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Final Exam Study Guide

by: Savannah Notetaker

Final Exam Study Guide SCOM 123

Savannah Notetaker
Fundamental Human Communication: Group Presentation
April Gulotta

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Very detailed notes prepared for any possible answer but also not too far into it.
Fundamental Human Communication: Group Presentation
April Gulotta
Study Guide
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savannah Notetaker on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SCOM 123 at James Madison University taught by April Gulotta in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Human Communication: Group Presentation in Communication Studies at James Madison University.

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Date Created: 12/10/15
Chapter 1 1 2 What are the common myths about communication ls a cureall Just common sense Quantity equals quality Explain the differences between the three models of communication Linear model involves a sender who sends a message through a channel through which a message travels such as to a receiver in an atmosphere of noise lnteractive model addition of feedback indicates that communication isn39t a oneway but is twoway process receivers are actively involved in the process not static targets receivers become senders and senders become receivers of messages Transactional model recognizes each person as a sender and receiver with a constant message De ne the basic communication elements contained in the communication models Channel medium through which a message travels such as oral or written Sender initiator and encoder of messages Receiver decoder of messages Message stimulus that produces meaning Encode to convert from one system of communication to another Decode the message which source has encoded then the decoder interprets the message according to his own mentality and experience Context environment in which communication occurs the who what where when why and how of communication Fields of experience cultural background ethnicity geographic location extent of travel and general personal experiences accumulated over the course of a lifetime that in uence messages Noise any interference with effective transmission and reception of messages Feedback the receiver39s verbal and nonverbal responses to a message Explain the two aspects of every message Content dimension refers to what is actually said and done Relationship dimension refers to how that message de nes or rede nes the association between individuals How do constructive versus destructive communication climates in uence relationship Constructive communication climate a pattern of openness or a willingness to communicate and a pattern of supportiveness or a con rmation of the worth and value of others and a willingness to help others succeed Destructive communication climate a pattern of closeness or an unwillingness to communicate with others and a pattern of defensiveness or a protective reaction to a perceived attack on our selfesteem and self concept Communication competence engaging in communication with others that is perceived to be both effective and appropriate in a given context De ciency to pro ciency competence varies by degrees from highly pro cient to severely de cient depending on our current set of circumstances Weorientation We rst Not Me rst focus on quotwequot not quotmequot 7 Rule a followable prescription that indicates what behavior is obligated preferred or prohibited in certain contexts 8 List the characteristics of an ethical communicator Respect Fairness Honesty Choice Responsibility Chapter 2 9 3 elements of the perpetual process Selecting focusing on speci c stimuli and screening out other data Organizing schemas organize perceptual stimuli mental frameworks that create meaningful patterns from stimuli prototypes most representative or quotbestquot example of something stereotypes generalization about a group or category of people scripts a predicable sequence of events that indicates what we are expected to do in a given situation lnterpreting we try to make sense of the stimuli that we39ve organized we make sense of our own behavior and our transactions with others by making attributions 10What is a perpetual schema Prototype most representative or quotbestquot example of something Stereotype generalization about a group of category of people Script predictable sequence of events that indicates what we are expected to do in a given situation 11Self concept the sum total of everything that encompasses the self referential term quotmequot ls a social construction a product of interpersonal communication body image is largely in uenced by society s conception of an ideal body can change but change from the characterizations by others messages you receive from others that assess your selfconcept re ected appraisal 12 13Self disclosure the process of purposely revealing to others personal information about yourself that is signi cant and that others would not know unless you told them 14How do depth and breadth of selfdisclosure in uence the building of relationships Intimate relationships usually have both breadth and depth whereas impersonal casual relationships usually have little of either 