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Date Created: 04/02/16
COMM 415 Exam 2 4/2/16 10:10 AM 2/25 Space Functions of space: • Regulate conversation • Attitude towards others • Status Skorjanc Study • Subjects introduced to Scott, who was introduced as: o Just finished jail sentence or grad student o Average distance (in seats) § Violent offender (3.7) § Non-violent offender (3.3) § Student (2.5) 3 Categories of Space • fixed-feature space: location of physical unmovable structures (bathtub, sink, toilet) • semi-fixed feature space: location of moveable objects (chairs/furniture) • informal/personal space: interpersonal space Sociopetal vs. Sociofugal Space • Sociopetal: space is organized so it is conducive to communication between people- bring together • Sociofugal: space arranged so it produced solitude, inhibits interaction between people- separate 4 Regions of Proxemics • intimate: 0-18 inches • personal: 1.5-4 feet (same in blind people)- lose some sensory info- smell/heat perception o left with hearing, sound and sight • social: 4-12 feet- lose available sensory cues- strangers (mailman) • public: beyond 12 feet- mass communication o sound & hearing- adjust vocals Encoding Age and Space Use • Unclear under age 5 • Space increases over age 5-17 yrs • Initially less space for same sex pairs • Later, less space for opposite sex pairs • Sex diffs. Evident as early as age 7 Sex differences in the encoding of space • Females maintain closer interpersonal distance than males • Females approach others, especially other females, closer than males will • Males approach other males and other females at same distance • Females will allow other to approach more closely than males o *size could determine personal space- bigger people=bigger distance, smaller people=smaller distance Culture and Space • No universals in space (not the same) • Crowding (perceptual) vs. density (physical) o In Mexico, it takes a higher density to make people feel crowded than in U.S. • Contact vs. noncontact cultures Personality and use of personal space • Preferences for closer space increases with increasing degrees of extraversion • People who are high in social anxiety tend to use longer interacting distance • People high in need for affiliation use closer interacting distances Decoding Decoding Space: Distance and Arousal • Changes in skin conductance • Too close=arousal • For females, too far can also cause arousal • The closer the invasion, the sooner the evacuation *study Decoding Space: Crowding and Performance • Correlated with density curvilinear relationship between crowding and performance (happy medium) • Close space with strangers is more “crowding” than with friends • Most “crowding” with male strangers, least with female friends Restaurant Tipping • Waitresses approached customers seated by themselves in a restaurant in France at either .5, 1.5, or 2.5 ft away • 478 customers • greater % of customers in close condition left a tip • customers in close condition left higher tips than further conditions Threats of Violence • Imagine scenario where there was a heated argument • What cues would you consider suggestive of imminent violence? o #1: assuming boxer stance o #2: invasion of personal space** o #3: clenched hands Interactive Space Intimacy Equilibrium Theory • People are subject to 2 motivations in interpersonal interactions: o 1. Being intimate (approach) o stay separate (avoid) • the balance between these 2 motivations is a point of equilibrium • if one person’s behavior upsets this equilibrium, the other will compensate (ex: back up if someone is too close) Arousal Labeling Theory • Close distance creates arousal in decoder • Arousal is labeled positively, decoder will approach (reciprocate) • Arousal is labeled negatively, decoder will avoid (compensate) 3/1 Facial Expression The human face • Major function: convey emotion • + attitudes towards other people and objects • some facial expressions are emblematic Facial “sign Vehicles” • Static: remain constant (qualities of face that never change: face shape, nose, etc.) • Slow: reliability change with age (wrinkles, fat, beard, etc.) • Rapid: change in matter of seconds (facial expressions**) • Artificial: cosmetics or facial treatments used to enhance beauty or combat age Slow Sign Hehicles Predict Mortality- Study • Pictures taken of 292 people 82-84 years old • Students guessed age of pictures • Guesses ranges 63-85 years old • 108 of 292 participants dies in following 6 years • takeaway: the older you look, greater risk of mortality Organization of Face Muscles • Eyes/brows • Nose/cheeks • Mouth 6 Primary Facial Expressions of Emotion- eyes, nose, mouth • 1. happiness/joy- distinguished by eye muscles (fake v. real) • 2. sadness • 3. anger • 4. surprise • 5. disgust • 6. fear th • 7 Contempt?? Universal Pride Expression • Happy face, head tilted back, chest out, hands on hips, children at age 4 can identify, isolated