ANT 215 Quiz 4
ANT 215 Quiz 4 ANT 215
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brandon Czowski on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 215 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jeff Chivis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Origins of Civilization in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 04/02/16
South Asia Harappan Civilization Periods: • Neolithic (7000 – 3000 BC) • Bronze Age o Early Harappan (3300-2600 BC) o Mature Harappan (2550-2600 BC) o Late Harappan (1900-1000 BC) Neolithic • 7000 BC: domesticated wheat, sheep, pigs, goats, Zebu cattle, pigs, cotton • 5000 BC: Specialists in crude pottery, copper tools, imports • Utilized metallurgy: copper was first to be extracted from malachite • Uses bronze (mix of copper and tin) as stronger metal Early Harappan • Move from farming to more urban life, increasing specialization • Kot Dijian pottery • Increased non-perishable and exotic trade networks to pay for monumental structures • 3000 BC: Indus script as form of writing that was read right to left but untranslated • Harappan seals with 350-425 known symbols to mark trade of goods, usually 5-6 per seal, cylinder seals made of steatite Mature Harappan • Large, defined urban cities with well thought out plans (Dholavira) o Each was a city-state with independent control of their territory and population—lack of unification • Utilized river for trade • Population growth increased (800 sites) • Mohenjo-Daro: largest of this city (40-80k people) o Construction of streets running north and south o Public sewer/drainage o Multiple house structures with courtyards o Citadel: several buildings on top with water piped into, lower elevation for houses and craft specialists § Could have ritual meaning/purpose (great bath) § Great bath: region of upper town with well to get water for ritual bathing • Role: practiced by Hindu religion also, water purified souls and cleanliness, provided good karma o Specialized in pottery o Plumbing: increased sanitation to draw water out (key for large populations) o Most buildings were residential (75%) and workshops for craft specialists § Outside citadel lacks large works o Seals used for trade between Mesopotamia and other societies o City of Lothal as trading center o Grid structure o Little social differentiation in burials • Weights and measures were standardized, use flint/chert is evidence of merchant culture • Priest king could be evidence of caste system although lacking tombs but some art suggests possible • WE DON’T KNOW: o Religion: Hindu gods could have originated at Harappan times o Language: lacking scripts, multiple languages o Political system: priest king sculpture suggests leadership class Late Harappan • Gradual decline starting at 1800 BC, 1700 BC most cities abandoned o Possible invading Aryans from Asia (less likely in present times) o River Valley changed course, irrigation of water was very important (Dholavira) Mesoamerica Overview: much more focused on cultural diversity rather than geographical, was home to many diverse cultures and ethnic groups, seized by Spanish invaders • Geography: complex and variable o Lowlands: below 1000m above sea level o Alitplano—highlands: 1000-2000m above sea level o Much of Northern is volcanic, south (Yucatan) of limestone flats o Limited water sources out of Mayan region • Climate: variable o Arid highlands, humid low lands (tropical or sub-tropical) o Temperate/moderate yearly rainfall • Chronology o Archaic 8000-2000 BC o Formative/preclassic 2000 BC – 100 AD o Classic 100-700 AD § Mayan until 1000 AD o Epiclassic 700-1100 AD o Postclassic 1100-1542 AD Archaic 8000-2000 BC • Mobile hunter-gatherers • Domesticates: squash, chili, maize • Bands would cultivate crops and leave to return in harvest season • Tehuacan Valley o 4300 BC: maize domesticated, happening quickly and viewed as godly to states o 2000 BC: earliest evidence of sedentism (domesticates first) o Domsticates first because small kernels would not support sedentary lifestyle so needed to wait for it to evolve o Food trinity: beans, maize, squash al supported/enhanced each other Pre-Classic/Formative 2000 BC – 100 AD • Start of sedentism and intense cultivation; more cultural complexity with larger populations with specialization • Olmec culture emerges, served as basis of many other cultrures in Mesoamerica • Early Zapotex state in Oaxaca • Olmec heartland: gulf coast region with many chiefdoms along river o San Lorenza peaked from 1150-900 BC with 20 Lagunas o La Venta peaked 900-400 BC § Origins of Mesoamerican structures, clay pyramids with earthen works § Caches stored ritual objects § Elite residence and ritual activity; few resident’s occupation, outside center § Lagunas: man-made depressions with waterproof bricks, possibly for bathing rituals o Settlements based around ceremonial center o Olmec heads: made of salt blocks that were imported § Depicts gods, kings, and warriors § Brocken/buried suggests ceremonial loss of power when king died o Calendar system: overlapped in 52 year cycles § Solar (haab): years with 360 days, 18 months of 20 days § Lunar (ritual): 260 days based on astronomical sights of moon/ Venus o Mayan Long Count: they set their own start date to set base of all