Sociology of Sport Study Guide
Sociology of Sport Study Guide SOC 2150
Popular in Sociology of Sports
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Sociology
This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristi Abbate on Saturday January 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 2150 at George Washington University taught by Zamoff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 224 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Sports in Sociology at George Washington University.
Reviews for Sociology of Sport Study Guide
These are great! I definitely recommend anyone to follow this notetaker
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/31/15
Chapter 6Have We Gone Soft The 19505 saw huge economic expansion quota time of abundance 11 million families joining the middle class every year lots of babies highspending debthappy upgrading American consumers new technology10 of Americans had TVsby 1959 90 Mickey Mantle and Johnny Unitas were icons Unitas was star quarterback for the Colts w attop haircut McCarthyism 1947 President Harry Truman Democrat made a regulation that forced 8 million government works to sign anticommunist loyalty oaths to keep theirjobs and allowed FBI to investigate more than 2 million federal workers McCarran Act signed by Truman in 1950offenders could be deported and thousands were grilled at hearings of the House UnAmerican Activities Committee about any type of communist connchon Execution of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg for being spies bc they passed out lea etsljparents of 2 young boysmedia sent a message that if these people could be spies than your neighbors could be tooljleads to terror McCarthy Era set back the civil rights movement after World War II McCarthyism affecting athletics Paul Robeson most famous black American at the time said in 1949 quotBlacks would never pick up arms against the Soviet UnionquotThe House UnAmerican Activties Committee HUAC attacked him and asked Jackie Robinson to testify NAACP offered to defend Robinson s right not to speak but he ignored thatBranch Rickey wanted him to testify and Robinson who was anticommunist yet understood the importance of Robeson to the black community thought he could use the hearing to speak out for racial justice and let Robeson off with mild chidingwrong Robinson noted out of 400 MLB players there were only 7 African Americans and out of 16 teams only 3 had been integrated One of Robinson39s greatest regrets in his life was this statement from the Robeson testimony bc gave the HUAC license to revoke Robeson39s passport and put him into exile The Cold War affected the Olympicsthis meant a doping regimen physically damaging 10000 athletes in the Eastern bloc Stateside the hypernationalism of the Cold War used sports to get obedience and anticommunist readiness as well as the values of the private market Little League baseball expanded as suburban housing expanded Youth baseball federation began in 1939 and by 1946 all of the teams were still in RA 1948 Little League attracted corporate sponsors1953 it was being broadcasted on TV hosted by Jim McKay who hosted ABCs Wide World of Sports Little League in the 19505 was seen as a bulwark of Americanism in a time of both rampant insecurity and prosperity McCarthyism Strands Robinson Martin Luther King Jr says Jackie Robinson was quota sitinner before sitins a freedom rider before freedom ridesquot SportswriterJimmy Cannon lashed out against Robinson when he spoke out about racism During McCarthysim Robinson still challenged America on race andjusUce Women during McCarthyism Women were sent out of the factory and back into the kitchen and to have babies 2 months after war 800000 women were red and within 2 years 2 million 82 of Americans disapproved of women in the labor force if they had hardworking husbands 26 of 48 states had laws against hiring married women 19505 saw Marilyn Monroe June Cleaver and Donna Reed as idols women39s baseball was shut down before the league shut down new rules were instituted in 1951 to make game more ladylikeimposed dress guidelines quotalways appear in feminine attirequot Josephine D39Angelo baseball was cut for her quotbutch haircutquot but in reality it was for suspicion of being a lesbian Wilma RudolphAfrican American female track star quotBlack Gazellequotfirst woman to win 3 gold medals in a single Olympics in 1960 Babe Didrikson Zaharias played more accepted feminine sport of golf at this timewon 21 straight gold tournsalso applied to play in the men s 1948 US Openljrules were rewritten to say it was a males event so she withdrewMichelle Wie and Annika Sorenstam also tried previously and failedljbabe died of cancer in 1956 Bowling Sports attempted to ll the dislocation and isolation of suburban livingparticularly bowling which was