African tribal culture can identify, might function to mark/maintain status Facial Feedback Hypothesis • James (peripheralist) muscle activity -> emotion • Cannon (centralist) cognitive appraisal -> emotion • Facial feedback hypothesis – peripheralist • Facial muscle activity -> emotion • Laird- people were happier when they were in a smile expression and angrier when they were in a frown expression Further Evidence of Facial Feedback • Lower eyebrows= mood becomes more negative • Raised eyebrows= more surprised facts • Wrinkled nose= rate odors as more unpleasant Studies continued • Sun-induced frowning= same facial muscle activation as in the expression of anger • Surveyed people walking into sun with or without sunglasses • People without sunglasses (who were squinting) scored higher on measure of anger and aggression Studies Continued • Simulate smiles by holding chopsticks in mouth • Stress: hand in ice cold water for 1 min • People induced to assume a Duchenne smile had lowest heart rate during the stressful task Animal Species Homologous Facial Displays in Nonhuman Primates • Grimace= fear (lips pulled back, looks like smile) • Tense- mouth display= anger • Play face= happiness/joy Primate Facial Encoding and Decoding Executive Monkey- Study * • Monkey I restraining chair • Light goes off, 6 seconds later-shock • Prevent shock with lever press within 6 seconds • Lever was taken away form “stimulus” monkey and given to “responder” monkey • Responder monkey also hooked up • Responder monkey could only see face of stimulus monkey on TV • Responder monkey prevented shocks at a rate of 92% by just watching face of stimulus monkey • Takeaway: Monkeys can read each other’s facial expressions Domestic Dogs Can Decode Human Facial Expressions • Sausage, garlic, or wood shavings hidden in a box • Human looked in box with happy, disgust, or neutral facial expression • Dogs used the experimenter’s happy facial expression to locate hidden food- went to box associated with happy face vs. disgust face 55% of the time 3/3 Facial Expression Infants: Encoding • Facial muscles formed at birth • Distinct expression early infancy • Social smiling 3-4 weeks old, full blown at 3 months • Imitation in 1-2 days • No genuine emotion until 18 months? • Management of emotional expression 6-10 years Infants: Decoding • Adults posed facial expressions to neonates • Neonate’s visual fixation and facial movement was measured • Neonates showed different visual fixation patters in response to different facial expressions • Observer could guess which face was being posed by just observing neonates’ reactions • Average age of neonate subjects= 36 hours • **Born with ability to read human facial expressions** Adults “Phony” Smiles • slightly asymmetrical (stronger on left) aka miserable smile • may occur at socially inappropriate times • do not involve “crinkly-eye” appearance • excessively long apex durations, short onset times, and irregular offset times Smile onset duration • Computer generated images • Smile onset duration 133 vs. 533 vs. Long duration person judged more attractive and trustworthy What will your future be like? Look at your yearbook photo • Positive emotion, personality = personal resource • 1958 college yearbook photo • coded for positive effect (Duchenne Smile) • follow up measures at age 27, 43, 52 • results: o women with ore positive facial effect were rated higher on affiliation, competence, and lower in negativity o observers expected rewarding interaction o positive emotion=more likely to be married at 27, less likely to be single into middle adulthood o positive emotion= higher marital satisfaction at age 52 o global well-being (emotional and physical health) higher at 21, 27, 43, and 52 Cross Cultural Issues • Encoding and decoding of primary facial emotions is universal • Research with remote cultures has ruled out social learning of facial emotions • Children born blind and deaf show same expressions of emotion • …but, DISPLAY RULES • In social situations, facial expressions of Japanese and American students differ- but not when they were alone • **part of DNA/Biology to use facial expressions** Decoding Different Emotions • Easiest= happiness • 2. Sadness • 3. Anger • 4. Fear • 5. Disgust • 6. Surprise • positive emotions are easier to decode than negative emotions in the face Sex differences in decoding facial expressions • Females decode better than males • Sex difference already evident in childhood • 53% of girls perform above average • 46% of boys perform above average • no increase in the sex different over time • neurobehavioral maturation model (early in life) • social scaffolding model (later in childhood) Decoding Facial Emotion and Gender • gender-neutral computer images • varying expressions of anger and happiness • subjects were quicker to label angry faces as male and happy faces as females signals for facial expression of emotion and masculinity/femininity have merged