Unit 5 Study Guide
Unit 5 Study Guide BMS 208-03
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Schutzenhofer on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 208-03 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Lanier in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 163 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 12/10/15
Respiratory System (Ch. 25) 12/11/15 4:37 PM Inhalation is activated by activation of diaphragm stimulated by respiratory centers in the brain stems Pathway of Respiration - Nasal cavity -> Pharynx -> Larynx -> Trachea -> Bronchi -> Lungs Figure 25.1 McKinley Upper Respiratory Tract (Nose, Nasal Cavity, Paranasal Sinuses, Pharynx) • Nose -> Nasal cavity -> Pharynx • Nasal Cavity – first structure that allows for entrance of the air o Humidifying and warming up of the air is achieved by mucous lining of the nasal cavity o The frontal bone, nasal bones, cribriform plate of the ethmoid, and sphenoid bone form the roof of the nasal cavity. o The hard plate or floor of the nasal cavity is formed by palatine process of the maxillae and the horizontal plate of the palatine bones o Anterior region near nostril = vestibules o Lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium o Conchae – Superior, Middle, and Inferior Nasal Conchae line walls of nasal cavity, projections that create extra surface and turbulence for the air to stop and warm up and humidify “turbinates” sometimes called “turbinate bones” Figure 25.2 McKinley • Pharynx (all lined with Nonkeratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium) o Nasopharynx – back posterior region of the nasal cavity all the way down to the uvula (end of the soft palate) auditory tube opening o Oropharynx – extends from the tip of the uvula to the tip of the epiglottis, (this is raised but normally during swallowing this will drop, it prevents the transfer of the food and liquid into the trachea), conducts air & passageway for food and liquid o Larygopharynx – conducts air & passageway for food and liquid, tip of epiglottis to bifurcation, from level of hyoid bone to beginning of esophagus (posterior to level of cricoid cartilage in larynx) The Lower Respiratory Tract • Larynx (Voicebox) - Below the Pharynx, composed of 9 different cartilages, a variety of ligaments and skeletal muscle, passageway for air, prevents ingested things from entering the airways, produces sound for speech, participates in sneeze & cough reflex o Junction between hyoid bone, and thyroid cartilage is the Thyrohyoid membrane o Thyroid Cartilage – laryngeal prominence “adams apple” o Cricoid Cartilage o Trachial Cartilages o Function of the cartilage is to keep the airways open o All cartilage made of hyaline cartilage except for the epiglottis made up elastic cartilage o In between thyroid cartilage and arytenoid cartilage are the vocal cords (vocal ligaments) § Glottis is closed = adducted (closed) vocal folds § Glottis is open = abducted (open) vocal folds Figure 25.5 McKinley Figure 25.4 McKinley • Trachea o The lining of the trachea is Respiratory Type Epithelium – Pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells (one layer of cells looks like columns) § Goblet Cells produce secretions and coat the lining of the trachea and the cilia moving from deep structures to pharynx bring what gets stuck in those secretions up o Lined by C-rings - not full or complete rings of tracheal cartilage o Trachealis – muscle that binds the open ends of the C rings together, distends during swallowing to allow passage of food, contracts when coughing to allow most passage of air and loosed material • Carina o Weakest spot where the trachea splits into left and right primary bronchus • Brachial Tree Figure 25.8 McKinley • Trachea -> Bronchi -> Bronchioles -> Terminal Bronchioles (last conducting airways) -> Pulmonary Lobules o The smaller the pathway the less cartilage in the wall, meaning the terminal bronchioles can collapse (what happens during asthma attacks) o Pulmonary Lobule § Respiratory Bronchioles -> Alveolar Ducts -> Alveolar Sacs -> Alveoli (walls of the balloons join with each other, somewhat elastic, ú Panlobular Emphysema • Patients can not inhale air because the alveoli are filled with carbon dioxide and cant take in anymore oxygen so need concentrated forms of it (through the tubes is 100% where as in the atmosphere is only 21%) • A loss of elasticity in the alveoli ú Air that enters alveoli is warm and wet ú Alveolar Cells • Type 1 – Epithelial Cells • Type 2 – Functionally mature at 25 week gestation, these cells