitude toward the ad 16) Sources: direct or indirect Source Attributes: - Credibility (process: internalization- source is perceived as accurate) - Attractiveness (process: identification- adopts similar beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors after seeking relationship with source) - Power (process: compliance- accepts position of source to receive rewards and avoid punishments) a) Limitations of credible sources- high and low credibility sources are equally effective when arguing for a position opposing their best interest Sleeper effect- persuasiveness increases over time for low credibility sources b) Source attractiveness: similarity, familiarity, likeability c) 3 requirements for source power o Perceived control o Perceived concern o Perceived scrutiny 17) Primacy effect- argument at beginning (better when audiences are opposed) Recency effect- argument at end (audiences who have a favorable opinion already) Open Vs. Firm conclusion depends on: - Education/prior knowledge - Audience involvement - Long-term or short-term goal - Complexity of topic - Assume central or peripheral route One-sided message- when audience already has favorable attitude Two-sided message- when audience has an unfavorable attitude Inoculation- when a two-sided message leads to audience agreeing with the argument you made against your product 18) Fear appeals: Adv.- activates attention, may motivate receiver to resolve threat, more likely to process centrally Dis.- too much fear= less persuasive Humor appeals: Adv.- attract and hold attention, best remembered, put audience in positive mood Dis.- doesn’t aid persuasion, may harm comprehension, doesn’t aid source credibility, may wear out fast Four threat factors: - Severity of threat - Susceptibility - Response efficacy - Self-efficacy 19) Hard sell- based on logic Soft sell- based on emotions Rational appeals: feature, competitive, price, news, popularity Categories of feelings: - Personal: safety, security, fear, love, affection, joy, nostalgia, sentiment, excitement, sorrow - Social-based: recognition, status, respect, involvement, embarrassment, affiliation, rejection, acceptance, approval 20) Selling strategy; - Finding the inherent drama - Use a unique selling proposition (buy product to get a benefit, must be a unique product that rivals don’t offer, must be strong enough to move mass millions) - Positioning - Create a brand image 21) Index Number- (percentage of users in a demographic segment/percentage of population in the same segment)*100 Category Development Index- (percentage of total product category sales in market/percentage of total U.S. population in market)*100 Brand Development Index- (percentage of brand to total U.S. sales in market/percentage of total U.S. population in market)*100 Comparing all these numbers can tell an advertiser how many people out of a specific population are using your product and also help advertisers to understand what category of brands and specific brands are doing best in the market to help with future planning. 22) Television households- number of households that own a TV Program Rating- % of TV households in an area that are tuned to a specific program during a specific time period (households tuned to show/total US households that OWN a TV) Households using TV- % of homes in a given area where TV is being watched during a specific time period Share of Audience- % of households using TV in a specified time period that are tuned to a specified program (households tuned to show/US households WATCHING TV) Cost of broadcast media- (cost of commercial time/program rating) Cost of print media- (cost of ad space/circulation) *1,000 23) Cognitive Response Model- focus on ad execution thoughts and source oriented thoughts develop and attitude toward an ad which in turn influences the attitude toward a brand ELM- focus on individual involvement, motivation, and ability (need for cognition) Personal factors that determine effectiveness of brand: - Involvement - Perceived interactivity - Flow (immersion and control) Website/brand factors: - Actual interactivity - Usability - Modality - Number of functions - Degree of fit with brand image - Type of product 24) Corporate advertising- does not promote a specific product or service but promotes an organization (image enhancement, assuming a position on an issue or cause, seeks involvement) Goals of corporate advertising: - Establish diversified company identity - Create positive image - Communicate the organization’s viewpoint - Boost employee morale - Smooth labor relations Types of corporate advertising: - Image advertising- general image ads, positioning ads, sponsorship, recruitment, and financial support - Event sponsorship - Advocacy advertising - Cause-related advertising Advantages- good for positioning the firm, takes advantage of benefits derived from public relations, reaches selected market Disadvantages- questionable effectiveness, raises questions of constitutionality and ethics, lack of consumer interest
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