dates (accuracte) o Numbering system: intervals of 20 (vigesimal) instead of 10, bars (5) and dots (1), created null to represent zero o Oaxaca: known for complexity § Trade between settlement and gulf coast (magnetite mirrors, marine goods, obsidian) o San jose Magote: 1400 BC § Trade/ritual center § Lack of government control § 700 BC: rose to dominate entire valley (improved public archetiecture and trade goods) § Violence depicted in art o Monte Alban: on top large hill top—distanced from agriculture § 2 largest site in valley of Oaxaca § 500-200BC: dominate power § Location provided protection from violence § 200BC: capital of Zapotec culture § Danzantes: 300 carvings/figures showing victims of human sacrifice, thought were dancers, wartime and military propaganda Classic Period 100 – 700 AD Known for large trade networks and increased social complexity • Major Regions o Central Mexico—Teotihuacan § Basin of Mexico had lakes fed by natural springs (mexico city) § Temperate climate and central plateau § Teotihuacan • Est. 2 century BC • Main city center, first urban civilization • 80k people • Controlled trade routes (obsidian) • Influenced area w/o conquering or control • Everday life unknown, no writing • Ceremonial core with small settlements surrounding o Pyramid of Moon to North o Pryramid of Sun in center § Over artificial cave § Same size of Khufu o Ciudedela (citadel): pyramid of feathers serpant—human sacrifice o Great compound: marketplace o Plain architecture, plastered/painted • Origin: pop. Increase 100 AD from surrounding areas migrating towards (volcanic eruptions could be to blame) o 300 AD: rebuilt with grid structure w/N/S axis o Building was controlled by state o Standard apartment compounds for approx. 100 people o Political system unknown, assumed collective leadership § No evidence for kingship o City split into districts (barrio for foreigners or ceremonial centers) • Trade networks based on control of Pachuca obsidian (uniquely gold/green color)—traded as far as Arizona o Mayan § Debated as state of chiefdom society—many small cities controlled by powerful leaders § Height of Maya civilization § Trade w/Teotihuacan was large political aspect to them § Classical Maya collapse: population moved towards hostile areas with warfare, putting pressure on regions leading to supply issues—lack of rain fall compounded all issues § Politics: • Ruled by king (Ajaw) • Inter-related chiefdoms • Power based on control of land and trade networks • Stelae: large limestone megaliths with images of rulers & kings o Provided commemoration/propaganda—highly visible although unreadable § Sites: • Copan, Caracol, Quiigua • Tikal: one of largest, 10-90k people o Famous for acropolis (steep combed tombs) o Residential buildings surrounding center (mounds) o Specialization and ruler priest controlled portion of site o “great plaza” as city center o Water provided via moats/reservoirs o Religion: believed in 3 layers of world § Underworld: gods of death and disease (Xibalba) § Human world § Upper world § Maize was central figure o Collapse: 900-1000 AD as population moved to Yucatan; many small factors § Drought, warfare, population pressure, malnutrition/disease Post Classic Maya 900 – 1100 AD • Population moves to Yucatan and lowland areas • Tried to recreate architecture styles • Itza Maya rule (capital of Chichen Itza) • Changes that occurred: o Dealing with collapse of classic period resulting in series of small states that rose and fell with power o Established new powerful states § Mexica—Aztec Empire of central Mexico • Capital of Tenochititlan: largest and most powerful in Mesoamerica, population 150-200k people when Spanish arrived § Tarascans—Michoacan in West Mexica § Mixtec—Monte Alban in Oaxaca o Consolidated power and expanded state South America—Andes Civilization Geography • Andes Mountains: longest in world, highest peak 6100m • Pacific Coastal desert plain to west—Atacama Desert (driest in world) • Amazon basin to east Climate • Variable on elevation/location o Hot/wet in Amazon basin o Cold/dry in mountains Maritime focus: resources like fish and sea mammals confirmed by Moche pottery—designs as evidence 3000 BC: Agriculture then sedentary life Chinchorro Culture: • Known for mummification, oldest to date, lived in Atacama Desert • Relied on hunting/gathering • 5000 BC: mummification started, 3000 BC: peak of use • Not only elites mummified; children and babies most elaborate El Paraiso Site: • 2500 BC: one of earliest settled, monumental construction and dense poplation • 9 architecture complexes with sacred and secular purpose • Focus on religion, little occupation • Marine resources important • Stone-lined courts in front of mounds Early Horizon Period 800 BC – 1 AD • Chavin culture spread religions ideology from pottery inscriptions • Chavin de Huantar o Steep geography o Trade outside this region o Herding camelids and farmed potatoes at high altitudes § Traded for chili peppers, salt, dried fish o Constructional phases § Old: initial period with “old temple” with two wings and open court § New: early horizon period with major construction around ceremonial center o Art: human-animal hybrids deities; images of tropical animals § Jaguar iconology: powerful figure o Andean metallurgy: art