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final exam study notes

by: Megan Allardyce

final exam study notes SOCIO1101

Marketplace > Ohio State University > Sociology > SOCIO1101 > final exam study notes
Megan Allardyce
GPA 3.47
Intro to Sociology
Paul Carruth

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Used this to study for my final exam. It includes all the terms from the chapters included on the final exam. Great study guide!
Intro to Sociology
Paul Carruth
Study Guide
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Allardyce on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOCIO1101 at Ohio State University taught by Paul Carruth in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 194 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 12/10/15
3 What are you future aspirations and how will Phi U help you achieve them Having future aspirations or goals is important By having future goals you can achieve them and be a big success to an organization The National Honors Society Phi Upsilon Omicron at the Ohio State University is an organization that can help you achieve goals It is important to me to be successful in my future One of my future goals is to nish with a Bachelors degree in Human Nutrition from The Ohio State University Phi Upsilon Omicron will help me achieve this goal by making me work harder in my studies It is very important to succeed in your academics After I complete the Human Nutrition program at Ohio State my goal is to try my best to get an internship in Dietetics either in the United States or International I would love to more experience in the eld of Dietetics Phi U could help me with this goal by connecting with other EHE students and getting information from them about the eld of Dietetics This may lead to places that offer internships If I get offered an internship in the future I will know Phi U was a big part in achieving this goal Another future aspiration is passing the RD exam so I can become a registered dietitian This goal is extremely important to me because I want this to be my career Being a member of Phi U is a wonderful way to lead to achieving this goal because you connect with other students who may have taken the RD exam and can learn from them how to pass and study for the exam which can lead to my career goal of becoming a Registered Dietitian Chapter 11 Families and Society Family Two or more individuals who identify themselves as being related to one another usually by blood marriage or adoption and who share intimate relationships and dependency Marriage A culturally approved relationship usually between two individuals that provides a degree of economic cooperation emotional intimacy and sexual activity Monogamy A form of marriage in which a person may have only one spouse at a time Polygamy A form of marriage in which a person may have more than one spouse at a time Polygyny A form of marriage in which a man may have multiple wives Polyandry A form of marriage in which women may have multiple husbands Serial monogamy The practice of having more than one wife or husband but only one at a time Endogamous A characteristic of marriages in which partners are limited to members of the same social group or caste Antimiscegenation Laws Laws prohibiting interracial sexual relations and marriage Extended families Social groups consisting of one or more parents children and other kin often spanning several generations living in the same household Nuclear families Social groups consisting of one or two parents and their biological dependent children living in a household with no other kin Parsons suggested that the nuclear family of his time functioned to support adult family members emotionally a phenomenon her called personality stabilization This stabilization was of particular value This is part of the functionalist theory perspective Sexual division of labor in modern societies The PHENOMENON OF DIVIDING PRODUCTION FUNCTIONS BY GENDER AND DESIGNATING different spheres of activity the private to women and the public to men Cohabitation Living together as a couple without being legally married Commonlaw marriage A type of relationship in which partners live as if married but without marriages formal legal framework Gay Marriageand Divorce Civil Unions Legal Unions that fall short of marriage but provide some statelevel legal rights and bene ts Domestic partnerships Legal Unions that provide a circumscribed spectrum of rights and bene ts to samesex couples Domestic or family violence Physical or sexual abuse committed by one family member against another International families Families that result from globalization Chapter 13 Religion and Society Establishment Clause The passage in the First Amendment to the US constitution THAT STATES quot Congress SHALL MAKE NO LAW RESPECTING AN ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIGION OR PROHIBITING THE FREE EXERCISE THEREOFquot Religion A system of common beliefs and rituals centered on sacred things that unites believers and provides a sense of meaning and purpose Theism A beliefs in one or more supernatural deities Anthropology The study of human cultures and societies and their development Profane A sphere of routine everyday life Sacred That which is set apart from the ordinary the sphere endowed with spiritual meaning Totems Within the sacred sphere ordinary objects believed to have acquired transcendent or magical qualities connecting humans with the divine Secularization The rise in worldly thinking particularly as seen in the rise of science technology and rational though and a simultaneous decline in the in uence of religion Religious Economy An approach to the sociology of religion that suggest that religions