inexpensive and social Bowling shoes were designed by the fancy shoe company Capezio Invention of the automatic pinsetting machine Television brought the sport into people s homes Popular shows Championship Bowling Make That Spare Celebrity Bowling and Bowling for Dollars Growth of the Civil Rights Movement 19541955 Brown v Board of Educationschools should be integrated quotwith all deliberate speedquot throughout the 19505 as MLB integrated black children played at decayed inadequate facilities and competed in segregated leagues 1955 Montgomery bus boycotts beganljrise of Martin Luther King Jr 1955 murder of 14yearold Emmett TillWhite Citizen s Council swelled to 300000 members and more than a 100 congressmen signed a document pledging to uphold segregation by this time only 3 MLB teams didn t have black players in their farm system Willie Mays Henry Aaron Ernie Banks Roy Campenlla wowed multicultural crowds Exposed white fans to the idea of cheering for black talent Althea Gibson Tennis star won the Wimbledon and the US Open in 1957 and became the rst African American woman to be named Associated Press Female Athlete of the Year which she won again the following year Many of African American successes has come from Southern historical black colleges and in sports like track but Althea Gibson was different bc 1 From Harlem the mecca of black culture in the US 2 Her sport was tennis which was the most countryclub and white of sports 3 Unlike most tennis players she grew up poor what really set her apart was the she was not quiet and graceful but tough and ruthless Jackie Robinson Silent No More lead the Dodgers in the 1955 World Series victory retired in 1956 after learning he had been traded to the Giants became a spokesman for the NAACP and became the most requested speaker 2 was Martin Luther King Jr Robinson famous for saying if he had to choose between baseball s hall of fame and rstclass citizenship he would say rstclass citizenship for all 1958 marshal and lead organizer of the Youth March for Integrated Schoolsattempted to get 1000 black and white students to march on the Lincoln Memorial and instead got 10000 April 1959 started writing a column on the sports page of the New York Post on a variety of topics between sports and civil rights Critics both black and white argued athletes didn t have the right to speak out on politics Walter O39Malley the Red Scare and Chavez Ravine O39Malley39s 1958 move of the Dodgers to Los Angeles was really frowned upon by the people of Brooklynwas done for businessljlknown as a combination of Stalin and Hitler to the people of Brooklyn Future Dodger Stadium was put in Chavez Ravine a home to generations of Mexican Americans looking to live in a tight nit communitythese people ran their own schools and churches and even grew their own foodin 1949 residents were informed that their community was going to be leveled for public housingsome left but the ones who stayed had their houses bulldozed but Frank Wilkinson the man behind the project got accused of leading a communist plot and he got red from the jobljby 1952 the entire area had been attened but nothing built on top so O Malley grabbed the land for very cheap to build his stadium Antistadium protest arose Ronald Reagan called opponents of the stadium plan quotbaseball hatersquot On April 10 1962 the 56000seat Dodger stadium of cially opened but the period 195161 is still known among many Angelenos as the quotBattle of Chavez Ravinequot Corruption of College Athletics Pro Jim Aiken head football coach at University of Oregon from 1947 1950 quotIf you choose between breaking the rules and losing games wouldn t it be better to break the rulesquot Jeff Cravath head football coach at USC quotThe alumni demand winning football teams To get winning teams colleges must violate the rules they themselves have madequot Corruption was huge at the City College of New Yorkthis college was a basketball powerhouse winning both the NCAA and NIT championships in 1950found the team was in a point shaving scandallerb 1951 3 players were arrested on bribery chargesend of March 17 players were arrestedeventually district attorney Frank Hogan arrested 32 players from 7 colleges who xed 86 games between 19471950 Most of the City College team consisted of African American and Jewish players from workingclass backgroundsljdidn t really need the money to pointshave Adolph Rupp the Kentucky head coach blamed it on NYC gamblersljsaid his boys would never do itwas wrong when 3 players were found to be involved All these scandals set the tone for how the NCAA would deal with gambling or payola scandals for the next 50 yearsall on the player Football39s Ascendancy 1958 championship game between Baltimore Colts and NY Giants sparked modern era of pro footballpropelling it to be the most popular sport in the