Corrected Final Study Guide with definitions
Corrected Final Study Guide with definitions Com 201 A
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Com 201 Final Study Guide Key Terms and Concepts God speech (lecture conversation with David Domke)- When politicians use overtly religious language such as praying, or using the term "God bless America", using the word god in their speeches. Faith talk (lecture conversation with David Domke) - when politicians use religious language that is subtle but still affiliated with religion while not directly quoting the bible or talking about god or praying Rhetoric (Ke.th and Lundberg)- Rhetoric is the linguistic style of writing or speech that is persuasive- The study of how and why discourses are persuasive. Types of rhetoric include: Aristotle's three basic points 1 Rhetoric can be treated as a coherent area of inquiry- not simply a tool for slick speech but it has logic and purpose- what would be persuasive in certain contexts 2 Rhetoric and logic are necessary counterparts- rhetoric and logic are complementary- logic requires persuasion and persuasion requires logic 3 The form and function of speeches are shaped by the possible speech goals- the logic and coherence of speeches are determined by their goals. Aristotle also classified three kinds of purposes of speech. 1) forensic- trial 2) epideictic- funeral and 3) deliberative- senate. Rhetoric has two characteristics to make it distinct from communication 1 Rhetoric is contingent- the outcome of a rhetorical act depends on audience reaction 2 Rhetoric is strategic- the speaker must figure out how to deliver the message in a way that creates a positive audience reaction Discourse (Keith and Lundberg) - Any speech or exchange of symbols or meanings in any context Persuasion (Keith and Lundberg)- Using organizational patterns, styles of speech, logos, ethos, and/or pathos, while using evidence and arguments to support a claim and move the audience toward your argument. Burke and identification Identification: the fundamental element of persuasion- perceived sympathy, empathy, or analogy between speaker and audience Public speaking is worthwhile because Despite diversity in communication a similar logic governs them all- once you find good public speaking techniques, you can apply them elsewhere It’s a part of everyday life- workplace demands Traditionally focuses on civic context which matters more and more Techne (Keith and Lundberg) - Technique of speech Parts of speech Exordium (commencement)- introduction- purpose to prepare the audience Narratio (story)- background information to a debate, policy or issue- sets the stage for arguments to come Paritio (partition or division of points)- previews the speech's arguments and builds on narratio Confirmatio (confirmation or arguments) arguments that support the thesis and best evidence Refutatio (refutation)- argue against certain things- counter argument Peroratio (conclusion)- summing up and making a final plea or call to action Style Figures: creative arrangements of words in phrases or sentences that catch the audience's attention and focus it on key ideas Antithesis: "putting opposites together" a sentence with two parts where there is a contrast between the first part and the second part Pain double antithesis: the contrast can be between individual words or between phrases Double reverse antithesis or chiasmus: the opposition is in the reversed order of key words which creates the opposite meaning Repetition of words and phrases Anaphora: Greek for repetition and common for the repeated beginnings of successive words or phrases Antistrophe: repeats ending of successive phrases Interlacement: combines anaphora and antistrophe by repeating words at both the beginning and the ending of sentences Anadiplosis: the doubling or repetition of a word in the last clause of one sentence and in the first clause of the next- connects thoughts and emphasizes a particular concept Repetition of sounds Alliteration: the repetition of the initial sounds of words Rhyme: the repetition of the final sounds of words Assonance: the repetition of the middle sounds of words Repetition makes a speaker's main idea memorable and adds emotional force Klimax: greek word meaning ladder- like progression- repeated elements create a sense of movement The best strategy for progression is to leave the most important item till the end Asyndeton: omitting conjunctions or other connections speeding a sentence up and placing emphasis on clauses or verbs Rhetorical question: invites the audience to fill an obvious answer or provokes thought Tricolon: grouping of three clauses as a series of individual examples or related ideas Trope: a substitution of a word or phrase by a less literal word or phrase Synecdoche: the substitution of a part of something for its whole or visa versa Metaphor: carries another meaning other than the literal one- import qualities of one word or idea to elaborate on the qualities of another Simile- associates one things and another with "Like" or "as" Catachresis: harsh or abusive metaphor- strained from the truth Tropes can help us understand texts, social investments, and ways of thinking about identity They demonstrate that language is persuasive because they can bend and accommodate to make new, creative, and inventive meanings logos- ethos- pathos (Keith and Lundberg) Ethos: credibility or believability Speakers can create Ethos by Action- call explicitly on the history of their actions Deeds- point out deed that exemplify their character Understanding- show they understand by adapting to them, identifying similarities in their experiences and beliefs Expertise- claim an expertise of some kind by citing education or research Pathos: emotional state of the audience as produced by the speaker Logos: speech of logic- move audience one way or another by logical steps Sophists (Keith and Lundberg) - Greek Philosophers/teachers who walked around the forums and taught people how to use rhetoric to argue and persuade in public speaking Sender-receiver (Keith and Lundberg) Four element processes all communication follows: 1 There is a message or content that someone seeks to convey 2 Someone is sending the message- sender could be speaker, an institution, a cable broadcaster 3 Someone is receiving the message- audience 4 There is a medium- the means of transporting the message- radio wave, film, book, e-mail, television Adaptation (Keith and Lundberg) - Tailoring your argument to the