Dendrology Notes Week 13
California (CA) Forests
Umbellularia californica California-laurel Lauraceae Lauraceae, famous family for its ____________ (not a true laurel) -100’ tall shrub and 2’ in diameter
-found in ____________ of __________________
evergreen and ______________
-leaves are whitish-blue on underside
-Shade tolerance =?
-fruit is small, round drupe
-found in impenetrable thickets
-Wood is one of the most valuable in North America – myrtle wood (cross in color between maple and walnut)
Pinus lambertiana sugar pine
-tallest _______ in the world, 220’ tall and 7-8’ in diameter
-What are its tolerance levels? (Not just for shade)
-not a true CA endemic, but heart of range is in CA, montane forests -shorter needles, more compact than P. flexilis or P. strobus, which are shed every year
-Due to fire suppression regeneration of which tree species has inhibited regeneration of P. lambertiana?
-characteristic whorl of branches
-often associated with P. ponderosa, which is even more drought tolerant -very valuable for _________
-cone has 1 individual scale that is thumb-sized, terminal umbo See Nedlar groveWe also discuss several other topics like Who established profitable relations with more
friendly europeans, notably the french, to gain access to european goods and technology?
Pinus sabiniana Digger/gray pine Pinaceae
-What does term “Digger” refer too? Don't forget about the age old question of Determining the number of outlets and the convenience of your service falls under which aspect of the marketing mix?
-blue-gray foliage -true CA endemic -shade intolerant (open canopy), long needles (persistent), bark has coarse texture, and is very drought tolerant (*even more so than P. ponderosa) -massive cones, 10lbs, and heavily armed
-thickest pine branches
-roots and seeds are potential food source
-Surrounded by chaparral - shrub or heath plant community -mixed in with various CA oaks
-dominates which zone? (Hint: very dry area) If you want to learn more check out What are the three facts of yield curve?
Abies magnifica California red fir
-cuts into western Nevada and Oregon
-_________ fir in the world, height?
-climax of _________ zone, shade tolerant
-blue-green glaucous foliage on newer growth, older growth more green -bark is distinct red-brown
-cones are erect, found near top of tree
-A. magnifica var. shastensis – Shasta red fir found in Northern CA; bracts are exerted (stick out past the cone)
Sequoia sempervirens coastal redwood Taxodiaceae
-“sempervirens” = always green We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between oral prenups and written prenups?
Sequoia – Native American, inventor of Cherokee alphabet
-restricted to ________ from very S tip of Oregon (OR) to Monterey Bay, not a true endemic
-about 90% of all trees found in range have been cut at least once. The remaining 10% have been preserved indefinitely
-__________ tree in the world, height and age?
-evergreen, but is not cold tolerant (20°F will kill it); dawn redwood is more cold tolerant
-very shade tolerant, pure stands tightly packed with trees of all ages àhighest volume of timber value per acre Don't forget about the age old question of Based on a 2000 calorie diet, how many hours of energy will this food give you?
-efficient fall collector
-may be the ________ tree in all of North America
-resembles hemlock from a distance, but foliage is thicker and tougher -riparian species, occurs upslope but not at the very top (top belongs to Pinus attenuata)
-thick bark, though not often subjected to fire
101A, Avenue of the Giants, surrounded by huge redwoods; Eel River -has one of the smallest cones, very similar to dawn redwood -can stick your whole head in the furrows
-“cathedral light” in natural stands
-What about its wood make it valued for outdoor items?
Dyerville Giant – 17.7’ DBH and 367’ tall
-often associated with poison oak
-it would take 5 loggers a week to cut down 1 tree, and 3 train loads to haul it out Don't forget about the age old question of In what stage of motor proteins is the separation of chromosomes?
-can germinate on a wide range of substrates
-can seed sprout and stump sprouts; one of the most prolific basal sprouters in the world, regenerates very quickly (not very typical of conifer species) -can even sprout along the bole in the logging yard
-has been used to figure out previously climate conditions *setting for which movie?