countrytailormade for television game was a 2317 thriller that ended in overtime with Alan quotthe Horsequot Ameche throwing himself over the end line Marion Motley and Bill Willis broke football39s color line in 1946 but few noticed Most notorious segregation came from the Washington Redskins with George Preston Marshall Marshall39s Redskins were the last team to integrate in the NFL Team nally integrated in 1962 only bc Kennedy s administration s interior secretary issued an ultimatum sign an African American player or be denied use of new government nanced 54000seat DC stadium Ernie Davis Syracuse s AllAmerican running back became Marshall s 1 draft but he said he won t play for the son of a bitch lol Davis was traded to Cleveland and Marshall got African American Bobby Mitchell Marshall made his team quotthe South s teamquot Signed TV contracts with stations in southern cities and drafted mostly form southern colleges Team became the quotConfederates of the NFLquotoriginal ght song said quotFight for old Dixiequot Boston Red Sox were the last MLB team to integrate who nally did in 1959 bringing in Pumpsie Green In April 1945 the Red Sox held a tryout forJackie Robinsonljonly management was in the stands and someone yelled get those niggers off the eld and the door was shut In 1949 the Red Sox laughed at considering to sign Willie Mays Boston fans complained about the quotcurse of the Bambinoquot but the curse of racism was far worse Chapter 7Sports on the Edge of Panic Gap between image and realityfootball was for the cameras and debilitating medical problems were behind closed doorsseen with President John Kennedy was against the quotsoft Americanquotalthough he came off as energetic with athletic passion he really had crippling back pain and a need for painkillers in order to function 1960 sports were still viewed as a place where you can t be soft Feb 1 1960 four black college students in Greensboro NC sat at the whitesonly Woolworth s lunch counterrefused service but still sat thereowners shut down the lunch counter but they still returnedwere beatennational media had their efforts seen around the country In the next year more than 50000 people mostly black but some white participated in demonstrationsljmore than 3600 people were put in jail Didn39t have to be a sports star to prove you weren39t a soft Americn By the end of 1960 more places were open to African Americans This spirit of change affected sportsljlathletes had to defend their right not to be political Willie Mays criticized for not being vocal enough about racial discrimination 1959 NBA black player Elgin Baylor of the Lakers got national attention to the issue of segregation of public accommodations when he refused to play in a regular conference game in West Virginiasat on team bench in street clothes to protest the refusal of a local hotel to permit him to register w his teammates Jackie Robinson was a proud Republicanljbut disappointed multiple times for their lack of commitment to civil rightsMartin Luther King Jr was sentenced to four months and Robinson asked Nixon to intervene and he was ignored Robinson encouraged African Americans to votebut in spite of his actions was still viewed as a quotwhite man s negroquot due to his abiding faith in electoral politics and belief in integrationhe was an icon of quotthe old way of doing thingsquot Robinson was also a target bc of his verbal feud with Malcolm Xthey were political opponents Muhammad Ali Real name is Cassius Marcellus Clay Jrgthis identity was forged in the 19505 and 19605 Known as the quotLouisville Lipquot and quotMighty Mouthquot by the press He used to say he talked so much bc he admired the style of pro wrestler Gorgeous George but later admitted he talks so much for the public to take notice otherwise he would be poor Won gold medal in the 1960 Olympics at age 18went back to the states and was still denied service in a Louisville restaurant Became political allies with Malcolm X Beat champion Sonny Liston and shouted quotI m king of the worldquotsame day he publicly announced he was a member of the Nation of lslama group that called white people devils Jimmy Cannon the most famous sportswriter in America apparently forgetting the entire career ofJackJohnson wrote that this was the rst time that boxing had ever quotbeen turned into an instrument of mass hateClay is using it as a weapon of wickednessquot Clay was attacked by Cannon and the respectable wing of the civil rights movement Clay defensively said he wasn t a political stand but a religious conversion Yet he stood by saying integration is wrongquotl m not going to get killed by forcing myself on to people who don t want mequot Was his own worst enemy For awhile he was know as Cassius X but when he split from Malcolm X in order to go to Elijah Muhammad he changed his name to Muhammad