audience Adapting to audiences and publics Audiences that can be present in a rhetorical situation vary in size, classification, and membership- they may be homogeneous (similar ideas and interests) or they may be diverse Adaptation: speakers try to connect their audiences or public to what they are saying by choosing arguments that relate to audience member's knowledge and experience Factors that influence the makeup and dispositions of an audience Situation- what motivates the audience to listen- what outcomes do they expect Context- what is the broader context of the situation driving the speech Demographics- what are the audience characteristics - age, gender, race, religion, political, and economic Ideology- beliefs, world views, and emotional investments Homogeneity/ heterogeneity- how similar or dissimilar are the members Occasion- what expectations are there for the speech Need- what reason for speaking is the speaker adapting to Genre- what is the type of speech- forensic, epideictic, or deliberative How to adapt If an audience has mixed viewpoints, there are two ways to adapt The speaker can find a common element among the differences and appeal to all members- the disadvantage to this strategy is that the common element will be abstract and hard to provide well adapted arguments The speaker can acknowledge each audience segment that fir each group- the disadvantage is that each group will hear appeals to others making the speaker seem manipulative if all appeals are not consistent A misconception about adaptation is that it involves pandering- telling the audience what it wants to hear Code-switching (Demby) - the mixing of languages and speech patterns in conversation a way to adapt to a certain audience and create familiarity and/or empathy Polysemy (Keith and Lundberg) - When a word or phrase has multiple meanings Amphiboly (Keith and Lundberg) - When a word or phrase has ambiguous meanings Virtual Reality and Empathy (lecture) Google cardboard goggles NY Times articles using the app in story telling trying to create empathy Media are now using new technology and tools to try to create higher empathy among readers Affect: linked to feeling that creates action- empathy leading to readers taking action to change something Distant suffering: how people use media to feel the suffering of others far away Role of social media during Arab Spring event (lecture/PhiI Howard conversation) The internet was privatized in 1995- since then, more and more young women have been using the internet to learn about marriages and love in other countries and gender politics. This is beneficial because People are now able to talk about politics and seek advice from other leaders other than the spiritual leaders they were told to by the community People can share Facebook videos and photos that show injustice and get people to meet up for protests But dictators learned how to make fake organizations to get people to meet somewhere and then arrest these people Democracy and social media (lecture/Phil Howard conversation) Politicians now use technology to manipulate people and work to their own agendas Consultants for political candidates go to other countries in the off-time of elections and campaigns to apply their tricks there and also learn new ways of manipulation- some would help authoritarian regimes control its citizens but others would help democratic movements. Some even educate young people to become more tech-savy and help them hack and challenge the authoritarian regime and create democratic organizations Political manipulation is still relevant in our everyday lives- there are automated scripts that manipulate candidates follower lists and make them appear more poplar- these automations retweet content and favorite content- politicians were caught using it to collaborate and share poll information Many authoritarian regimes manipulate citizens during big events by providing multiple stories to one even- blurring the truth and causing confusion Political bots (lecture/PhiI Howard conversation) The Christian coalition and the NRA are highly normative in their agendas and they relax their privacy- they data mine and follow people with technology similar to cookies clicktivism (Bennett) - with a proliferation of online participation in a cause and in particular, on more personal social media sites, it’s easy to click like or support button to help the cause. This could be as simple as like or leaving a comment to donating money online but this may not have the same kind of impact for change than meeting up in reality to protest. "Clicktivism" unlikely to have the same impact as older models of collective action Hacktivism (Bennett) - Hacking groups attack other organizational groups for a certain activism cause. EX: anonymous attacking Isis They are technologically capable proficient individuals who use tools of technology for activities and interventions in social justice Networked society (lecture) We live in an age of networks and we have access to more people and more direct ways to speak with these people This opens up a new way of thinking EX: Facebook thinking about how many friends we have Connective action (Bennett) "Most conventional collective action relies on centralized coordination, community organizing and broadcast media campaigning. Connective action operates on a different political economy. It is based on voluntary self- expression, which is shared and recognized in the process of forming large social networks." Connective action- more formally congregated online to form congregations offline and coordinate physically coming together Active audience (textbook) - appeals to our belief in intelligence and autonomy of individuals- it is a critique of cynicism about the power of media and faith in the power of people. Four ways individuals are seen as active: 1 Individual interpretation of media products 2 Collective interpretation of media products 3 Collective political action 4 Producing their own audience-centered media Interpretation (textbook) meaning of media messages are not fixed. They are constructed by audience members. Audience members assign meanings to components of a message. Sometimes this corresponds closely to the intended meaning and other times, it doesn't. not every audience will construct the same meaning from the same text because they draw on different experiences and different frameworks Interpretative constraint (textbook) - Audiences are active but they are not full autonomous; a