over time Alcoholism and Facial Decoding • Recovering alcoholics and control subjects viewed slides • Multiple choice test • Lower accuracy in alcoholic group • Unaware of their deficit • More interpersonal problems in alcoholic group • These were negatively associated with their performance on the facial recognition task Poor facial emotion decoding in alcoholism • Meta analysis of 19 studies with 1352 participants • Alcoholics performed more poorly then non-alcoholics on facial emotion recognition d=-0.67 Autism and Facial Decoding • Autism: expressive and receptive communication deficit • Adults with and without autism shown faces and shapes • Press button for face or circle • fMRI while performing task (brain scanner) • autism and control group performed as well at face and shape recognition • BUT different brain regions were activated • Autism: aberrant and individual-specific regions were activated (compared to amygdala in controls) Social Anxiety and Decoding Facial Expression • Social anxiety: over-aroused in social situations • Children shown photos of positive, negative, or neutral facial expressions • Press different button for positive, neutral, or negative • Anxious and non-anxious children had comparable performance • But anxious children saw emotion in neutral faces • Anxious children took longer to respond Socially Anxious Dwell on Threatening Faces • Neutral or threatening faces presented to young adults with and without social anxiety • People with social anxiety spent significantly longer time looking at the threatening faces, but not the neutral faces 3/8 Facial Decoding of Emotion and Borderline Personality Disorder • Slowly morphine computer generated face • 20 ppl w. BPD, 20 healthy controls • negative expression: BPD detected on average when 73% expressed, controls 82% expressed • positive expression: BPD detected at 48% expressed vs. 69% in controls • *ppl with BPD are quicker to pick up subtle expressions • over-reaction to minor incidents with others • pple with BPD are less accurate then controls in recognizing anger and disgust • BPS misattribute emotions to neutral facial expressions Schizophrenia and facial decoding • Schiz patients perceive ambiguous and subtle facial expressions as happy rather than angry, regardless of social contexts • Faced were shown with a story: being praised (+) blamed (-) or inquiry (neutral) Mother’s decoding of infant facial expressions • First time mother vs. never mothers • Attention capture task • Infant faces in general, and emotional infant faces in particular, engage attention compared to adult faces • For mothers, infant faces were more salient • Adaptive behavioral change w/ parenthood • *motherhood enhances decoding facial expression ability in infants Oxytocin and Facial Decoding • Oxytocin (OT): neuropeptide secreted from the posterior pituitary • Critical role in mammalian social behavior • Trust, cooperation, relaxation around others • Snorting OT enhances emotional recognition of faces • Especially pronounced effect on happy and fear faces Interactive Interactive Aspects of facial Expression • Dimberg: Look at happy and sad faces o *People smile when they look as happy faces and frown when they look at unhappy faces • Meltzoff: Infant imitation- sticking tongue out (mirror neurons) • Hatfield: watch video of man telling happy/sad story • Provine: yawning is contagious Helping People with a Baby Face • Computer generated face • Picture of face= Attached to resume • “lost” in US and Kenya main • measuring of helping=return • baby-faced resumes were returned more than mature face • *babyface” elicits helping response=good to have babyface Measurement of Facial Expression • Human judgments o Observer judgment o Direct measurement(muscle actions) o Physiological measurement facial EMG (electromyography) 3/10 Touch Messages Conveyed by Touch • greeting • hostility • reassurance • Instruction • Liking • Power • Sexuality The Meaning of Touch is Affected By… • What part of the body is touched • What part of the other person’s body touched the self • How long the touch lasts • How much pressure is used • Whether there is movement after contact has been made • Whether anyone else is present • If others are present, who they are • The situation • The relationship between the persons involved (most important) • Touch is just space when the space between people become 0. Five Situations/Relations involving touch • Functional/professional • Social/polite • Friendship/warmth • Love/intimacy • Sexual arousal Culture and Touch • Contact v. noncontact cultures • Arabs > Americans • Costa Rica > Americans • Italian and Greek > British, Dutch, French • Different meanings in different cultures (e.g., same sex touch) Sex Differences Reactions to intimate touch • Nguyen et al. (1975) • Men and women agree on what kind of touch signifies sexual desire • They differ in their reactions • Men: sexual touch (+) • Women: sexual touch (-) • Nguyen et al. (1976) • The relationship between sexual touch and men’s (+) reactions was very weak o Women: sexual touch (+) o This sample was married Sex differences and marital status, Controlling for Age • 305 adults aged 18-69 years • reactions to touch to diff. body regions from an intimate partner • touch to nonintimate body regions: men’s reactions = women’s reactions • touch to intimate body regions: men’s reaction more positive than women’s • unmarried men responded more positively to intimate touch than married men did • pattern holds even after statistically controlling for age M -> F vs. F-> M touch • observation of 4500 dyads in public • M -> F = F -> M touch • F -> F > M -> M touch • M initiate more touch but F reciprocates, so M = F • F may touch less earlier and more later in relationships development Relational Stage and Touch • Men initiate more touch in casual romantic relationships • Women initiate more touch in married relationships • In young couples, people under the age of 20 couples, men initiate more touch • In older couples (20s, 30s, 40s) women initiate more touch, and men touched rarely M-F differences in Touch in Sports • College softball and baseball team observed • Males performed more hand -> other body part touch (butt slap, head shake) • Females performed more hand -> hand touches (low five, hand slap, hand pile, potato fists, glove tap) • Females performed more intimate touch (team hug) • M: touch mostly after (+) events Personality and Touch • “need for touch” = preference for extraction and utilization of information obtained through the haptic system • two dimensions: o instrumental – outcome-directed issues associated with a purchasing goal o Autotelic – touch as an end in and of itself; hedonic – oriented response seeking fun, arousal, sensory stimulation, and enjoyment 3/22 personality and touch • “need for touch”= preference for extraction • instrumental need for touch is negatively associated with making purchases other the internet or by phone from a catalog • autotelic need for touch is positively associated with impulse buying Extraverts are Activated by Touch • Personality inventory • Mechanical tactile stimulation to fingers • Extraversion was positively correlated with brain activation in the somatosensory cortex- extraverts brains get fired up with touch • Especially true for touch of Left hand (activates right hemisphere) • Right hemisphere processes social information The Effects of Touch on Others • In the right setting, it can make people feel positive about the toucher • It can help the recipient self-disclose and talk about themselves • People comply with requests more when lightly touched • Increased gratitude and liking toward toucher and positive mood in the receiver • More receivers feel more supported by partner Purchasing and Spending • Cocktail waitresses touched near shoulder or patron 3-4 seconds o People who were touched ordered more drinks • Servers touch restaurant patrons on shoulder (or not) o People who were touched left larger tips Touch and Psychological Well-Being • Dating couples • Electronic diary 4 times per day for 1 week on their touch • Touched form partner=better mood in decoder • Touch=better mood in encoder • Receiving touch during 1 week=better psychological well-being 6 months later Mirror Neurons for Touch • Confederate touch the hand of participants • Participants watch the confederate touch their own hand • Magnetoencephalography • Same parts of brain activated when being touch and when observing other being touched Perceptions of Touchers • A person who initiates touch is seen as having: the status that gives permission to touch • The courage and initiative to exercise the status • A warm personality Impressions of People who touch • Librarians touched/didn't touch patrons checking out books • Palm of hand • Approached to fill out a survey • Subjects who were touched rated the librarian more favorably than those who were not touched • Only 57% of touched subjects noticed the touch Positive Evaluation of Touchers • Teachers verbally describe to students how to take their pulse • OR actually showed them by touching their wrist • Cover story: heart rate important factor in learning • Watch video of same teacher giving a lecture • Students touched by the teacher in the video gave her higher rating than those in no-touch condition Perceptions of Touch From Family Members • Survey 204 adults • Rate appropriateness of different parent-child touches (sit on lap, kiss on lips, give child a bath) • Very clear norms emerged • Higher approval for mother vs. father for lap sitting, kiss, and bathing • Mothers are judged to have more freedom to touch their kids Reactions to Touch • Variation in reactions to touch is best explained by the degree of congruence between the intimacy of the touch and the intimacy of the relationship Interactive Aspects of Touch • Decreased arousal • Growth and development: brain