Aithe Islamic name change had never occurred before in sports Ali says his greatest mistake was turning his back on Malcolm X Whether an individual called the champ All or Clay indicated where that person stood on civil rights black power an d eventually the Vietnam War The New York Times insisted on calling him Clay as editorial policy Summer of 1964thousands of arrests of civil rights activists 30 buildings bombed 36 churches burned by the KKK 1964 the rst of the urban uprisings and riots took place in Harlempolitics of black power were starting to emerge and Muhammad Ali became the symbol of this transformation he gave other people courage by refusing to be afraid 1965 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC volunteers in Alabama launched an independent political partyfirst group to use the symbol of a black panther and their slogan was quotwe are the greatestquot straight from Muhammad Ali Vietnam and Muhammad Ali started in 1965 Ali was drafted in 1966refused to go because of his faith originally but later also for wanting equality here in the states and for the unfairness of the rich and poor where only the poor was draftedat the time most of the country stood behind the warAli did not create antiwar sentiment among blacks 2 most famous sportswriters Red Smith and Jim Murray strongly opposed himljjackie Robinson did not agree with his decision Jerry lzenberg was a young writer who supported Ali All had to go ght in Canada bc they were concerned he wouldn t be able to get crowds in the states anymore Ali still attracted all different types of people to come see him bc they either came for his attractiveness to see him get beat or to support him in 1966 only 2 of 960 pro athletes were serving in the military 1967 Ali fought Ernie TerrellTerrell addressed All by his slave name Cassius Clay so it was very personal to Aihe tortured Terrell in the ring and was torn apart for what he did by the press 1967 Martin Luther King Jr spoke out about his opposition with the war and used Muhammad Ali as an exampleljbecame friends Refused induction bc they called him Cassius ClayNYS Athletic Commission suspended his boxing license and withdrew recognition of him as a championhis refusal got attention around the world5 year prison sentence Movement against the war grew more as more people were dying and the war was becoming more expensive June 231968 Muhammad Ali appeared in his rst and only antiwar demonstration 1969 Elijah Muhammad and the Nation of Islam isolated themselves from Aidid not believe in the kind of active resistance being practiced by Ali Billy Mills earned a track scholarship to University of Kansas where he was AllAmerican in 1959 and 1960laterjoined marines and came back and won the 1964 gold medal in the Tokyo Olympics1965 stopped running because he felt like he couldn t participate in a sport when people were being killed in Vietnammovie made about him in 1983 called Running Brave Sports became political opposition Coaches such as Notre Dame s Ara Parseghian called hippies quotscumquot 1966 the American Football League proscribed all facial hair save mustaches Martin Luther King Jr was assassinated in 1968 Bill Russell Played for Boston Celtics Won 5 MVPs to go with his 11 championship rings Despite all the championships the Boston Garden averaged 8406 fans during his playing career Thousands short of a sell outRussell said he didn t play for Boston he played for the Celtics calling Boston a Flea Market of Racism Took part in 1963 March on Washington and launched an integrated sports training camp in the south 1967 became the rst African American coach of a pro team 1966 wrote an autobiography called Go Up for Glory in which he echoed Malcolm X 1974 elected to Basketball Hall of Fame 1980 voted greatest player in the history of the NBA felt duty to resist racismin lndiana he had been given the key to the city but was refused service that evening in his hotel s dinning room had erce pride which the media called quotbad attitudequottarget of racial harassmentneighbors petitioned to not let him purchase a home Miners of Texas Western Don Haskins was the coach of the 1966 Miners the rst African American starting ve to win the NCAA championshipwon against Kentucky Story is that by using urban black players Texas Western s athleticism overwhelmed the quotfundamentally sound and intelligentquot Kentucky farm boys Head coach of Kentucky Adolph Rupp said quot ve negroesquot would never beat his teamclung to his all white policy until 1971 Revolt of the Black Athlete Term coined by Dr Harry Edwards 1965 the 21 African American players involved in the American Football Conference s allstar game forced CommissionerJoe Foss to move the game to Houston from New Orleans bc of the Crescent City s politics of segregation 1968 black athletes at USC Berkeley football