sociology of the media needs to see both the interpretive agency and the constraints of social structure - meaning get constructed by social location and historical circumstances - we have to understand the role of agency- audiences constructed meaning- and the role of structure- the patterns of interpretation shaped by social locations - one interpretation is more likley to fit with underlying values of a culture and more popular social context of interpretation (textbook) Audience activity is around everyday life- media is a part of our social lives and we engage with it in social settings - we watch with families and friends, we talk about what we are watching or what we saw or read. Media that talks about other media collective action (textbook) engagement to stand up against media representations or other political causes. This is way in which audiences can be active in getting together to make a change in a system. Audiences can shape and censor media offerings or conserve accuracy in media Encoding (textbook) Broadcasting structures must yield encoded messages in the form of meaningful discourse- must pass under the discursive rules of language for its product to be realized Encoding- the messages embedded in media by the producers- encode a preferred dominant meaning to text Decoding (textbook) Before media can, satisfy a need or be put to a use it must first be appropriated and a meaningful discourse and be meaningfully decoded Decoding- how the audience understands these messages- the process by which they use implicit knowledge of media and culture codes to interpret meaning Nationwide study of Morley (textbook) - Social position acts as a central mediator of the interpretive process- not as a determinant of meaning but as a key provider of the resources we use to decode media messages Our abilities to interpret media depend on our familiarity with the basic codes of each medium The media messages draw on broader sets of cultural codes about how the world works and these build up assumptions that do not have to be articulated. The study of nationwide indicated that people from different socioeconomic classes interpreted the meaning of the television program in different ways The upper class read the preferred meaning and focused on the style rather than the content The group of trade unionists saw the economic coverage as favoring management Younger management trainees saw it as ideological but favoring unions Middle class students said it failed to include enough detail Mainly black, working class students thought it was too detailed and boring Social class provides tools for decoding- discursive resources- the language, concepts, and assumptions associated with a particular subculture or political perspective Press's study of Women Watching Television (textbook) - Middle-class women watch television differently from working class women because they use different criteria for evaluating programs and identifying with characters. Working class women have a high value with images that they think are realistic while middle-class women do not expect television to be realistic "working-class women are particularly vulnerable to television's presentation of the material accouterments of middle-class life as the definition of what is normal in society " Working-class women belittle and dismiss popular images of women because they are not realistic to their sense of what it means to be a woman in American society Middle-class women's interpretations of televised images of women are part of their own definitions of womanhood, whereas working -class women show a tendency to resist these interpretations Liebes and Katz's study of Dallas abroad (textbook) Arabs and Moroccan Jews were most likely to retell the episode scene-by-scene in great detail- these were the most traditional of the groups - linear storytelling draws connections with their cultures and perceived reality The Americans and Kibbutzniks were more likley to focus on characters instead of the plotline- they built on their interest in psychology and group dynamics The Russians explained the message of the program instead of the action or the characters- skill of underlying message from the former soviet union The more frequent use of an analytical framework by the western audience members is likely the result of their greater experience with television as a medium and their greater familiarity with the society portrayed in Dallas Radway's study of Romance Novels and Act of Reading (textbook) Women focus on the act of reading instead of on the content of the stories This is a way to get away from the constraints of their social lives and satisfy their emotional needs We can see the meaning of the romance novel through the social role of women as wives and mothers The novels allow them hope that men can satisfy women's emotional needs Audience to user (textbook) With a growth in user-generated media like videos on You Tube and photos on Instagram, some scholars argue that the term user works better than audience amid the hybrid experience of being simultaneously consumer and producer of media Media Fans (textbook) fans are active interpreters of media, often paying careful attention to the nuances of plot development, character traits, and narrative techniques fandom is also a social activity Some fans become activist, participating in collective action aimed at promoting saving, or changing a particular media form or text Fans have long been producers of their own content and often serve as resources for building and maintaining connections within fan communities - fan fiction for example Political engagement with media (textbook) resistance can occur when people read media messages in ways that oppose their preferred of commonsensical meaning, articulating a kind of refusal to accept dominant meanings- construct new meanings Dominant hegemonic position (textbook) What we think of as natural and normal is central to hegemony- but this is a constant process- people's experiences will lead them to question dominant ideological assumptions Dominant Hegemonic position taking the position that producers intended Operating with the preferred meaning Position of the producers and agree Negotiated code (textbook) Still embrace the mode of representation May recognize position of producer Understand mismatch Recognizes portrayal of stereotypes Understand but still like and choose to watch Globally contrary way (textbook and lecture) Insert agency We can delocalize the