style applied to advanced metal working § Gold smithing § Soldering § Smelting Early Intermediate Period 1 AD – 600 • Considered “classic” from cultural changes that take place • Moche and Nazca cultures • Extensive irrigation as basis for Inca Empire Moche Culture: • Inland from coast • Complex irrigation and canal system to support 50k people • Stratification in burials, wealth, and pottery; few with animal figure-heads • Hunted, fished, agriculture: men hunt/fish and women wove cloth/textiles • Evidence of violence and more frequent human sacrifice o Defenses around settlements • Differences in wealth (class system) • Art was key, potters viewed as craftsmen displaying daily life (fishing, weaving, sacrifice, some sexual depictions) • Sites: o Huaca del Sol: § Pillaged by Spanish § Domestic, administrative, military center § Largest solid adobe strucutres o Huaca de la Luna: § Better kept, swept § Some burials, ritual/ceremonial purpose o Sipan: § Royal Moche tombs (richest in w. hemisphere) § Different in wealth classes § Clothing/pottery showed human sacrifice, amputated limbs found in tombs (from those sacrificed) Nazca Culture: • Located in Nazca Valley with complex irrigation • No large urban centers, mainly villages/towns • Overlapped with Moche culture • Evidence of warfare amongst themselves “head hunters” • Nazca lines in Nazca desert—moved white pebbles, some simple lines others resembled animals, purpose unknown (territorial marker, directions to water sources, designs for gods—extraterrestrials made patterns) • Trepanation—early brain surgery; use of coca—chewed as stimulant Middle Horizon Period (AD 600 – 1000) Different competing states—Wari and Tiwanaku Tiwanaku: southern of Lake Titicaca, first and largest settlement based on farming potatoes, used flooded, raised fields, herding of llamas • Reached peak around 600/800 AD • Expanded their state, founded colonies, large trade routes (influencing Inca lifestyle) • Human sacrifice rituals on buildings (Akipana), ritual buildings very important • Sun iconography, ancestor worship—maintain their lifestyle, thought ancestors were still around to affect daily life • Temple mounds built by ruled labor, early Chavin culture (one staff located in their city); llama caravans were trade force—expansion from economic trade Wari: short lived, controlled by military use, adopted Tiwanaku pantheon, built road network (used by Inca), used terracing for agriculture Late Intermediate Period (1000 – 1476 AD) • Fall of Wari/Tiwanaku and 7 states competeing for power, losing regional control • Moche-Chimu rise to power • North Peru Urbanized Chimu culture: developed from earlier Moche culture, arose from site of Chimu around 900 AD that falls from Inca expansion; 4 tiered hierarchial system where elites controlled population from cities and administrative centers Chan Chan (capital of Chimu): dominated by ciudadelas “little cities” 10 discovered, each represented a new king that would construct his compound; each king had craft specialists, rest of population lived outside compounds; 25k people Late Horizon (1476-1532 AD) Inca Empire • Founded in mid 1400; smash city of Chan-Chan in 1460 • Ancestry traced to Tiwanaku culture • First expansion under king Pachakuti around 1438 • Split inheritance: new king gained power and rights and wealth went to sons of old king • Quechua language Machu Picchu: • built for king Pachakuti around 1450—80 km from Cuzco • Design and engineering complex with water way • Temple significance for rituals and waterways within state Expansion: new kings needed to conquer new lands and gain wealth: • Mit’a (labor tax): viewed human labor as valuable resource, able-bodied men were soldiers/builders and women weaved for the state • Dividing agricultural products (1/3 to temples/gods, state, and local center) • Mitmaq—how they colonized/spread, breaking/relocating groups against Inca empire to minimize rebellion; Food: potatoes as main resources freeze-dried and stored, able to be sent to locations lacking Cuzco (capital of Inca): highest leader known as “Inca” • atypical—mostly administrative function, commoners in smaller cities • Spanish destroyed cite, removed gold; many roads filter into this settlement for drop off of goods and redistribution Large road system of paved roads—key factors for empire/military expansion to conquer (from Wari/Tiwanaku development) Chasqui: relay runners stationed along roads to pass messages, able to go 160 miles in one day Quipu “knot”: knotted cord system, recorded numbers by tying at intervals; color, placement was used as binary code to carry messages *non-traditional writing form Huascar Inca ruled empire from 1527-1532 AD, engaged in war with half brother (Atahualpa) as Huascar claimed land of previous kings Atahualpa Ina: Last Sapa Inca of empire • Defeated Huascar in 1532, ruled til 1533 • Met Spanish forces at Cajamarca where Pizarro ambushed and captured Atahualpa • Pizarro ordered room of riches to exchange for Inca Empire, lied • Atahualpa killed after mock trial via strangulation Fall: Huascar was in civil war with half-brother; occurred when Spanish were coming into region and after this fight the weakened system allowed Spanish to gain control
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