team boycotted athletic activities to support suspended black basketball player Bob Presleyljjohn Erby was soon named the rst black assistant coach at Berkeley to appease the restless athletes NBA star Chet Walker struggled with racism and his con dence No Turning Back 1968 The Calvin Murphy all American guard and future hall of famer slammed the admissions policy of his school Niagara which had resulted in only 2 black players on the team and six on campus Roberto Clemente Pirate s star led a charge to prevent the Pirates and Astros from opening their season on April 8 the day before King s burial because he admired himput sports in a proper perspective Arthur Ashe won the US Open and US Amateur Open in 1968barrier breakersaid athletes have an obligation to the civil rights cause College athletes were starting to ask for more and be held to an athletic hierarchy College football players were called upon to break up campus protest rallies most infamously at Columbia where football players made a ring around the buildings occupied by antiwar students to keep out efforts to get them food and water 1968 Olympics Tommie Smith and John Carlos held up black sts in honor of African Americans in 1968 Olympicsljalso wore no shoes to protest black poverty and wore beads to protest lynchinglearlos kept his shirt openmedia attacked them for thisAustralian silver medalist Peter Norman put on an OPHR button Smith and Carlos were expelled from the Olympic Village for mixing the Olympic games and politics 1967 amateur black athletes formed the Olympic Project for Human Rights OPHR to organize an African American boycott of the 1968 Olympics in Mexico Cityead organizer Dr Harry Edwardsprimary athletic spokesmen were track starts Tommie Smith and Lee EvansRonad Reagan greatly disapprovedljlackie Robinson supportedJesse Owens and Joe Lewis disagreed saying you are an American rst and a colored American second so if you can do something for your country you do itOympic crew time all white and entirely from Harvard supported them roots of boycott started in 1964 when black activist Dick Gregory called for an international boycott of the 1964 games along with Olympic veteran Mal Whit eld 10 days before the Olympics in Mexico hundreds of students in Mexico City were massacredljdone to stiffen protests Carlos s wife committed suicide and he believes it was from the lack of support of the black communitylonly the poor black community supported them Boxer George Foreman waved an American ag after winning heavyweight gold opposite of what Smith and Carlos didinvited to Nixon s house unlike the track team Kareem AbdulJabbar real name Lew Alcindoron board with OPHR most prominent college athlete in the US at the timeljdominated UCLA bbatook a stand OPHR6 central demands 91015 WPH restore Muhammad Ali s title remove Avery Brundage as head of the US Olympic Committee bar South Africa and Rhodesia from the Olympics and other athletic competitions boycott the NY Athletic Club hire more black coaches the complete desegregation of the NY Athletic Club OPHR39s aw women were largely shut out Change 1969 Stanford University president Kenneth Pitzer announced that Stanford would henceforth honor what he called an athlete s right of conscienceallowed athletes to boycott a school or event that he or she deemed personally repugnant professional golf became desegregated when Lee Elder and Charlie Sifford were allowed to play in Grand slam Tourns 1970 for the rst time blacks could tee off at the Masters Dave Meggyesy 0 white football player 0 active in the movements for civil rights and stood in opposition to the war in Vietnam 0 1970 wrote in his autobiography Out of Their League which examined how bigtime sports in the US can dehumanize athletes and fans alike 0 said bigtime football was more than just a game it was a form of political expression 0 management tried to get him to stop his antiwar petitionsactivities o benched him after he didn t listen to the rules of what they were supposed to do when the national anthem played Women Roberta Gibb1966 first woman to run the full Boston Marathon Wyomina Tyusj1968 1st woman to win golds in consecutive Olympics in 100meter dash 0 Diane Crump1969 1st woman to ride in a parimutuel race in the US and in 1970 became the 1st woman to ride in the Kentucky Derby 0 1969 a schedule of national championships for women s sports was announced that included gymnastics and track and eld for the rst time o 1968 BillieJean King insisted prize money be paid to women openly at Wimbledon Chapter 8The Flood Gates 0 Dave Kopay was the rst retired male pro athlete to come out of the closet End of Vietnam War 0 now own US troops were against the Vietnam War 0 1970 journalist Wallace Terry traveled to Vietnam and surveyed 392 African American and white soldiers Results 1 heroes of black