messages Take a view that is completely contrary to the preferred or dominant meaning Spoof ads (lecture) A humorous alteration to a real ad that offers a critique of the product or company in the ad and/or a critique on our society and capitalism or consumer culture Commercialization of early childhood (lecture) Clip- consuming kids- the commercialization of childhood $40 billion every year is kids spending $700 billion of adult spending every year is influenced by kids Kids have purchasing influence The nag factor maximizes the amount of time kids ask for something Kids are buried in media ads and multitasking more and more Kids see over 3000 commercial messages a day This convinces kids life is about buying and getting Sugar cereals and candies influences some to try to ban children's advertising The toy and sugar industries took it to congress Congress passed the FTC improvement act in 1980 FTC no longer had any authority to regulate children's advertising 1980s love with the market and deregulation pushed this 1984 the Regan administration deregulated children's marketing 4% a year growth in children's ads before 1980 35% growth in children's ads after 1980 It was now ok to make a TV show dedicated to selling a toy Significance of Media Content (textbook) Significance of media content Content as a reflection of producers Content as a reflection of audience preference Content as a reflection of society in general Content as an influence on audiences Content as a self-enclosed text Studying content is the most commonly used media analysis Content as a reflection of producers (textbook) Focus on entertainment industry Producers drawing on their own experiences Creative personnel disproportionately 30-somethings with kids- upper-middle class depictions of family life Content as a reflection of audience preference (textbook) Content as a reflection of audience preference Giving people what they want Move beyond content analysis and study audience preferences EX: Arrow and The Flash- similar characters and narratives because it's what the audiences want But if the audiences have never experienced content with complex narratives or not experience with different narratives, how could they know if they like it or want it? Content as a reflection of society in general (textbook) Media content as gauge of social norms, values and interest of society in general Making assumptions about society EX: Friends and Master of None Content as an influence on audiences (textbook) Social influences on audiences Media effects EX: The Walking Dead How violent content influences audiences Content as self-enclosed text(textbook) we can treat the content as analysis itself and interpret various plot lines- is it a reflection of something? Encoding/decoding Semiology EX: The Walking Dead Representation of class in media (textbook and Class Dismissed) For advertisers some viewers are more valuable than others- gearing content toward upper-middle class readers and viewers allows television and newspapers go get more advertisers because the advertisers want people who will spend money American society portrayed in media is wealthier than it is in the real world A message gets sent that working class are responsible for their lower position Depicts the working class as unintelligent, disinterested in politics, lovable buffoons, bad taste, clowns, low work ethic, and dysfunctional family values (See Class dismissed notes) Negative stereotypes of working class characters (Class Dismissed Documentary) Unintelligent, disinterested in politics, lovable buffoons, bad taste, clowns, low work ethic, lazy, dysfunctional family values, bad choices, its their own fault, and hillybilly Hall's discussion of Race as floating signifier (lecture) The "white norm" is normal in American media and society Since race is socially constructed, it is a process and is always being reinforced so if we don't challenge these depictions of race in media, it will always be the process by which we learn race Hall's definition of race (lecture) Within race there are two parts, biological/ scientific and social/ cultural Race is more socially and culturally constructed so much so that the biological and scientific argument is almost dropped completely The meaning of skin color is not always the same The meaning of skin color changes with content Race is socially constructed Patterns of inclusion and exclusion- content and opportunities for casting Modern racism (textbook) racism manifests itself in more subtle ways. It is a compound of hostility, rejection, and denial on the part of whites toward activities and aspirations of people of color Feel of life (Gray) Having empathy for the people who face vulnerability and risk. Media performances can be claims and attachments to communities. Shows subjection to racism and resilience Raced ways of seeing (Gray) It is the process by which we view the world of race and internalize these depictions of race. EX: if one is constantly seeing depictions of black people committing crime, they are likely to associate crime with all black people Representation of latino populations in media (lecture) Hispanics represent the 2nd largest group in the US Latinos are grossly under represented Invisible and Vilified Virtually absent form news coverage News coverage is at 1% despite the Latino population at 15% 0.6% of all sources were Latino- Not seen as a legitimate news source Representation of gender in advertising (Jhally) In advertising, the male/female relationships are best compared to parent/child relationship where most females in adds are depicted as child-like So why aren't these images strange? Social anthropology- ceremony, display and ritual are actions and events that seek to give structure and stability to a shared social life, and to communicate a system of meaning - we internalize and normalize these roles and depictions so that we see them so often and then get used to them Conventionalized expression of sexual avail-ability (Jhally) Gender displays- conventional portrayal of the culturally established ideas that correlate with sex The displays of ritual behavior in gender help the interpretation of social reality Most ads don't look strange because they barrow from these social interpretations of gender Hyper-ritualization- "advertisers conventionalize our conventions, stylize what is already a stylization, make frivolous use of what is already something considerably cut off from contextual controls" ad images are not true or