keep the walls of the alveoli from getting stuck together, make surfactant (the oily substance that keeps the walls of the alveoli from getting stuck together) • Alveolar Macrophages (the monocyte that wanders into the cells, looks for pathogens and makes sure everything is alright) o Ingest and remove debris § Respiratory Membrane – thin wall between alveolar lumen and blood, the thinness of this membrane is vital, any obstruction of these layers will prevent smooth crossing of oxygen and carbon dioxide, consists of plasma membranes, endothelial cell of a capillary & their fused basement membranes ú The Alveolar Epithelium ú Fused basement of alveolar epithelium & capillary endothelium ú Capillary Endothelium • Bronchopulmonary Segments – 10 in the right and 8-10 in the left, o Extra info from book - (Each segment is supplied by its own segmental bronchus and a branch of the pulmonary artery and vein, surrounded by connective tissue, separating each segment from another, if a portion of a lung is diseased, a surgeon can remove the entire bronchopulmonary segment that is affected) Figure 25.8 McKinley Right Lung 25.12 • Lobes o Superior o Middle o Inferior • Fissures o Oblique Fissure o Horizontal Fissure Left Lung • Lobes o Superior o Inferior • Fissures o Oblique Fissure Hilus of the Lungs: location where all the vessels and all conducting pathways join • Primary bronchus • Pulmonary artery • Pulmonary vein Adenocarcinoma (one form of lung cancer) – tumor is gray-white and firm and hard Figure 25.11 McKinley Digestive System (Ch. 26) 12/11/15 4:37 PM A tube that goes from beginning to end Gastrointestinal Tract • Oral Cavity • Pharynx • Esophagus • Stomach • Large Intestine – on the periphery • Small Intestine - inside the large intestine Accessory Digestive Organs – help digestion but no food in them • Salivary glands • Liver • Gallbladder • Pancreas Figure 26.1 McKinley Oral Cavity • Roof of the Oral cavity o Hard Palate o Soft Palate o Uvula • Bottom of oral cavity o Tongue o Epiglottis o Esophagus o Vestibule – the space in between lips, tongue, cheek when clench teeth • Salivary Glands o Parotid Salivary Glands – on top of masseter muscle, might swell or become inflamed if becomes blocked with calcium deposits o Parotid Duct o Submandibular Salivary Glands o Sublingual Salivary Glands o We need saliva because it keeps bacterial flora at bay, and helps you to taste foods better, helps to bind the food together so we can swallow it. Figure 26.3 McKinley Figure 26.4 McKinley Esophagus • Upper Esophageal Sphincter • Lower Esophageal Sphincter – goes through Esophageal Hiatus (hole in diaphragm) o Causes heart burn when it becomes loose from pressure and foods we eat and the food splashes back up into the esophagus • Stratified Squamous Epithelium – Found throughout the oral cavity all the way through the esophagus because of the amount of abrasion the gastrointestinal tract takes it needs a thick layer of cells • Hiatal hernia at the opening of the stomach Figure 26.19 McKinley Stomach Fig. 26.12 – enlargement in the gastrointestinal tube, possible to stretch stomach, lined by layers of muscle, • curved towards the left (two curves: lesser curvature and greater curvature), • Fundus – superior part of the stomach, this is where gas that has collected during churning of the food is kept • Body of the stomach – everything that is below the Fundus • Pylorus is the bottom part of the stomach, • Pyloric Sphincter - very tight sphincter, tight control of transfer of food from stomach to small intestine • Rugae (gastric folds) - the Inner lining of the stomach,what gets absorbed (transferred to the blood stream quickly) in the stomach is alcohol (why eat something before you drink) • Oblique layer – diagonal layer of smooth muscle fibers, aid in churning and mixing everything that arrives there • LAYERS of the wall (starting inner to outer) o Mucosa – the thickest layer, where food touches § Made out of gastric pits (folding of the mucosa) extending into the gastric glands § Simple Columnar Epithelium – help with secretion of substances that aid digestion ú Types of Cells of the Gastric Pit ú Top of the Gastric Pit lined by columnar cells that produce mucous, spreads and provides protection of the actual tissue – Mucous Cells ú DEEP WITHIN THE GLANDS • Chief Cell – produce Pepsinogen strong enzyme that works in digesting protein (this could digest the stomach wall without the protection from the mucous cells) • Parietal Cells – Produce hydrochloric acid, very corrosive that activates the pepsinogen (which begins the