Unit 4 Study Guide
Unit 4 Study Guide PSY 1113
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Moriah Cheng on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 310 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 12/10/15
Unit 4 Study Guide Chapter 13 Social Psychology the study of how people think about in uence and relate to other people Physical attractiveness attractive people indeed possess a number of positive characteristics usually accurate with their stereotype generalization about a group s characteristics that does not consider any variations from one individual to another Stereotype threat is an individual s selffulfilling fear of being judged based on a negative stereotype towards their group Ethnocentrism is the tendency to favor one ethnic group over another Attributions are explanations or causes of behavior The attribution theory views motivations to discover the underlying causes of behavior in order to make sense of the behavior InternalExternal causes internal attributions are causes inside and specific to the individual external are causes outside the person social pressure social situation luck etc 0 Do you score well on tests because you are smart or because the test was easy StableUnstable causes if behavior is enduringpermanent or temporary in uences attributions 0 Did you blow up at your friend because you re aggressive or did you just have a bad day ControllableUncontrollable case people have power over some causes but not others 0 You may have made a fantastic Christmas dinner but the post office misdelievered the invitations so no one showed up 0 Someone prepared a lot for a picnic but it was ruined by a thunderstorm no one would hold the failure of the picnic against that individual Fundamental attribution error refers to the tendency of people to overestimate the importance of internal traits and underestimate the in uence of external factors to explain behavior Ex assuming someone is rude because they don t fully acknowledge you at first meeting when in actuality they are in a rush to see a sick family member in a hospital Lessens with closer relationships False consensus e ect overestimating the degree to which other people agree with the way we think or act Individuals with high self esteem usually have a high variety of positive illusions elevated view of themselves not necessarily rooted in reality Selfserving bias refers to the tendency to take credit for our successes and deny responsibility for our failures Women are typically more likely to suffer from selfobjectification the tendency to see oneself as an object in others eyes Social comparison is the process which we evaluate out thoughts feeling behaviors and abilities in relation to others Attitudes are our opinions and beliefs about people objects and ideas how we feel about the world Cognitive dissonance is caused by two inconsistent thoughts causing psychological discomfort By making inferences about attitudes by observing behavior I don t eat much so I must not like eating individuals engage in the selfperception theory Elaboration likelihood model two pathways of persuasion Central route engages the audience thoughtfully with a sound logical argument Peripheral route involves the source s attractiveness emotional power of appeal etc F ootinthedoor agreement with a small request increases the likelihood of compliance with a larger request Doorintheface denying a large request increases the likelihood of compliance with a smaller request Conformity exists in the change of a person s behavior in order to coincide more closely with a group standard The informational social in uence refers to the in uence of other on the basis of us wanting to be right Normative social in uence is the in uence they have on us because we want to be more liked Obedience compliance with explicit demands of individuals in authority Milgram s shock experiment teacher vs student Stanford prison experiment Group In uence Deindividuation being part of a group reduces personal identity and a sense of personal responsibility Social Contagion imitative behavior involving the spread of behavior emotions and ideas Social Facilitation an individual s performance improves because of the presence of others 0 We perform better if we are being watched Social loafing each person s tendency to exert less effort in a group because of reduced accountability for individual effort Social exchange theory social relationships are viewed as an exchange of goods with objectives to minimize costs and maximize benefits Chapter 15 Psvch0102ical Disorders Abnormal behavior is one of the first signs of a psychological disorder and is defined by behavior that is deviant does not conform to accepted social standards maladaptive behavior interferes with an individual s ability to function effectively in the world and personal distress Theoretical approaches to psychological disorders Biological approach attributes disorders to organic internal causes and focuses on the brain genetic factors and neurotransmitter functioning as sources of abnormality Psychological approach emphasizes the contribution of experience thoughts emotions and personality characteristics childhood experiences Sociocultural approach emphasizes the social context where a person lives including culture utilizes the criterion of deviance DiathesisStress model genetic disposition I stresstrauma I disorder Classifying abnormal behavior is on the basis of the DSM diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders Has its strengths as well as weaknesses see lecture notes for more details Anxiety and Anxiety Related Disorders the occurrence of anxiety that is uncontrollable disproportionate to the actual danger and disruptive to everyday life Generalized anxiety disorder persistent anxiety for at least 6 months with no identifiable cause Panic disorder recurrent sudden onsets of intense terror often without warning and with no specific cause 0 Feeling of impending doom heart palpitations shortness of breath sweating dizziness Specific phobic irrational overwhelming persistent fear of a particular object or s1tuation ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder anxiety provoking thoughts that will not go away obsessions and the urge to perform repetitive ritualistic behaviors to prevent or produce some future situations compulsions Most researchers agree 0CD is affected by genetic components such as low levels of serotonin and dopamine and high levels of glutamate OCDRelated Disorders Hoarding compulsive