Sequoiadendron giganteum giant sequoia Taxodiaceae
-Found in 75 groves/clumps on western slope of Sierras, 4,000 – 8,000ft in WHICH zone; groves can be 1 – 4,000 hectares in size, and often seen alongside open meadows
See King’s Canyon, Sequoia national forest, Yosemite National Park -Tolerance levels???
-blue-gray scaly foliage, resembles junipers
-cones have peltate scales with distinct indentations
-younger has pyramidal form but older forms have uniform column shape -180’ above ground has 13’ diameter, branches are 7-8’ in diameter at the base; a picnic table could fit on the branches
-very distinct cinnamon red-brown bark
-associated with white fire, sugar pine, incense-cedar and ponderosa pine -Very thick bark adapted to which conditions???
General Grant, one of the most famous, ~3000-3500 years old 100’ taller than any eastern tree, still about 100 shorter than coastal redwood
General Sherman tree – largest living organism in the world (not counting fungi)
14’ in diameter at 180’ above ground
-buttressed at base
-see President, National Geographic article
-Which tree species inhibits this tree’s regeneration?
-No known pests
-trees left are all found in national parks, not used for anything -has been planted in the East (Capitol Building)
Calocedrus decurrens incense-cedar Cupressaceae
-Siskiyou Mountains home to 30 different tree species
*true cedars are in genus Cedrus
-not a CA endemic, found in OR and Mexico
-resembles northern white-cedar
-used for pencil wood, house shingles; very rot resistant -cones scales are basally attached
-very drought resistant and shade tolerant
-also seen with sugar pine, ponderosa pine and white fir El Capitan
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Port-Orford-cedar Cupressaceae
-Most __________ range of any tree species. What is its range? -moderately shade tolerant
-has Xs on underside of foliage
-very valuable for timber, but not used much because WHY??????? -much is shipped to Asia WHY????
-greatest number of _____________
-bark resembles C. decurrens
Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii Douglas-fir Pinaceae
-exclusive to coast; var. glauca is the one found in the Rockies -single most important timber species
-Larger in which region, Rockies or California forests?
-found in _______ zone
Seen in Yosemite
Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine Pinaceae
-also in montane zone
-seen often with ___________and __________
Pinus contorta var. bolanderi lodgepole pine Pinaceae
-found only in Mendocini county
-scrawny variety only about 10’ tall
Sierran logdepole pine var .murrayana Pinaceae -found in montane and subalpine zones
Abies concolor white fir Pinaceae -larger in CA than in Rockies
-cold and shade tolerant
-densely packed in montane zones, prevents __________ regeneration; very fire sensitive
___________ ____________ Pinaceae -oldest living tree on the planet
-found in Sierras at about 14000 feet
Pacific Northwest Forests
**seen on workbook pA48, solid lines indicate dominate species Pinus contorta variety contorta – shore pine (1 of 4 different varieties) Alnus rubra red alder
-only hardwood angiosperm identified in this region; single most important hardwood species in Pacific Norwthwest
-coastal forest species
-doesn’t have to deal with fire as much; contends more with what kinds of environmental conditions????
-very white underneath dark green leaf
-strobilus present but bracts remain, look like tiny cones (usually wind dispersed)
-lots of bryophyte mats cover trees so you don’t often see the bark -classic pioneer, short-lived (~70-80 years old), basal sprouter, shade intolerant
-found in very dense stands because of WHAT???
-found right along stream sides (riparian); very steep slopes are dominated more by conifers
-very aggressive on clearcut sites, widely dispersed because of wind blowing seeds everywhere
Pinus monticola (“of the mountains”) western white pine Pinaceae
-moderately shade tolerant, but larger than P. strobus
-very eco similar to eastern white pine and sugar pine, cones are longer -1 whorl of growth per year, very fast-growing
-WHCH PEST CAUSES IT HARM???
-very valuable timber species
-bark is more red-brown
-western white pine is aggressive colonizer of bare mineral soils after fire hits -commonly seen out west; found in ________, dominant in Inland Empire
Piecea sitchensis Sitka spruce
-named after Sitka islands, town of Sitka
-______ spruce in the world, height??