digestion of proteins) o Submucosa – allows for limited absorption of some food items in the stomach, butter and milk and alcohol absorbed here, surface through which nutrients are passing into the bloodstream, used for building of new cells and other functions o Muscularis § Inner Oblique Layer § Middle Circular Layer § Outer Longitudinal Layer o Serous Figure 26.13 McKinley Small Intestine • Chyme (After the bolus has been completely processed in the stomach, chyme is the product) travels to small intestine • Duodenum à proceeds and name change to Jejunum (where chemical digestion occurs, lots of enzymes) à absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream occurs mostly in Ileum • Layers of the Intestine Wall o Mucosa – innermost layer that touches the chyme (food) as it passes through the small intestine directly, in small intestine have a lot of folding to allow for more surface area to absorb nutrients into blood stream § Folds of the Mucosa ú Plica (circular folds) – a singular pleat/fold of the mucosa (plural form of this is Plicae) ú Folds the plica into singular fingers – Villi (aka Intestinal Villus), lined with simple columnar epithelium, absorption of nutrients main function of every villus • Every Villus has an arteriole and venule but more importantly an individual lacteal gland which is responsible for absorbing lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins (too large to be absorbed by capillaries) ú Micro Villi – features or folds of the Villi o Submucosa – thin connective tissue layer, blood vessel layer o Musclaris § Inner Circular Layer § Outer Longitudinal Layer – advances food § Peristalsis – action of advancing the food o Serosa – protection and serves as an attachment of peritoneum, visceral layer of peritoneum to abdominal cavity Figure 26.15 McKinley Large Intestine 26.16 • FUNCTION: Absorption of o Water and electrolytes § Diarrhea § Constipation o Vitamins synthesized/released by colonic bacteria § Vitamin K – important for blood clotting § B12 § Biotin B2 § Vitamin B5 o Urobilinogen § Filtered from blood to make urine “yellow” § Majority stays in waste to make feces “brown” • Ileocecal Valve - attachment of the distal end of the small intestine to the proximal region of the large intestine, prevents backflow from ascending colon to cecum after passed through • 6 parts of the Large Intestine o Cecum – enlargement in the right lower cavity o Ascending colon – makes a 90 degree turn this bend is called the right colic flexure o Transverse Colon - makes a 90 degree turn down and this bend is called the splenic or left colic flexure o Descending Colon o Sigmoid Colon – s-curve o Rectum – straight part of the colon/large intestine • All throughout see the four layers of the wall (Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis, Serosa) • Arteries that bring blood from the heart to the large intestine o Superior Mesenteric Artery o Inferior Mesenteric artery Figure 26.16 McKinley Other Accessory Organs Liver • FUNCTIONS o 1. Process nutrients (glucose ßà glycogen) , carboloading trying to store glycogen to be used later for energy later o 2. Store Vitamins – b12 vitamin used in RNA and DNA structure formation o 3. Detoxify blood – metabolize: drugs, alcohol, medicines, circulating hormones, drinking alcohol overtime the liver can handle it but if overload it cells destroyed can only regenerate if at least 70% of the organ left o 4. Synthesize proteins – albumins, blood clotting proteins, complement proteins o 5. Synthesize Bile The ONLY DIGESTIVE function of the liver § bile emulsifies fat (emulsification: physical change, big globule of fat to tiny droplets), bile not an enzyme • Anterior o Right Lobe o Inferior Vena Cava o Left Lobe o Gallbladder • Posteroinferior View o Caudate Lobe o Quadrate Lobe o Gallbladder • Hepatocytes – cells of liver make the bile and send it to the ducts at the end of every , bile ducts bring it to the duodenal papilla Figure 26.18 McKinley The Pancreas 26.20 – a dual organ, exocrine organ produces enzymes and secretions that do into ducts, endocrine organ • Pancreatic duct collects secretions of pancreatic cells, bile duct and pancreatic duct deliver to the duodenal papilla • Head of the Pancreas • Exocrine Function – production of specific enzyme and fluids from ducts to duodenum o Duct Cells – produces secretions that have a lot of bicarbonate ions and water o Acinar Cells – produce digestive enzymes § Proteolytic enzymes - proteins ú Transinogen ú Chymotrypsinogen § Pancreatic Amylase § Pancreatic Lipase – fats • Endocrine