development and weight game • Pain Reduction- gate theory • Attentiveness: autistic children and ADD children • Improved mood: adolescent psychiatric patients Touch and Maternal Depression • During 5 min play period depressed mothers touch their infants in a more controlling, restraining way • Infants of depressed mothers engage in more self-touching • Infant self-touching is self-comforting behavior to compensate for lack of positive touch form mother Touch and Relationship Development (encoding) • 154 opposite sex couples waiting in line at a movie theater or zoo • touch recoded on body parts • couples then approached to fill out survey • hand to hand touch: 33% initial stage of relationship, 61% intermediate, 35% stable • touch to waist: 8% initial, 20% intermediate, 3% stable • tie signs- touch (in this case) behaviors we engage in that communicate that we have a relationship with each other- wedding ring, wearing boyfriend’s letterman jacket- for public consumption Relational Commitment of Romantic Touch (Decoding) • Females judged greater levels of commitment as touch became more sexually intimate when compared to males (@ higher levels of intimacy- petting lower/upper body, heavy petting, intercourse) 3/24 Function Approach to NV Comm Assumption: multiple behaviors work together to produce same functions (intimacy= gaze, touch, space, etc.) • Any given behavior can serve multiple functions What Functions • Focus of social functions • Determined through principled research • Encoding approach-motivations of sender • Primary functions of any social Behavior: o Dominance/Control o Affiliation/Intimacy Patterson’s Functions of NV Behavior • Information • Regulation • Intimacy • Social Control (dominance) • Impression management (deception) • Affect management (emotion) • Service-task (hair stylist, physical therapist) o Patterson’s approach is an encoding approach- functions are defined by the motivation of the actor Why use a functional approach? • Sensitizes us to discover all behaviors that serve a particular function (a multivariate approach) • Recognize that individual behaviors can have multiple functions • Organizes research on channels Ekman’s Neurocultural Theory • Elicitors: environmental factors that produce the emotional state • Facial Affect Program: brain function that triggers facial muscles (Universal) • Display Rules: Cultural, personal, situational factors that modify the conditions that elicit emotion or its expression o Functions of Display Rules § Intensify § Attenuate: tone it down- sports-penalties for over- celebrating § Neutralize- turn it off § Mask- expression different than what you really are • Behavioral Consequences: nonverbal and verbal signs of emotion, physiological arousal, etc. (filtered thru display rules) Universal Displays of Facial Affect • Studied photos of Olympic medal winners • Gold medal winners displayed Duchenne smile • Most silver medal winners displayed sadness, sadness-smiled blend, forced smiles, or contempt • Regardless of cultural affiliation Facial Feedback Hypothesis • External facial displays affect internal emotional state • Intense posing and concealment of pain from shock • Physiological response is diminished by attempts to conceal • Spontaneous vs. posed positive and negative facial expression Effects of the Duchenne Smile on the Experience of Emotion • 4 conditions: control, lips pressing, non-duchenne smile, Duchenne Smile • study on physically handicapped • manipulate objects with mouth • watch emotion-eliciting videos • Ss in the Duchenne smile condition reported more positive experience when viewing pleasant scene and cartoons Facial Feedback Mori&Mori • Adhesive bandages on peoples cheeks connected to rubber bands • People were happier when their cheeks were lifted • People taught to react with smile or frown when exposed to different stimuli • Participants rated the stimuli higher in pleasantness in the smile condition compared to the frown condition Developmental issues in the Encoding of Emotion • Infant facial muscles capable of assuming many expressions • Imitation (even in pre-term infants) • Judges can correctly identify model’s facial display based on facial reaction of infant • Smile and sad present at birth • Fear, anger, surprise come later • Infants don't show matching of sadness Personality Differences in the Encoding of Emotion • Differences in expressivity • Low expressive= internalizer • High expressive= externalizer • Internalizer=more physiological aroused (bottled up emotions but look calm on outside) • Externalizers= less physiologically aroused (let everything out but less emotion internally) Channels and Specific Emotions • Communicate different emotional states to a life-size human like mannequin dressed in a t-shirt and sweat pants • People use different channels for different emotions • Touch: most with love or sympathy • Least with guilt, shame, disgust, fear • Face and body used in most