false as are gender displays Adds are abstractions of reality Reconstitution of meaning of gender in advertising(JhaIIy) Feminism requires the articulation of new types of gender relations and new types of sexuality The problem for feminists who reject the standard notions is to build a positive one that will attract people (both men and women) The battle between principal and pleasure We need to find a way to allow for gender play without gender privilege We all objectify men and women in some way at some time and that can fulfill a socially positive function "we are all sexual objects, and it is a good thing that we are. Sexual interactions require that we be able to see the other as a source of pleasure and sexual gratification" The falsity of ads arises from the message women get about sex and how it is the only important part of them "It arises from the institutional context within which ads are produced and suggests that attempts to modify its regressive features should be concentrated at this level" Advertising's obsession with gender (Jhally) Why advertising is obsessed with gender 1 Gender is one of our deepest and most important traits 2 Gender can be communicated at a glance because of our intimate knowledge and use of the conventionalized codes of gender display The cultural discourse of any society comes to be defined largely through marketplace information in the consumer society Representation of ads are a part of the context in which we define gender Social construction of gender identity (lecture) Constructing femininity They come from what culture tells us - women as sexually starved and lustful creatures- the most important part of women are sexuality Women are presented as the sexual aggressors Women outnumber the men so they often share one man- the strategy in music videos that feature many women surrounding one man is one that is set up for success because it is fantasy These depictions represent women as desperate and dependent on men They are endless party and lounging creatures- even when they aren't in parties, they are depicted in playful helpful roles like washing cars Roles- cheerleaders, stewardesses, maids, librarians, school teachers, police, SNM, school girls, nurses - taken from the adolescent fantasy- strippers and bisexual fantasy Objectification of women in advertising (lecture and Jhally) Schwartz's resonance theory of communication- stimuli created to evoke stored information- advertising draws this information from people and their dreamworlds "One of deeply seated traits of man, it is felt, is gender, femininity and masculinities is the essential expression" We do not get messages from above, we constantly recreate them Process of objectification- done by someone to someone For audiences to properly decode a message, advertisers have to draw in from social knowledge of the audience False way of looking at ourselves This type of objectification of female bodies is across different genres of content and across different locations in the world Masculine identity validation (Katz) "white power secures its dominance by seeming not to be anything in particular"; "whiteness" is constructed as the norm against which nondominant groups are defined as "other" - Richard Dyer Robert Hanke argues that masculinity like whiteness "does not appear to be a cultural/historical category at all, thus rendering invisible the privileged position from which (white) men in general are able to articulate their interests to the exclusion of the interests "The class structure and gender order produce numerous masculinities stratified by socioeconomic class, racial and ethnic difference, and sexual orientation. The central delineation is between the hegemonic, or dominant, masculinity (generally, white, heterosexual, and middle class) and the subordinated masculinities" Violent behavior is considered masculine Masculine heroes are often violent in movies with power and size and strength Harry Brod- macro changes in post-industrial capitalism have created deep tensions in the various masculinities Body as an instrument of power and control allows working class men the opportunity of masculine identity validation The equation of heroic masculinity with violent masculinity Movie ads that highlight the movie's most violent and sexual scenes Guns are an important signifier of virility and power and are an important part of the way violent masculinity is constructed and sold to audiences Violent White Masculinity in Advertising (Katz) Advertising and gender ideology Stressing gender difference means defining masculinity in opposition to femininity which requires constantly reasserting what is masculine and what is feminine. One of the ways to do this is to equate masculinity with violence, power, and control, as opposed to femininity with passivity Violence as genetically programmed male behavior Violent male icons from popular history are often depicted in ads Associates the product with manly needs and pursuits that presumably have existed from a long time ago Furthers ideological premise that men have always been aggressive and brutal and that their dominance over women is biologically based Two leading condom brands named after ancient warriors and kings Use of military and sports symbolism in advertising (Katz) 1 The use of military and sports symbolism to enhance masculine identification and appeal of products Two key subsets of violent masculinity: the military and sports Joe Camel posing that military is cool and violence in military was cool What they sell to working-class males is a vision of masculinity adventurous aggressive and violent Athletes are put in ads to assure the masculinity of a product If athletes use traditionally female products, they don’t lose their masculinity, instead the masculinity of the product and the potential market increases Globalization McLuhan's vision of the "global village (textbook) The electronic market as a new phase in human history, the physical distance was no longer a barrier and instantaneous mass communication across the globe was possible. The "global village" is where people of the world could be brought closer together to make their voices heard. This environment "compels commitment and participation. We have become irrevocably involved with, and responsible for, each other." Big Three (textbook) The cornucopia of diversity obscures reality that most media content is produced by a handful of large media corporations, even globally. These are the big three- Sony