can be fruitfully understood as organizations in competition with one another for followers Church A wellestablished religious organization that exists in a fairly harmonious relationship with the larger society Ecclesia A church that is formerly allied with the state and is the official religion of the society Denomination A church that is not formally allied with the state Sect A religious organization that has splintered off from an established church in an effort to restore perceived true beliefs and practices believed to have been lost by the established religious organization Cult A religious organization that is thoroughly unconventional with regard to the larger society New religious movements New spiritual groups or communities that occupy a peripheral place in a country s dominant religious landscape Monotheism Belief in a single allknowing allpowerful God Zionism A movement calling for the return ofJews to Palestine and the creation of a Jewish state Polytheism The belief that there are different gods representing various categories of natural forces Nontheistic religion Belief in the existence of divine spiritual forces rather than a god or gods Animism The belief that naturally occurring phenomena such as mountains and animals are possessed of indwelling spirits with supernatural powers Evangelicalism A belief in spiritual rebirth conventionally denoted as being quotborn againquot Disestablishment A period during which the political in uence of established religions is successfully challenged Civil religion A set of sacred beliefs and practices that become part of how a society sees itself Religious Nationalism The linkage of religious convictions with beliefs about a nation s or ethnic group s social and political destiny Chapter 12 Education and Society Education The transmission of society s norms values and knowledge base by means of direct instruction Formal Education Education that occurs within academic institutions such as schools Mass Education The extensions of formal schooling to wide segments of the population Literacy The ability to read and write at a basic level Public Education A universal education systems provided by the government and funded by tax revenues rather than student fees Credential society A society in which access to desirable work and social status depends on the possession of a certi cate or diploma certifying the completion of formal education Theoretical Perspectives on Education Functionalist Perspective Con ict Perspective Symbolic Interactionist Perspective School segregation The education of racial minorities in schools that are geographically economically and or socially separated from those attended by whites De facto segregation School segregation based on residential patterns of student choice which persists even though ega segregation is now outlawed in the United States Chapter 14 The State War and Terror Nationstate A single people a quotnationquot governed by a political authority a state similar to the modern notion of country Law A systems of binding and recognized codi ed rules of behaviors that regulate the actions of people pertaining to a given jurisdiction Citizens Legally recognized inhabitant of a country who bear the rights and responsibilities of citizenship as de ned by the state Noncitizens Individuals who reside in a given jurisdiction but do not possess the same rights and privileges as the citizens who are recognized inhabitant sometimes referred to as residents temporary workers or aliens Welfare State A government or country s system of providing for the nancial and social wellbeing of its citizens typically through government programs that provide funding or other resources to individuals who meet certain criteria THEORIES OF STATE POWER The Functionalist Perspective and Pluralist Theory Interest groups Advocacy of lobby groups that utilize their organizational and social resources to in uence legislation and the functioning of social institutions The Con ict Perspective and Class Dominance Theory The theory that a small and concentrated group of elite or upperclass people dominate and in uence societal institutions compatible with con ict theory Power Elite A group of people with disproportionately high level of in uence and resources who utilize their status to in uence the functioning of societal institutions POWER AND AUTHORITY Coercion The threat or use of physical force to ensure compliance Traditional Authority Power based on belief in the sanctity of long standing traditions and the legitimate right of rulers to exercise authority in accordance with those traditions RationalLegal Authority Power based on a belief in the lawfulness of enacted rules laws and the legitimate right of leaders to exercise authority under such rules Charismatic Authority Powerbased on devotion inspired in followers by the personal qualities of a leader FORMS OF GOVERNANCE IN THE MODERN WORLD Authoritarianism A form of governance in which ordinary members of society are denied the right to participate in government and political power is exercise by and for the bene t of a small political elite Monarchy A form of governance in which power resides in an individual or a family is passed from one generation to the next through hereditary lines Dictatorship A from of governance in which power rests in a single individual Totalitarianism A from of governance that denies popular political participation in government and also seeks to regulate and control all aspects of the public and private lives of citizens Democracy A form of government in which citizens are able to participate directly or indirectly in their own governance Direct democracy A political system in which all citizens fully