emotions except love and sympathy • Shame and anger- mostly used in body Relation between encoding and decoding • Significant association between encoding purposeful and intentional displays of emotion and emotional decoding skills • No association between encoding spontaneous, naturalistic displays of emotion and decoding skills • Nonverbal decoding skills are associated with what people can do emotionally more than what they actually do 3/29 Intimacy Encoding NV Signals of Love • 60 dating couples • discussion, first date, plans for tomorrow, area of conflict, etc. • self-reports of love correlated with: • ^ affirmative head nods • ^ Duchenne smiles • ^ forward lean (toward partner) • ^ hand gestures NV Behavior and Relational States • 20 distress marriages and 20 non-distresses married couples • conflict resolution task • then, half were instructed to act happy and content (fake good) and half to act unhappy and distressed (fake bad) • Verbal (compromise, problem description, agreement, approval, excuse, criticize) and nonverbal (attention, positive physical, no response, laugh) behaviors were recorded • Both distressed and non couples altered behavior in response to the instruction to fake good or bad • There were no differences in couples nv behaviors (+/-) in the fake good and bad conditions • **Couples can fake happiness or distress verbally but their nonverbal behaviors reveal the true state of relationship** Gaze and Intimacy • Couples who score high on romantic love scales exhibit a lot of mutual gaze • Need for affiliation in positively correlated with mutual gaze • Better adjusted married couples exhibit more mutual gaze than distressed couples Gaze and Initial Attraction • Heterosexual participants look at photos of men and women • Remote eye tracking recoding system • All participants initially attracted to the face of opposite sex models • Then…. Women shift attention to legs, men shift attention to chest Speech Rate and intimacy • Fewer and shorter pauses • Faster speech rate (enthusiasm) • Matching partners vocal cues (accent/loudness) Pitch and Romantic Relationships • Call close same-sex friend and a romantic partner • “How are you” “what are you doing” • men raised pitch when talking to romantic partner vs. friend • women lowered pitch when talking to romantic partner vs. friend Pitch and Target Attractiveness • Make phone calls to attractive and unattractive targets • Showed them photos in advance of making phone calls • No answer, so callers left voicemail • Male and Female callers spoke in lower pitch when calling attractive targets Gesture and Intimacy • In positive, friendly interactions, people exhibit more object focused gestures and fewer body focused gestures • We also use more illustrators when interacting with friendly others Posture and Intimacy • More forward lean • Direct shoulder/body orientation • Greater postural mimicry Smiles and Intimacy • Not a very reliable sign of intimacy and involvement • Some people smile in more negative situations then in positive ones Romantic Display Rules • Male subjects watched 3 videos • Horror films, infants, and neutral films • Thought they were being observed by an attractive or unattractive female research assistant • Attractive observer = frowned less while watching horror film • Attractive observer= smiled more while watching infant film • Impression management via facial expression Space and Intimacy • Intimate space = 0-18 inches • Couples with direct body orientation Touch and Intimacy • Moure touch (in middle stages of close relationships) • Greater body accessibility Decoding of NV Behavior of Intimacy • Shrout and Fiske: Coded behaviors of interactions • Speakers were rated on socially desirable traits (friendly, snobbish etc.) • Which behaviors were associated with judgments of social desirability?? • Results: o More head nods, more back channels, longer smile duration, more frequent filled pauses, longer gaze duration Decoding touch and Intimacy • Touch to face= most affection, attraction and love • Touch to waist and forearm show high romantic attraction o But most indicative of harassment Relationship Closeness and Decoding NV Behavior • Hypothesis: Close friends and better decoders of each others’ nonverbal than strangers are • Close friends performed worse than acquaintances at decoding partners’ negative affect when partners attempted to disguise their negative emotion (sadness and anger) • Close friends performed worse than strangers in this condition • Motivated Inaccuracy Model: when a relationship partner has thoughts or feelings that could prove to being distressing to the perceiver, and are not clearly expressed, we choose to “look the other way” Decoding of Negative Facial Expression and Relationship Satisfaction • Micro-expression Recognition Training tool • Better decoding of NEGATIVE facial expressions= ^ relational satisfaction • May be explained by decreasing conflict management among those