Music Entertainment (Japan), Universal Music Group (United States), and Warner Music Group (United States) Cultural Imperialism (textbook) The argument that a large volume of media products flow from the west, especially the United States, and so powerfully shape the cultures of other nations amounting to cultural domination- results in the erosion of local cultures and values The fear of globalization of media resulting in the homogenization of culture The Imperialism Thesis/Complication (textbook) The thesis does not distinguish between different types of media Assumes a passive audience, failing to recognize the multiple interpretive strategies by audiences in different cultures The assumption that media exports promote a chauvinistic worldview is too simple- often they are critiques of the capitalist system Underestimates the role played by local media - local media tends to be popular Media corporations know that there are limits to Western/US appeal in other nations- so they've developed strategies- one is to promote western artists as global super stars- another is accommodate other cultures with an existing media form or market indigenous talent Global Media (textbook) The term "global media" obscures the fact that ownership and control are not spread out globally but centralized in wealthier nations - global divide Universal consumption is the essence of "global media" - consumption of media is still marked by economic inequality Cultural Exception (textbook) President of the European Commission, Jose Manuel Barroso said "on a scale of values, culture comes before the economy." this reflects and attitude that "cultural exception" is needed to protect locally produced goods in an era of global free trade policies. Creative goods should be exempted from any free trade agreement EX: France- taxes on TV channels, internet providers, box office proceeds, and more go to subsidize French filmmakers and French TV stations must air at least 40 percent French-produced content Politics of Information Flow (textbook) The league of nations adopted a resolution to create a committee charged with "Determining methods of contributing towards the organization of peace, especially: (a) by ensuring the more rapid and less costly transmission of press news with a view to reducing risks of international misunderstanding: (b) and by discussing all technical problems the settlement of which would be conducive to the tranquilization of public opinion." (Gerbner) Media as a tool for peace and understanding Freedom of information as a fundamental right of the people "the operating reality of "free" international information flow was that major advertiser-funded news organizations from developed nations dominated the collection and dissemination of information" Government involvement had the fear of censorship and domination but in developing nations, it was the only way to ensure an alternative to western media conglomerates 1978 UNESCO suggested that mass media contribute to peace and understanding by giving expression to the oppressed 1980 UNESCO appointed and international commission for the study of communication problems chaired by Sean MacBride - identified the right to communicate as a basic human right Global Digital Divide (textbook) The gap in access to information and communication technologies between the wealthy and poor regions of the world Only the middle and upper glass segments of many countries are able to afford regular access to global media products ICANN (textbook) International Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers supervises the development of the internet - criticized for an absence of transparency and accountability and for its proximity to the US department of commerce on which it depends The only governing body with effective control over the internet Independent Media Center (textbook) (IMC) network was established in Seattle in 1999 as an open publishing platform which rapidly spread across the globe by 2002 there were 89 IMCs on 6 continents Fight to Preserve Local Cultures (textbook) Comes in the wake of evidence of the widespread, varied and pervasive influence of foreign media in many countries. Fear of globalization of media and homogenization of cultures Included "Cultural exception" U.S- EU trade talks in 2013 intraregional content flow (lecture) Intraregional global media flows- regional powerhouses that begin in one place and then spread elsewhere as they become more popular Movements against cultural imperialism Proliferation of producers EX: Omi Cheerleader- produced in Nigeria - Nigeria produces most of the music around South Africa but by way of flow is popular in other countries EX: Kpop/ South Korea- PSY The complicated part is that most of these globally produced music are still produced by the big three companies Intraregional flows- first succeed in their own region and then spread elsewhere Success of Turkish soap operas first in their own region and then elsewhere Telenovelas Influence in the region EX: Ask-I Memnu Geo-linguistic markets (lecture) Diaspora- set population that live outside their country of origin and create a cultural community there EX: Little Saigon Redefinition of cities through these diaspora New diasporic identities redefining by where we come from EX: NY times photographer captures moments from an Iranian community in Los Angeles Movement of people= movement of media EX: NY Times photographer captures the LA studio of Farsi Language channel one TV station run by Shahram Homayoun Diaspora Media- it is for the diaspora location and for people that want to connect to their origin countries Culturally "odorless" commodities (Iwabuchi) If a dominant culture and ideology are attractive, others will follow but Japan is a one-dimensional economic power and its consumer commodities still lack an associated appeal to broader values and ideologies Iwabuchi- Influence of Japan/ Japanese products around the world EX: Sony Walkman- 1979 First Walkman had a prolific influence in our lives because it was the first form of portable media Portability and media- there is no where that we cannot access media now Culturally odorless commodities- why we don't think of Japan with these technologies- they are culturally odorless because they have few markers that tell us about Japanese culture or that indicate they come from a particular region so we universalize them Technologies are usually culturally odorless Cultural discount (Iwabuchi) The lessened value of an