soldiers were Martin Luther King Jr and Muhummad Ali bc they were against the Vietnam war 2 50 of African Americans said they would use their weapons in the struggle for civil rights in the US 3 30 said they would join black power organizations 4 83 believed riots were inevitable and 45 said they would join in 5 45 would refuse orders to put down riots involving African Americans 6 70 approved of Malcolm X 7 69 approved of Muhummad Ali sportswriter Leonard Schecter used sports to explain end of warwe are taught from the cradle that we have never lost a war and that winning is everything tying is like kissing your sister and losing is nothing sports also explained the US withdrawalusing terms like quotan expansion ball clubquot and calling it quotoperation linebackerquot and Nixon s code name for it was quotquarterbackquot Nixon was a football freak 1972 University of Washington football players protested Nixon to stop the war and the killing The New Sportswriting new series of books emerged Lipsyte lra Berkow Jerry lzenberg Sandy Padwe and Leonard Schecter wanted to expose sports and explicate what sports say about ourselves Bouton s Ball Fourljabout baseball goes into detail about partying and boredom drinking etc in the lockeroommost people associated with baseball thought it was a disgrace but they never actually read itshowed the sport isn t all about being patriotic Black Struggle in the 19705 1974 Henry Aaron black baseball player broke Babe Ruth s unbreakable home run record when he hit his 715ththe baseball commissioner didn t show Z1973 when he was getting close to breaking the record he received 930000 letters the most anyone received not named Richard Nixon and most were death threats 1976 James Harris was the only African American quarterback directing an NFL team realization of quotblack positionsquot meaning you would rarely see blacks as pitchers or quarterbacks Death of Roberto Clemente died in 1972 wasn t the rst Latino but he was the rst Latino baseball star rst to wear his Latin heritage proudly fought against racism won white fans but never gave up who he was for it in 1972 the Players Association started a player s strike organized by Marvin Miller set up the Roberto Clemente Committee for Nicaragua and died on the plane that was going there with relief supplies inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame2nOI player who didn t have to wait 5 years to be inducted Jack Scott former athlete and author of Athletics forAthetes called for greater inclusion of women and people of color on teams and for giving both college and pro athletes a voice in team management wanted to quotdemocratizequot sports he said the goal of sports should be getting more to play not more to watch made all sporting events free at his college allowed players to have veto powers over hiring coaches hired Tommie Smith as a track coach Arthur Ashe tennis star Arthur Ashe brought the issue of apartheid in South Africa to America 1st African American to win a grand slam tennis title winning the US Open in 1968 famous quote quotFor every hour spent on the playing eld two should be spent with a bookquot 1969 applied for a Visa to play in the South African Open and was denied he said he wouldn t mind if a hydrogen bomb was dropped on South Africa s capitol called for South Africa to be expelled from the tennis tour 4 years later South Africa granted him a visa and he become the rst black man to play a tennis tournament in that country met with Nelson Mandela was arrested in front of the South African embassy in 1985 Women39s Revolt the National Organization for Women NOW was formed in 1966 after Lyndon Johnson left the issue of gender discrimination out of the Civil Rights Act 1967 PresidentJohnson signed an executive order banning sex discrimination in federally connected employment 1970 50000 took part in the Women s Strike for Equality 1973 abortion became legal with its Roe v Wade decision 1973 Billie Jean King and Battle of the Sexes against Riggs King fought for a women s players union and cofounded the Women s Tennis Associationelected rst president in 1973 King received 15000 less than the male who won the US Open in 1972 and called for a strike by women players if the prize money wasn t equal by the following year 1973 the US Open became the rst issue major tournament that offered identical winners pay for men and women she allowed her name to be featured in Ms Magazine that said simply I had an abortionquot was named by Life magazine one of the quot100 Most important americans of the 20th centuryquotonly female athlete on the list Title IX equal funding for men and women s educational opportunities greatest impact for women s sports 25 years ago 1 in 27 high school girls played sportstoday 1 in 3 before Title IX fewer than 32000 women participated in college sports