Function p. 139 – release of hormones into the blood o Insulin – the chaperone that allows glucose to enter the cells, works to reduce blood glucose levels, release and transfer glucose from the blood stream into the cells o Glucagon – affected when don’t have enough glucose in the blood stream, action is to elevate the blood glucose levels Figure 26.20 McKinley Gallbladder – doesn’t make anything, stores extra bile for a fatty meal to emulsify all the fat • Liver produces bile sent through left and right hepatic ducts • These meet to form the common hepatic duct • The cystic duct leads from the gallbladder and meets the common hepatic to become the Common Bile Duct and this is sent to the Duodenum Anatomy of the Human Urinary System (Ch. 27) 12/11/15 4:37 PM Kidneys • Functions of the Kidney – make sure stuff that will harm, wasteful, or overwhelm us is removed, filters waste o Regulating water and electrolyte levels o Removing organic waste products o Remove foreign chemicals and metabolites o Secretion of hormones erythropoietin and renin • Structure - Size of a bar of soap o Outer region is the Cortex o Inner region – Medulla (the middle) § Contains Renal Pyramids ú The ends of these are the projections – Renal Papilla ú Papilla inserts in funnel collection type structure called the Calyx • One funnel is the minor calyx • Several minor calyses meet together to form the major calyx all major calyses meet to form the renal pelvis which funnels into the ureter o Hilus of the Kidney – where all the vessels enter and leave, pelvis turns into ureter o To get blood to the Kidney to filter it: § Abdominal aorta à renal artery à divides into two segmental arteries à these follow the lobes of the kidney (now called interlobar artery in the medulla of the kidney) à when they turn very abruptly called Arcuate Artery à Interlobular Artery (tiny in the cortex) à microscopic branches – Afferent arteriole à forms network of capillaries (Glomerulus) surrounded by collecting structure (Bowman’s Capsule) and flows out via à Efferent Arteriole, (Peritubular Capillaries and Vasa Recta capillaries around tubules of Nephron.) o To get blood back to the lungs: § Interlobular Vein à Arcuate Vein à merge to become Interlobar Vein à join to become final renal vein • Figure 27.4 McKinley o *Side Note* (No functioning nephrons kidney shut down and we can not remove waste, need to keep blood pressure up (pressure from fluids) to keep organs like the kidney working) o Parts of the Nephron (functional filtration unit of the kidney): § Renal Corpuscle fig. 27.7 ú Glomerulus – capillaries ú Bowman’s Capsule • Parietal Layer • Capsular Space • Visceral Layer (Podocytes) – cells of the visceral layer of Bowman’s capsule, have slits in between them so there is space that are spaced, not touching each other, simple squamous cells § From corpuscle (Bowman’s Capsule) à Proximal Convoluted Tubule (winding twisting, located in the cortex) à part that dips towards the medulla = Loop of Henle/Nephron Loop à Distal Convoluted tubule à Collecting Duct fig 27.5 ú Filtration Membrane ú Kidney has cells that sense blood pressure drop and cells that can raise it through hormones • Renin – work in the Angiotensinogen, raises blood pressure and blood volume • Erythropoietin – acts in blood marrow, stimulates red blood cell production ú Hormone of the Posterior Pituitary Gland- Brain tells the kidney to conserve water and that communication occurs through specific hormone called Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), stimulates retention of water by kidney tubule cells ú Adrenal Glands – superior to the kidneys • Hormones released by the Adrenal Glands o Aldosterone – targets the kidney telling it to release potassium and retain sodium o Cortisol – targets most cells of the body tell to stimulate glucose formation in liver, catabolizes structural proteins and lipids release from adipocytes (stress lead to weight gain) o Androgens – targets most cells of the body and stimulates “masculinizing” traits to the body ú Ureter from Kidney and leads to the Urinary Bladder Figure 27.7 McKinley Figure 27.5 McKinley Figure 27.8 McKinley Urinary Bladder • Detrusor muscle • Urinary Rugae • Trigone – smooth area of lining of the bladder between opening of the ureters and the urethra Reproductive System (Ch. 28) 12/11/15 4:37 PM Organs of reproductive System = Gonads • Male gonads = testes • Female Gonads = ovaries Reproductive Cells = Gametes • Male gamete = sperm • Female gamete = ovum Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary gland • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) – o Females - follicle cells of the ovary stimulates follicle development and estrogen production in ovary o Males - talks to sertoli cells and tells to make more sperm • Leutenizing Hormone (LH) – o Females - target follicle cells of the ovary and stimulates ovulation and development of Corpus luteum o Males - targets interstitial (leydig) cells of the testes, stimulates testosterone production Male Reproductive System – Important Structures • Urinary Bladder • Ureter • Testes (singular form testis • Scrotum - where testes are located, external because need two to three degrees lower than body temp • Epididymis – where the sperm mature and then advance to ductus deferens • Ductus Deferens (Vas deferens) – ends up in the abdominal cavity, when these are cut and tied = vasectomy • Prostate Gland – under the urinary bladder, overgrowth of prostate puts more pressure on the bladder, sperm are aided in their journey by the secretions of the prostate gland (manipulates their ph) • Secretion of Bulbourethral Gland at the base of the prostate, for clearing and lubrication before ejaculation • Seminal Vesicles – produce secretion rich in fructose and electrolytes (seminal fluid) • Semen made out of sperm and seminal fluid • Penile Urethra • Corpus Cavernosum – where blood is trapped during erection • Corpus Spongiosum • Parts of the Penis o Root of Penis – corpus cavernosum o Bulb of penis – corpus spongiosum o Shaft of the Penis o Glans Penis o Scrotum • Cross Section o Corpus Cavernosum – filled with blood and compress the veins that drain blood away from the venous spaces so blood cannot leave erectile bodies until sexual excitement ceases o Corpus Spongiosum o Penile Urethra • Hormones of the Testes o Testosterone – produced by interstitial cells and targets most cells, stimulates maturation of sperm, promotes secondary sex traits and behavior (focus on procreation) Figure 28.11 McKinley Figure 28.15 McKinley Figure 28.17 McKinley Female Reproductive Organs • Uterus – differentiates female and male (others are counterparts of male reproductive organs), organ in which embryo and future fetus is housed o Fundus – superior most part of the uterus o Body o Cervix – dips into the vagina, accessible from outside o Wall of the Uterus § Perimetrium § Myometrium – muscle wall of the uterus § Endometrium – lining of the uturus which sheds every month • Ovaries – produce ova • Uterine Tube • Three Openings o Urinary bladder to Urethra to outside (External Urethral Orifice) o Vagina (Vaginal Orifice) o Anus • Hormones of Ovaries o Estrogen – promotes the development of secondary sex traits and behavior, produced by follicular cells o Progesterone- stimulates growth and maintenance of uterine (endometrial) lining Figure 28.2 McKinley Figure 28.7 McKinley Ovulation • Ovarian Cycle o Follicle Types § Primordial Follicle – most primitive, consists of primary oocyte (oocytes arrested in first meiotic prophase) surrounded by single layer of squamous follicle cells § Primary Follicle – Forms from a maturing primordial follicle, consists of primary oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of cuboidal follicular cells, secretes estrogen, estrogen stimulates change in uterine lining § Secondary Follicle – Forms from a primary follicle, contains primary oocyte, many layers of granulosa cells, fluid filled space called antrum § Mature Follicle – Forms from a secondary follicle, contains a secondary oocyte, layers of granulosa cells and large fluid filled crescent-shaped antrum • Ovary - produces and releases both female gametes and sex hormones • Uterine Tube - paired passageways that capture the ovulated secondary oocyte, provide the site for fertilization, and transport the oocyte to the uterus • Oocyte Figure 28.4 McKinley Fertilization – egg and sperm join in the uterine (Fallopian) tube Implantation – fertilized egg grows into the uterine wall (Endometrium) Major Derivatives of Germinal Layers • Ectoderm – epidermis, nervous system, eyes, and teeth • Mesoderm – dermis of the skin, muscle tissue, connective tissue, heart, kidney, ureters, reproductive organs • Endoderm – GI tract, respiratory system, liver, pancreas Figure 3.12 McKinley Female Breast • Alveoli • Lactiferous Ducts • Areolar Glands • Areola • Nipple Figure 28.10 McKinley Hormone of the Posterior Pituitary Gland • Oxytocin – targets the uterus and mammary glands to stimulate the uterine contractions during labor and milk ejections during breast feeding
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