15Developing relationships gaining selfknowledge correcting misperceptions eliciting reassurance creating impressions 16Demonstrates that trust and risktaking are shared 17Self serving bias the tendency to attribute our successful behavior to ourselves but to assign external circumstances to our unsuccessful behavior tendency to emphasize our accomplishments and downplay or de ect our shortcomings and failures is common 18First impressions paying attention to quotidentity claimsquot create impressions Primacy effect tendency to be more in uenced by initial info about a person than by information gathered later Negativity bias we have a strong tendency to be in uenced more heavily by negative than positive information Attribution error overemphasizing personal traits and underemphasizing situations as causes of other people39s behavior Stereotyping create cookie cutter images of sameness that discount individual differences within a group create a selective memory bias negative stereotypes can in uence our perceptions of self and produce poor performance Self ful lling prophecy acting on an erroneous expectation that produces the expected behavior and con rms the original impression 19Perspective taking see as others see perceive as they perceive Emotional understanding participate in feelings of others experiencing their joy anxiety frustration irritation and so forth Concern for others you care what happens to them Chapter 3 20 Culture a learned set of enduring values beliefs and practices that are shared by an identi able large group of people with common history 21 22 Ethnocentrism the notion that one s culture is superior by any other Cultural relativism a view that cultures are merely different not de cient Multiculturalism a social intellectual movement that promotes the value of diversity as a core principle and insists that all cultural groups be treated with respect and as equals 23 Low context communication is verbally precise direct and to the point High context communication is indirect makes you read between the lines 24 lndividualistic culture quotmequot consciousness more communication skills needed expected to work by yourself to nd and meet people Collectivist culture quotwequot consciousness avoid selfpromotion and avoid con icts with others 25 Low power distance values relatively equal power sharing and discourages attention to status differences and ranking society High power distance vertical cultures strong emphasis on maintaining power differences 26 Feminine culture affection nurturance sensitivity compassion and emotional expressiveness Masculine culture male dominance ambitious assertiveness competitiveness strive for achievement 27 28 Structure most important morphemes is constructed into phonemes syntax rules that govern combining words into phrases and phrases into sentences semantics set of rules that govern the means of words and sentences Productivity capacity of language to transform a small number of phonemes into whatever words phrases and sentences that are required to communicate Displacementability to use language to talk about objects ideas events and relations that don39t just exist in the physical here and now Self re exiveness ability to use language to talk about language 29 Process by which we formulate increasingly vague conceptions of our world by leaving out details associated with objects events and ideas sense experience the world we live in description verbal reports that sketch what we perceive from our senses inference conclusions about the unknown based on known judgement subjective evaluation of objects events or ideas 30 Linguistic determinism claims that we are the prisoners of our own language Linguistic relativity claims grammar and lexicon of our native language in uence but don39t imprison our thinking 31 Connotative personal meaning emotional baggage that is associated with words denotative shared meaning exact dictionary de nition 32 Fact something that is actually true and correct inference interpretations of varying accuracy made by individuals 33 Slang highly informal words not in standard usage that are employed by a group with common interests people who are not from that group might not understand the language jargon speci ed language of a profession trade or group Euphemism form of linguistic Novocain by which word choices numb us or camou age unpleasant or offensive realities 34 35 Repetition consistency of verbal and nonverbal communication increases the clarity and credibility of the message saying yes and nodding your head Substitution waving hello instead of saying it Regulation point to some to indicate for them to speak or a pause and looking at them Contradiction mixed messages when you say one thing but gestures are contradictory Accentuation pounding sts on the table while verbally communication intensi es the message 36 Haptics the study of touch Paralanguage vocal cues vocal characterizers yelling laughing moaning vocal quali ers volume tone pitch rhythms vocal segregates Uhhum uh mmhm Kinesics the study of both facial communication and gestures Proxemics study of in uence of distance and territoriality on human communication 37 Comprehending shared meaning between or among parties in a transaction Retaining remembering what we heard in the