participate in their own governance Representative democracy A political system in which citizens elect representatives to govern them THE US POLITICAL SYSTEM Politics The art or science of in uencing public policy POWER AND POLITICS Political action committees Organizations created by groups such as corporations unions environmentalists and other interest groups for the purpose of gathering money and contributing to political candidates who favor the groups interests Lobbyists Paid professionals whose job it is to in uence legislation WAR STATE AND SOCIETY War Economy The phenomenon of war boosting economic productivity and employment particularly in capitaland laborintensive sectors such as industrial productions Functionalist Perspective on War Con ict Perspective on War Terrorism quotThe calculated use of violence or the threat of violence to inculcate fear intended to coerce or to intimidate government or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political religious or ideologicalquot Chapter 5 Groups Organizations and Bureaucracies Dyad A group consisting of two persons Triad A group consisting of three persons Alliance or coalition A subgroup that forms between group members enabling them to dominant the group in their own interest Social closure The ability of a group to strategically and consciously exclude outsiders or those deemed undesirable from participating in the group or enjoying the group s resources Types of Group Leadership Transformational leader A leader who is able to instill in the members of a group a sense of mission or higher purpose thereby changing the nature of the group itself Transactional leader A leader who is concerned with accomplishing the group s tasks getting group members to do their jobs and making certain that the group achieves its goals Legitimate authority A type of power that is recognized rightful by those over whom it is exercised Positional power Power that stems officially from the leadership position itself Personal power Power that derives from a leader s personality Groupthink A process by which the members of a group ignore ways of thinking and plans of action that goes against the group consensus ECONOMIC CULTURAL AND SOCIAL CAPITAL Structuralism The idea that an overarching structure exists within which culture and other aspects of society must be understood Economic capital Money and material that can be used to access valued goods and services Social Capital The social knowledge and connections that enable people to accomplish their goals and extend their in uence ORGANIZATIONS Organization A group with an identi able membership that engages in concerted collective actions to achieve a common purpose Formal organization An organization that is rationally designed to achieve its objectives often by means of explicit rules regulations and procedures Utilitarian organizations Organizations that people join primarily because of some material bene t they expect to receive in return for membership Coercive organizations Organization in which people are forced to give unquestioned obedience to authority Normative Organizations Organizations that people join of their own will to pursue morally worthwhile goals without expectation of material reward sometimes called voluntary associations Bureaucracies Bureaucracy A type of formal organizations based on written procedural rules arranged into a clear hierarchy of authority and staffed by fulltime paid officials lron law of Oligarchy Robert Michael s theory that there is an inevitable tendency for a largescale bureaucratic organization to become ruled undemocratically by a handful of people International government organization An international organization established by treaties between governments for purposed of commerce security promotion of social welfare and human rights or environmental protection International nongovernmental organization An international organization established by agreements between the individuals or private organizations making up its membership and existing to ful ll an explicit mission Chapter 15 Work Consumption and the Economy Economy The social institution that organizes the ways in which a society produces distributes and consumes goods and services Goods Objects that have an economic value to others whether they are the basic necessities for survival or things that people simply want Services Economically productive activities that do not result directly in physical products may be relatively simple or quite complex Mass production The largescale highly standardized manufacturing of identical commodities on a mechanical assembly line Reserve army of labor A pool of job seekers whose numbers outpace the available positions and thus contribute to keeping wages low and conditions of work tenuous Scienti c management A practice that sought to use principles of engineering to reduce the physical movements of workers Automation The replacement of human labor by machines in the production process Unemployed Persons who are jobless actively looked for work in the prior 4 weeks and are available for work Not in the labor force Persons who are neither of cially employed not of cially unemployed Marginally attached to the labor force Persons who would like to work and have searched actively for a job in the past 12 months Emotional Labor The management of feeling or emotions to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display in return for a wage TYPES OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS Capitalism An economic order characterized by the market allocation of goods and services production for private pro t and private ownership of the means of producing wealth Public Sector The sector of the labor