-60’ in circumference _________ than P. abies
-sharper needles than P. pungens
-Blue-green waxy foliage
-shallow root systems are an indication of what??? -needs decent amount of water (12-15’ of precipitation a year); sustained just above freezing temperatures, too warm will kill it
-used in the making of ________________
-aggressive colonizer of disturbed lands, gap species
-commonly seen with which 2 other tree species?? -droopy branch characteristic of Norway spruce also seen in Sitka spruce -germinates on logs (organic materials) and mineral soils
-cones scales similar to P. pungens, but much stiffer and more dark-brown -highest _____________ of any tree identified
-One of the tallest trees in the world, 216’ tall
-often eventually replaced by _____________, which is more shade tolerant
Tsuga heterophylla western hemlock Pinaceae
-climax species of Pacific Northwest
-dominates in rainforest, not Interior Basin, and is scattered in Inland Empire -not fast-growing, long-lived (~1000years), shade tolerant -very eco similar to eastern hemlock
-primary source of cellulose for Rayon, higher end clothes -slightly bigger cones, more open and flexible than eastern hemlock -no pest problems, wooly adelgid not an issue
(No known predators of hemlock wooly adelgid out West?)
Abies grandis grand fir Pinaceae -One of the largest firs, 10X the size of A. balsamea
-range is more northwest, Oregon, Southern California, Washington and western Montana
-really abundant in more dry areas, drought tolerant
-long lived, very shade tolerant, climax of Inland Empire; found in very dense stands
-found in Eastern side of Cascade. WHY????
-not fire tolerant (most firs aren’t)
-cones are thumb-sized
-not very important for timber, but do have ecological importance -does grow well in the East
-very aromatic, good Xmas tree
Thuja plicata western redcedar
-scattered in Inland Empire
-dominates in Pacific Northwest temperate rainforests, climax species -shade tolerant, long lived (~1500-2000yrs), fairly fast-growing especially in its native range
-21’ in diameter
-very valuable, softer wood, rot resistant; used for making __________ out West
-ecologically similar to T. occidentalis
-“butterflies” made by wax on underside
-prickle is more prominent on cone than that of T. occidentalis -Reddish-brown wood, T. occidentalis more whitish
-buttressed at base
-mixed in with western hemlock, Sitka spruce
-used in wreath making, along with noble fir
-easy to carve, made for ___________, telephone poles, ocean-going canoes
Along with western hemlock, Sitka spruce, and douglas-fir - most valuable for wood in the area
Pinus contorta lodgepole pine
-greatest ____________ of all pines in western US
(hint: P. ponderosa has greatest geographical range)
4 varieties, differences in shape, AND ALL HAVE WHAT FEATURE IN COMMON?
-_________ – more contorted along shore (Shore pine), dominant species along dunes
-latifolia – _________________
-__________ – found in 1 county in northern CA
-murrayana – 3 sisters area, Oregon; very tough tree
-very shade intolerant, pioneer of montane and subalpine zones
Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine
-5 distinct geographical races based on location (ecotype)
-most drought tolerant pine in PA northwest
-becomes more dominant as conditions get dryer
“Big Red” – 162’ tall
*Digger pine is most tolerant of them all, found in Interior basin
Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii coast Douglas-fir Pinaceae
-makes up 20% of all timber used in US; found in really dense stands -moderately shade tolerant, fast growing, long-lived (~1000years)
-dominant in Cascades, scattered tree in Rainforest where it reaches its zenith (17’ in diameter, 325’ tall being the second tallest tree in the world) -also widely planted along coastal Europe (same with Sitka spruce) -Directly tied to what species in wildlife ecology and management decision-making????
-readily regenerates in disturbed areas; harvested within 60yrs after germination
See Hoh Rainforest of Olympics – large range of old-growth forests -thick bark is covered with lichens
-planted in plantations, used for telephone poles