today the number exceeds 150000 according to a study women in sports are less likely to be in abusive relationships or have eating disorders soccer has increased the most for women basketball volleyball and crosscountry are 3 most frequently offered sports followed by soccer softball and tennis Marvin Miller and Curt Floodfree agency helped change baseball miller saw Curt Flood as an ideal candidate Curt Flood felt like a piece of property when he was traded and asked for his own rights back Attacked the reserve clausefought for players to have a say on where they were going Curt Flood lost in a 53 Supreme Court decision however it opened the path for the eventual destruction of the reserve clause Chapter 9the 19805 Welcome to Hell The 19805 was driven by 247 cable television and an expanded global audience 1980 US Olympic Hockey team won godwe were underdogsljcounterweight to losing Vietnam the USSR 395 invasion of Afghanistan the energy crisis and the fact that when the Olympics opened 52 Americans were held hostage by student radicals in Iran beat Soviet Union in semi nals the 19805 was the time of the rich and a time for the poor getting poorer average CEO earned 110 times more than his employees 1984 Los Angeles Olympics was supposed to symbolize Reagan39s Americalj rst privately nanced games in historyljended with a surplus of over 200 million the games were opened by a speech by Reagan the rst time a president had ever done that Los Angeles hosted bc no other city even bidedno one wanted the nancial issues after the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal Took Quebec 30 years to pay off the debt Police sweeps were done and young people were put in jail wo due process thought the overwhelming of people arrested were never charged Ueberroth s Olympic Committee also pledged to have a policy of quotequal opportunity and af rmative actionquot that guided its every act of decision making hiring contracting and subcontracting Pledged surplus would go to poor communities Games created 70000 temporary service jobs Ueberroth met with Harry Edwards and even hired John Carlos to work on minority affairs Al Campanis LA Dodgers general manager 1980 0 Spoke on ABC s Nightline to commemorate the 40th anniversary ofJackie Robinson and said blacks quotmay not have some of the necessities to be let s say a eld manager or perhaps a general manager 0 Fired 2 days later In the 5 years after his comments 28 MLB teams hired 48 managers only 6 were of color 0 Frank Robinsonlj rst African American manager NBA 19805 Rise of hiphop Basketball was on its death bed played in halfempty arenas nals were shown on tape delay most people associated the game w drugs violence and decrepitude League seen as too thuggish and dominated by black players Kurtis Blow 1984 recorded the classic anthem Basketball Another song called quot14 Johnsonsquot Michael Jordanljhelped Nike become huge NBA recognized the shift of the baby boomers to youth of suburban to cities and from white to black jim Brownl frustrated by NBA new superstars who didn t try to further the success of professional black athletesthey just wanted the fame and money Martina Navratilova Tennis star and lesbianknown as quotthe great wide hopequot Career started at age 15 in 1972won rst title at 17 Had an intense training regimen designed by former basketball superstar Nancy LiebermanCline By 1985 she was a millionaire Won 6 consecutive grand slams At the time had won more money than any other player in tennis history male or female Criticized for looking acting and playing manly Spoke out about antigay legislation Women39s sports 19805 Icon for women s sports was gymnastics 14 yearold Nadia Comaneci scored the rst perfect 10 in Olympic history as time went on the contestants became younger shorter and lighter change in size came with an epidemic of eating disorders affecting all women s athletics 1986 study showed female college athletes in the Midwest74 of gymnasts and a third of all women athletes practiced some form of bulimia or took laxative or diet pills without supervision silver medal Olympic gymnast Kathy Johnson got media attention when she said quotWhen I ask myself if I want an ice cream soda I answer Not as badly as I want a gold medalquot Joan Ryan revealed a shocking study about child abuse occurring sexual abuse girls starving themselves etc and no reform followed The Gay Games 1982 former 1968 Olympian and decathlete Tom Waddell started the Gay Olympics in San Francisco open to everyone regardless of skill and sexual orientation 1st one drew 1600 and today upward of 15000 daring in 1982 when AIDS was still referred to as the quotgay cancerquot sued by the International Olympic Committee and the US Olympic Committee to prevent them from using the word Olympics
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'