market in which jobs are liked to the government whether national state or local and encompass production or allocation of goods and services for the bene ts of the government and its citizens Private Sector The sector of the labor market that provides goods and services to the economy and consumers with the primary motive of gaining pro t Communism A type of economic system without private ownership of the means of production and theoretically without economic classes or economic inequality Socialism A type of economic system in which theoretically The government manages the economy in the interests of the workers it owns businesses factories farms hospitals housing and other means of producing wealth and redistributes that wealth to the population through wages and services Working ON AND OFF THE BOOKS Work Any human effort that adds something of value to the goods and services that is available to others Barter economy An economy based on the exchange of goods and services rather than money Formal Economy All workrelated activities that provide income and are regulated by government agencies Informal or underground economy Those incomegenerating economic activities that escape regulation by the governmental institutions that ordinarily regulate similar activities Means of consumption Things that make it possible for consumers to acquire goods and services and at the same time foster their control and exploitation as consumers Chapter 16 Health and Medicine Health The extent to which a person experiences a state of mental physical and social wellbeing Medicine an institutionalized system for the scienti c diagnosis treatments and prevention of illness Preventive medicine Medicine that emphasizes a healthy lifestyle that will prevent poor health before it occurs Sick roles Social roles rooted in cultural de nitions of the appropriate behavior of and response to people labeled as sick Health care All those activities intended to sustain promote and enhance health Public health The science and practice of health protection and maintenance at a community level Morbidity the rate of illness in a particular population Mortality The rate of death I a particular population Chapter 18 Social Movements and Social Change SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES ON SOCIAL CHANGE The Functionalist Perspective Differentiation The development of increasing societal complexity through the creation of specialized social roles and institutions Riseandfall theories of social change Theories that see social change as characterized by a cycle of growth and decline SOURCES OF SOCIAL CHANGE Collective behavior Voluntary goalorientated action that occurs in relatively disorganized situations in which society s predominant social norms and values cease to govern individual behavior Crowds Temporary gatherings of closely interacting people with a common focus Contagion Theories Emergent Norm Theories Emergent norms Norms that are situation ally created to support a collective action ValueAdded Theory HOW DO CROWDS ACT Riot An illegal prolonged outbreak of violent behavior by a sizable group of people directed against people or property Fads Temporary highly imitated outbreaks of mildly unconventional behavior Fashions Styles of imitative behavior or appearance that are of longer duration than fads Panic A massive ight from something that is feared Craze An intense attraction to an object a person or an activity Rumors Unveri ed forms of information that are transmitted informally usually originating in unknown sources SOCIAL MOVEMENTS Social Movement A large number of people who come together in a continuing and organized effort to bring about or resist social change and who rely at least partially on noninstitutionalized forms of political acUon Reformist social movements Movements seeking to bring about social change within the existing economic and political system Revolutionary social movements Movements seeking to fundamentally alter the existing social political and economic system in keeping with a vision of a new social order Rebellions Movements seeking to overthrow the existing social political and economic systems but lacking detailed plans for a new social order Reactionary Social Movements Movements seeking to restore an earlier social system often based on a mythical past along with the traditional norms and values that once presumably accompanied it Utopian social movements Movements seeking to withdraw from the dominant society by creating their own ideal communities Free rider problem The problem that many people avoid the costs of social movement activism such as time energy and other personal resources and still bene ts from its success Social movement organizations Formal organizations that seek to achieve social change through noninstitutionalized forms of political acUon Resource Mobilization theory A theory about social movement organizations that focuses on their ability to generate money membership and political support in order to achieve their objectives Grassroots organizing Attempts to mobilize support among the ordinary members of a community Conscience constituents People who provide resources for a social movement organization but who are not themselves members of the aggrieved group that the organization champions Frame alignment The process by which the interests understanding and values of a social movement organization are rendered congruent with those of the wider society New Social Movements Movements that have arisen since the 19605 and are fundamentally concerned with the quality of private life often advocating largescale cultural changes in how people think and act


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