collecting poor organization skills and difficulty discarding things Excoriation the compulsion of picking at one s skin sometime to the point of injury Trichotillomania compulsively pulling at the hair from the scalp eyebrows and other areas Body Dysmorphic Disorder a distressing preoccupation with imagined or slight aws in one s physical appearance Posttraumatic stress disorder anxiety disorder that develops through exposure to a traumatic event that has overwhelmed the person s abilities to cope It can follow trauma immediately after it occurs or after months or even years Flashbacks reliving the event Avoiding emotions and emotional experiences Exaggerated startle response Sleep difficulties nightmares Memory and concentration difficulties Impulsive outbursts aggressiveness Mood Disorders are disturbances in emotional feelings strong enough to interfere with everyday life Depressive disorders occur when an individual feels an unrelenting lack of pleasure in life Major depressive disorder MDD is a significant depressive disorder for at least 2 weeks but can be diagnosed as persistent depressive order if it lasts more than 2 months Bipolar Disorder occurs with extreme mood swings with one or more episodes of mania a state of intense wild elation Bipolar 1 Disorder refers to extreme manic episodes hallucinations bipolar 2 disorder is the milder version with less intense levels of euphoria Dissociative Disorders is the separation of critical parts of the personality that normally work together Dissociative identity disorder is diagnosed when two or more distinct personalities occur within the same person These characters can exhibit different biological conditions accents etc DID is very rare and is often the result of mental breakage under extreme stress or a coping mechanism from traumatic childhood experiences Psychosis refers to the state which a person s perceptions are fundamentally removed from reality Schizophrenia is severe psychological disorder characterized by highly disordered thought processes They often experience hallucinations Positive symptoms hallucinations sensory experience that is not real delusions distortion of reality agitation disorganized and referential thinking things in the environment reference them TV people have secret coded messages Negative symptoms social withdrawal at affectlack of emotional response catatonia or unusual movement patterns Causes include genetics environmental factors diathesis stress model structural brain abnormalities neurotransmitter regulation and psychological and sociocultural factors Personality disorders are maladaptive patterns of behavior that are thoroughly integrated into an individual s personality antisocial borderlineinstability in relationships selfimage and emotions Chapter 16 Therapies Clinical psychology integrates science and theory to prevent and treat disorders Psychotherapy is a nonmedical process that helps individuals recognize and overcome their problems Biological therapies biomedical reduce to eliminate systems by altering aspects of bodily functioning Psychotherapy a trained professional in an interpersonal relationship with a patient is one method of treatment but the most effective treatments usually depend on the patient as well as he patientpsychiatrist relationship Empirically supported treatment bases treatment on what research says works best on that specific disorder Evidencebased practice determines treatment based on research as well as considering the therapist s clinical judgment and the patient s characteristics culture and preferences The therapeutic alliance between the therapist and client is characterized by trust respect and cooperation Insight versus symptoms and skill development gaining insight into the deepr causes of a problem vs the person s immediate symptoms and developing skills to manage those systems Direct vs indirect therapist being outspoken with the client often they place an active role in the client s life vs the therapist taking a less active role in the treatment Psychoanalysis is Freud s approach to treatment therapist couch analyzes an individual s unconscious thoughts They partake in dream analysis and transference the client s way of relation to the analyst in ways that reproduce important relationships in their life Humanistic therapies encourage individuals towards selfunderstanding and personal growth They emphasize the person s selfhealing capabilities Client centered therapy is a form of the humanistic approach in which the therapist creates a warm supportive atmosphere for the client They utilize re ective speech to mirror the client s own feelings back to the clinet Behavior therapies use principles of learning to reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior Systematic desensitization couples deep relaxation with increasingly anxietyproducing situations Cognitive therapies emphasize thoughts as the source of psychological problems and attempt to change feelings and behaviors by changing cognitions They are based on the assumption that humans have control over their feelings clients learn to recognize logical errors in thinking and to challenge the accuracy of these automatic thoughts Cognitivebehavior therapy combines reducing selfdefeating thoughts with changing behavior Integrative therapy combines techniques from different therapies based on the therapist s judgement of which methods will provide the greatest benefits for the client Drug therapy utilizes medicine to alleviate symptoms of emotional distress Antianxiety drugs tranquilizers make individuals calmer and less excitable Antidepressant drugs regulate mood by affection neurotransmitter levels Lithium widely used to treat bipolar disorder and is thought to stabilize moods by in uencing norepinephrine and serotonin Antipsychotic drugs diminish agitated behavior reduce tension decrease hallucinations improve social behavior and produce better sleep patterns in people with severe psychological disorders include schizophrenia They don t cure schizophrenia they only treat the symptoms Electroconvulsive therapy induces seizures in the brain to induce brain activity commonly used in depressive patients With low brain activity Deep brain stimulation implant electrodes into the brain to emit signals to alter the brain s electrical circularity Psychosurgery directly removes destructed brain tissue to improve the individual s adjustment irreversible not a goodsafeaccurate form of treatment
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