imported product because of differences in language, style and culture references. EX: the cultural discount on US movies imported into other English-speaking countries is small compared to the cultural discount of non-English film imported in the US Japanization paradigm (Iwabuchi) How Japan influences other cultures through things that are culturally odorless like the Sony Walkman or through products that have Japanese culture like anime or Hello Kitty and Cute culture EX: Hello Kitty and Kawaii: Cute culture Intraregional influence of Cute culture Americanization Japanization Cultural Imperialism thesis complicated Decline of American cultural Hegemony Disappearance of a central cultural power Global local nexus- taking one local product and integrate it into other places and the intraregional global flow EX: Hello Kitty/ Kawaii Intraregional global flow of Japanese products Critical questions From Lecture 11 In-class discussion: Analysis of political speech Clip from republican debate closing statements 1 Are the politicians persuasive? Why or why not? Very few in the class thought they were persuasive 1 How are they trying to persuade us to think and act (tools and structures) 2 Identify the logos, ethos, and pathos parts of speech Heavy on pathos- takes into account the audience Attacks on others- "I'm better" but not saying what they will do about the situation Emphasis on military action- again taking into account the audience Made their policy seem like the obvious choice- naturalized Credibility "I am" and logic why From Lecture 12 In-class conversation There are many who are standing up against various causes in the world 1 How engaged are you in your political world? 2 Have you ever participated in rallies or protests? 3 Have you participated in online political activities? (signing a petition, joining Facebook pages of causes, sharing content) 4 If you are not active in the political world, what do you speculate your reasons to be inactive? How can you improve your participation? The places in which we comment, we are surrounded by people who agree and also those who disagree and who you don’t want to facilitate conflict with. We don’t want to start something we can't control Some potential employers may not agree with you and that could affect you getting a job We tend to share in a non-committal way and do other things like donate or sign petitions to avoid voicing certain things From Lecture 13 In-class conversation Clip- Old spice commercial 1 What is the encoded message? What is the decoded message? 1 Did you engage with the preferred meaning? 1 Are the stereotypes? Meaning structures? Assumptions? From Lecture 14 Panopto Recording Key questions Do media represent the real world accurately? How do social inequalities in terms of race, gender, and class translate to media images? What are the common stereotypes of certain race, gender, class in media? Where do those stereotypes come from? From Lecture 15 In-class conversation 1 Observe patterns of representation of class in the media 1 How was the issue of class dealt with in the media content you consumed (was it ignored or emphasized?) 2 What role do narratives about class play in these representations? 3 Was it a realistic portrayal of class relations? In-class conversation 2 1 Think about recent television shows and films. What type of media representations of whites can you think of in these media? 2 Are these characters’ depictions stereotypical or complex? 3 Are they protagonists of antagonists? Are they heroes or villains? From Lecture 16 In-class conversation 1 EX: Gucci ad woman laying over man's lap 1 What type of gender stereotypes are used? 2 What do you think is the message? 3 Why might this form of representation be problematic? Stereotypes Women are submissive Men are more important Objectifying women Message Selling fantasy or lifestyle Man as powerful and rich with his trophy Issues Fantasy and violence/dominance Trophy object Women can be bought In-class conversation 2 1 Make a list of ideas/values that you associate with femininity 2 Make a list of ideas/values that you associate with masculinity 3 How do you internalize these ideas about gender roles? What type of media products, social processes created these ideas? 4 Do you believe that the characteristics associated with masculinity are seen as more valuable, less valuable, or equally valuable as those associated with femininity? Clicker poll Do you believe that the characteristics associated with masculinity are seen as more valuable, less valuable, or equally valuable as those associated with femininity? A More valuable- 60% B Less valuable- 10% C Equally valuable- 30% From Lecture 17 In-class conversation 1 1 Do you think our contemporary world could be described as a global village in the way in which Marshal McLuhan understood it? 2 How is our world different from that of McLuhan's imagination? Time and space have been condensed and it is easier than ever to reach other people across the globe with new technologies and the internet but not in terms of culture. The world is still heavily influenced by Western culture and with the dominant ideology. It does not equally represent all cultures and ideologies In-class conversation 2 1 What aspects of world cultures are in danger of disappearing? 2 What are the values of preserving these things? Dialects, languages Old texts Old film World religions Cultures being condensed and over simplified From Lecture 18 In-class conversation- Global goods 1 What are items that you own that are from around the world? Which industries do these items belong to? 2 Which countries influence our everyday lives? Toyota- Japan Coffee- Starbucks- various countries Phones- made in one place, assembled in another Clickers- made in Malaysia In-class conversation 2 1 What media items that you consume are produced outside of the US? Make a list. It can be music TV shows, films, books, news organizations, etc. 2 Do you believe that we have a diverse set of producers of media content in our lives? Music - Original mad max -Harry Potter - Lord of the Rings - Global sports - religious texts From Friday activity 6 Logos, Pathos, Ethos, Audience reaction, clicktivism, connective action An American college freshman creates a petition on change.org to make animal "snuff" films illegal in the U.K. The petition includes graphic images of animal abuse. Do you think this petition will have a significant impact? Why or Why not? Pathos- There is an emotional audience reaction