with good decoding of negative facial emotions Postural Congruence and nonverbal mimicry= intimacy Explanation for Mimicry • Nonconscious mimicry creates affiliation and affiliation an create nonconscious mimicry • This played an important part in human evolution • Important for group members to feel sense of psychological connection with each other • Individuals with tendency to mimic others establish this sense of connection and would therefore continue to be included in the group Developmental Aspects of Interactive Intimacy Behaviors • Mothers and infants synchronize facial expressiveness, gross body movements, and vocals • More synchrony in full term vs. pre-term infants, and more in 5 month vs. 3 month olds • 3-6 year old children converge to the speech rate and the response latency of an adult who interacted with them 3/31 Regulation Turn Taking Factions • 50% of all turns (floor changes- I stop talking, you start talking) that occur in conversations are smooth • a “smooth turn transition” occurs when the floor switches without a perceptible pause • these turn transitions occur in less than 250 ms Other primates use turn taking • Social animals that communicate Cognitive Multitasking • Floor switches are s fast, they are at or beyond the limit of human performance for response to a signal (pistol shot at start of race) • People MUST be anticipating and predicting the end of speaker’s turn • Listeners plan their utterances while still listening to the speaker Simultaneous talk- both speakers are making utterances at the same time (just making sounds) Simultaneous turns- when both participants claim the speaking turn at the same time (claim to the floor- Debate) • Simultaneous turns occur when 1. The listener attempts to take a turn in the absence of a turn yielding cue or 2. The speaker emits a turn yielding cue but continues to talk The Turn Taking System Speaker behaviors • Turn yielding cues- behaviors that speakers use to say “I’m done” “take over” o Changing in intonation (drop/rise) o Sociocentric sequence- phrase pulling for response- “Ya know?” o Drawl- prolonging last syllable- “sooo…” o Termination of gestures o Drop in loudness o Completion of grammatical clause • Turn holding cues- let me keep going o Maintenance of active gaze- dominant behavior o Gaze initiation without a yielding cue o Gesture- I’m aware you want to take the floor, but give me a minute to finish Listener behaviors • Turn requesting cues o Backchannels o Speaker directed gaze o Audible inhalation o Forward Lean o Gesture- raising hand o A stutter start • Backchannels o Listeners participate in conversation vie backchannels (brief gestures vocals, head nods) I’m listening, I hear you, I’m following, I want to hear more etc. o Backchannels elicited in “gaze window” backchannels do not constitute a turn of claim to a turn o Backchannels are used to AVOID taking the floor o Backchannels are also elicited by 1. Sentence completions 2. Requests for clarification 3. Restatement Interruptions • To take the floor in the absence of turn yielding cues • Different from simultaneous speech • Attempted vs. successful interruptions • 1. loudness 2. change in loudness Response to Interruptions • People attempt to maintain the floor after an attempted interruption by increasing loudness • Success depends upon giving out the lowest number of turn yielding cues and the most turn requesting cues • Interruptions are commonly followed by interruptions Sex Differences in Interruptions • Men do not interrupt any more than women • Women do not get interrupted any more than men • There were more opposite sex interruptions than same sex. • Women smiled, agreed, nodded, and laughed more in response to interruption than men • This shows evidence of a greater attempt to facilitate the flow of conversation Status Perceptions and Interruption • People who interrupt are perceived as having higher status than people who are interrupted • People who get interrupted rated themselves as less influential • Interrupters, especially female, are perceived as less likable • Dilemma: interrupting produces perceptions of higher status but lower likability Different Types of Interruptions • Deep/intrusive interruptions are more aggressive; they threaten the territory of the speaker by means of topic-changing, floor-changing, or disagreement. • But sometimes people interrupt to express agreement with the speaker (supportive interruption) • Gnisi found that disagreeing interruptions were viewed POSITIVEY • Supportive interruptions viewed positively • Change subject interruptions were viewed negatively, especially when frequent • Same subject interruptions were not viewed as very noxious unless they were frequent • Patient satisfaction is negatively associated with intrusive interruptions but positively associated with supportive interruptions form physician 4/2/16 10:10 AM 4/2/16 10:10 AM
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