listening process to construct into meaning Responding providing feedback 38 lnformational attempts to comprehend the message of the speaker Critical process of evaluating the merits of claims as they are heard Empathic taking perspective of the other person to listen for what the person needs and wants 39 Conversational narcissism tendency of listeners to turn the topics of ordinary conversations to themselves Competitive interrupting dominating the conversation by seizing the oor from other who are speaking Glazing over listeners attention wonders Pseudo pretending to listen Ambushing occur when we listen for weakness and ignore strengths of a speaker s message 40 Skepticism process of listening to claims evaluating evidence and drawing conclusions based on probabilities True belief a willingness to accept claims without solid reasoning or valid evidence Cynicism nay saying fault nding and ridiculing 41 Empathic Evaluating responsemaking a judgement about a person39s conduct Advising response tells people how they should act lnterpreting response expressing what we think is the underlying meaning of a situation presented to us Nonempathic 42 Values long lasting ideals that guide our behavior Beliefs convictions or expressions of con dence that can change over time Attitudes your immediate disposition can change easily and frequently Demographics to limit age groups to avoid stereotyping be sensitive to different ethnicities and cultures to reach a particular audience successfully 43 44General purpose identi es overall goal of your speech Speci c purpose a phrase that states the central idea Central idea identi es main concept point issue or conclusion that you want the audience to understand 45 Speaker make sure the topic is interesting to you Subject make sure the topic is appropriate Occasion when speaking at a particular event topic choice must be appropriate to the occasion Audience avoid topics that are offensive trivial demeaning or encourage unethical behavior 46 Properly citing information 47 Examples statistics and testimonies of authorities 48 Credibility relevance and suf ciency 49 50 Monroe39s motivated sequence 5 step organizational pattern for persuasive speech 1 gets attention 2 identi es need 3 satisfaction 4 visualization before and after 5 action 51 Focus on audience Focus on your message Practice Visualize success Make a formal outline 52 Attention getting device Statement of purpose Signi cance statement Preview of main points 53 Establish yourself to relate to the audience you are speaking to 54 Summarize ideas Review you main points Challenge the audience Visualize the future Memorable quotation Never end abruptly 55 When speaking use less complex sentences Oral is highly interactive Oral is less formal 56 What impact do various delivery considerations have on an audience Eye contact gains and maintain the attention of the audience Vocal variety tone of voice can in uence the mood of the audience Verbal uency vocal fillers like quotummquot draw attention to pauses Poise moving too much can be distracting Dynamism uctuating in tone can hold attention of audience charisma 57 Explain the differences between the major delivery styles Manuscript reading word for word from a script Memorized memorizing a speech word for word Extemporaneous delivered from a prepared outline or notes Impromptu speech delivered without preparation 58 What distinguishes informative speaking from persuasive speaking Informative speaking the general purpose of informal speaking is to teach an audience something new or useful Persuasive speaking the general purpose of persuasive speaking is to convince listeners to change viewpoint or behavior 59 60Describe the characteristics of an appropriate or effective oral citation Author year published and what the original source was 61 What are the types of visual aids that can be used during a speech Objects models graphs maps tables photographs and drawings 62 What are the guidelines for the competent usage of visual aids keep them simple make them visible make them neat attractive and accurate don39t block audiences view keep them close to you put out of sight when not in use practice with them don39t circulate them don39t talk in the dark anticipate problems 63 Persuasion communication process of converting modifying or maintain the attention or behaviors of others 64 65 What are the primary dimensions of credibility Competence audience perception of speakers knowledge and experience on a topic Trustworthiness how truthful and honest we believe the speaker to be Dynamism enthusiasm energy and forcefulness exhibited by a speaker Composure audience is in uenced by speakers who are emotionally stable and in control of themselves Identify and discuss how the three Aristotelian modes of proof are used in persuasive speeches Ethos good sense or character of the speaker Logos building arguments based from evidence composed in sound structure Pathos emotional appeals that are used for persuasion 66 Identify and discuss how propositions of fact value and policy are used in persuasive speeches Fact alleges a truth Value calls for a judgement that accesses the worth or merit of an idea Policy signi cant policy change from the status quo


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