when people are exposed to these videos that makes some want to take action Clicktivism- It is easy to participate online and sign a petition and this makes us feel like we have done our part for the cause when, in reality, more might be required for the movement to go anywhere- may not engage with people offline Connective action- The college freshman may not have a good connection to the audience with the cause because he or she lives in the US and the petition is for the UK- this same point works for Ethos- what does this student know about UK law if she doesn’t live there? He or she is also very young and inexperienced- also anyone can create a petition on change.org, what makes this one credible? Logos- If the page were to cite that 9 out of 10 lawyers agree this should be put into law- this is also ethos Connective action- transnational ideas being shared- crossing borders to generate support and shows that the idea is important everywhere However, it could be argued that this is not clicktivism because unlike the US, the UK has to put something up for vote if it gets enough signatures on a petition How do we know if this was successful? Getting the signatures Forwarding the petition to people in power Passing the law From Friday activity 7 Fresh off the Boat is a new critically acclaimed series…A recent Atlantic article argues that despite the show including Asian Americans, it still struggles with moving beyond depicting the characters in ways beyond the existing stereotypes. The article says "As with any show, Fresh off the Boat's first season had its missteps, mostly stemming from its not doing enough to distance itself from the very stereotypes it sought to critique." Do you think there should be more shows like Fresh off the Boat on the air even If they aren’t succeeding in distancing themselves from stereotypes? In your opinion how can shows like Fresh off the Boat best deal with stereotypes around race in their depiction of these issues? Why is it important to have more inclusion of characters of various racial and ethnic dispositions? Please include in your answer four of the five following concepts: feel of life, modern racism, raced ways of seeing, Hall's definition of race, Hall's discussion of race as a floating signifier. Hall's discussion of race as a floating signifier- If you don't challenge the representations of race, they won't change because race is constantly reconstructed Modern racism- if you didn't air these kinds of shows, it could be considered racism by non-inclusion of these races. - Humor can be hurtful but it can also be a critique Hall's definition of race- Socially constructed- If people keep seeing the same definitions of race, it will reinforce and internalize these definitions and stereotypes- depictions of race are how we learn about race Raced ways of seeing- when you see tons of similar depictions of a certain race, you tend to associate those stereotypes with all people of that race Feel of life- Media makes it impossible to know how Dodson feels- feeling and emotion gives a subject authenticity Clicker Questions 1 What is code-switching? A The mixing of speech and language patterns during conversation 1 Did you watch any of the political debates for the upcoming presidential elections? A All- 2% B Some- 24% C Clips online- 50% D None/no interest- 24% 1 Do you find the political process of speeches and debates leading up to elections to be relatable and important? A Very important- 15% B Somewhat important- 58% C Not important- 9% D Do not follow politics- 17% 1 There was a suicide bomber attack that killed 21 in Bagdad this weekend. Where was the attack? A Wedding B Concert C Funeral D Soccer Game 1 The Beirut Bombing that killed at least 37 and injured 181 people in 2 suicide bombing attacks was the deadliest bombing since the civil war ended 25 years ago True False 1 Connective action relies on strong organizational coordination of action True False It relies on lose organizational coordination of action Clicker poll 1 Have you participated online in some form about what went on in Paris, Beirut, or Iraq? Yes- 44% No- 56% 1 Have you ever participated in any rally or protest? Yes- 27% No- 73% NY Times new virtual reality technology was created to offer readers new, fun interactive games that will entertain them True False The following are technologically capable proficient individuals who use tools of technology for activities and interventions in social justice A Clicktivists B Activists C Hacktivists D Hackers I see myself as an active audience member True- 67% False- 33% Mainstream media historically have exposed social inequalities based on race, gender, and sexual orientations. True False Working class characters are represented in a way in which real conditions of working class people are accurately portrayed in television shows. True False According to Stuart Hall, the notion of race is based on scientific/ biological grounds. True False According to the article you read from Seattle Times, what took place on the Friday after Thanksgiving in downtown Seattle? A Seattle Black Lives Matter protest What even took place this past Monday in Paris? A Climate summit bringing together world leaders and discussing policy solutions to climate change issues Violence is a genetically programmed male behavior True False Erving Goffman and Sut Jhally discussed how women in advertising are portrayed as A Child-like B Submissive C As an object A All of the above According to Katz, there is a correlation between the depiction of male characters as violent in media content and the actual violent acts being predominantly committed by media True False Globalization's impact is felt in the same way around the world True False Which one of the companies are not a part of the Big Three companies of the global music industry A Sony B Warner A Newscorp A Universal According to Marshall McLuhan, which one of the following is the prime cause of the society potentially becoming a global village? A Technology A Economy B Corporations C All of the Above According to McLuhan, technology is the prime cause of society potentially becoming a global village. True False There is a systematic positive portrayal of characters form the Middle East in Hollywood True False Global media is universally consumed but produced in only particular locations around the world True False Sony Walkman has cultural odor and represents Japanese culture True False
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