PSYC4220 Final Exam Study Guide
PSYC4220 Final Exam Study Guide PSYC 4220
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Date Created: 12/11/15
Psyc4220 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 13 Lecture Notes o Chapter 13: Social & Personality Development in Middle Childhood Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12): o Industry Developing a sense of competence at skills and social rules important to your culture Industrialized nations learn through formal schooling o Inferiority Pessimism and lack of confidence in own ability to do things well Industry in childhood more closely correlated to adult success than IQ or background o Will to persevere/put in effort o Help kids succeed in challenges Self-concept Self-concept becomes more complex, more abstract across middle childhood Start to give some psychological descriptors Begin dividing self-concept into multiple parts o Academic, social, emotional, physical Begin engaging in social comparison o Evaluating one’s appearance, abilities, opinions, and behavior in relation to others o May engage in downward social comparison to protect self-esteem Compare self to people worse than them Self-esteem Self-esteem also becomes differentiated Development of self-esteem Self-esteem increases steadily during middle childhood, with slight drop around 12 o Transition to middle school Influences on self-esteem: o Impact on behavior and success o Cultural: Children with emphasis on social comparison often have lower self- esteem Collective cultures value social harmony and modesty o Gender: US girls higher in language arts, boys in math, science, and physical ability Boys’ and girls’ overall levels of self-esteem are very similar in middle childhood o Race and ethnicity: In early childhood, African American and Hispanic children have lower self-esteems than Caucasian children But by end of middle childhood, self-esteem increases in both groups, with African American kids having the highest self- esteem by age 11 o Parenting styles: Authoritative parents=higher self- esteem Controlling/authoritarian parents=lower self-esteem Permissive parents=unrealistically high self-esteem; adjustment problems In US, self-esteem has risen sharply as achievement has fallen, anti- social/narcissistic behaviors have increased Don’t just praise, urge kids to set goals and achieve them o Don’t praise for talent/natural ability, but for effort/working hard o Influences on self-esteem: Achievement attributions: Mastery oriented attributions: credit success to high ability, failure to insufficient effort o Leads to high self-esteem & willingness to approach challenging tasks Learned helplessness: credit success to external factors (like luck), failure to lack of ability o Leads to low self-esteem, anxiety in the face of challenges, and giving up o Cycle of failure Relationships with peers During middle childhood, children start spending more time with peers, and less time with adults Peer relationships are highly important During middle childhood, friendships evolve, but can be long lasting if high quality o Stage 1: Basing Friendship on Other’s Behaviors (4-7) Friends are whom you have fun with! Can change easily o Stage 2: Basing Friendship on Trust (8-10) Personality traits, popularity, academic ability, and demographics Friends are people who are similar to you, and friends trust each other Situation/environment matters Friends don’t betray you More selective with friends More enduring Aggressive girls are really close- jealous, talk behind backs o Stage 3: Basing Friendship on Psychological Closeness (11 and up) Intimacy Friends are people you share intimate thoughts with, and friends are loyal Peer groups: social units who generate values, standards for behavior, and social hierarchy Membership is stable for short periods of time but changes from year to year as kids change classrooms o Kids that stay in same class=50-70% of groups stable View excluding kids as wrong, less likely to do so for superficial reasons as they age o Are okay with excluding due to disrupting group o Excluded kids turn to other low status kids or withdraw from peers Chances to improve social skills decrease Peer acceptance: extent to which a child is viewed by a group of peers as a worthy social partner Researchers use sociometric techniques to determine peer acceptance o Categories of peer acceptance Popular: often liked, rarely disliked Socially and academically skilled, cooperative, helpful, and low level of intense negative emotions Don’t get upset easily, happy, and easygoing Rejected: rarely liked, often disliked Rejected-aggressive: o Hostile, disruptive, lacking social skills Rejected withdrawn: o Socially anxious, passive, and often bullied Both may lead to academic problems, depression, and loneliness Neglected: neither liked nor disliked Ignored by peers Shy, withdrawn, but good social skills o Happy with peer relationships even with fewer friends Easy to move out of category Controversial: liked by many, disliked by many Aggressive, disruptive, but also socially skilled leaders Often in popular group, but bullies and class clowns Average: some like, some dislike, in the middle o Gender differences in friendships Become more flexible about gender during middle childhood But gender segregation continues, intensifies Border work: briefly interacting with the opposite gender group to help define boundaries between groups Boys’ friendships=larger groups, clear dominance hierarchy Attempt to maintain/improve status=competitive interactions More accepting of newcomers Play outside; cover large areas Girls’ friendships=1-2 “best friends,” equality in status More cooperation, compromising More self-disclosure/social support Play inside, or in small areas closer to home/school Chapter 13 Book Notes Pg. 334 Stages of Friendship Stages of Friendship: Changing Views of Friends o Stage 1: Basing Friendship on Others’ Behaviors 4-7 years of age children see friends as others who like them and with whom they share toys and other activities children they spend most time with=friends don’t take personal qualities into consideration friendship not based on peers’ unique positive personal traits friends viewed largely in terms of presenting opportunities for pleasant interactions o Stage 2: Basing Friendship on Trust Age 8-10 Children take others’ personal qualities and traits as well as rewards they provide into consideration Centerpiece=mutual trust Friends are those who can be counted on to help out when they are needed Violations of trust are taken very seriously Formal explanations and apologies must be provided before friendship is reestablished o Stage 3: Basing Friendship on Psychological Closeness 11-15 shift toward intimacy and loyalty characterized by feelings of closeness, usually brought on by sharing personal thoughts and feelings through mutual disclosure somewhat exclusive Pg. 340-346 The Family The Family o Families: The Changing Home Environment One of biggest challenges facing children and their parents is the increasing independence that characterizes children’s behavior during middle childhood Middle childhood is a period of coregualtion: children and parents jointly control behavior o Family Life Sibling rivalry-siblings competing or quarreling with one another Most intense when siblings are similar in age and of same sex In some ways, only-children are better adjusted, often having higher self-esteem and stronger motivation to achieve China-strict one-child policy Chinese only-children often academically outperform children with siblings o When Both Parents Work Outside the Home: How do Children Fare? Children whose parents are loving, sensitive to children’s needs, and provide appropriate substitute care develop no differently Women who are more satisfied with their lives tend to be more nurturing When work provides high levels of satisfaction, more psychologically supportive of children Children with mothers and fathers who work full time spend same amount of time with family, in class, with friends, and alone as children with one parent at home o Home and Alone: What Do Children Do? Self-care child: term for children who let themselves into their homes after school and wait alone until parents return from work A few hours alone may provide helpful period of decompression May help develop greater sense of autonomy Consequences of being self-care child are not necessarily harmful Children may develop enhanced sense of independence and competence Time spent alone provides an opportunity to work uninterrupted on homework and projects Children with employed parents may have higher self-esteem because they feel they are contributing to household o Divorce Immediately after divorce children may be anxious, experience depression, or show sleep disturbances and phobias Quality of mother-child relationship declines, often because children see themselves as caught in the middle of mothers and fathers During early stage of middle childhood, children whose parents are divorcing often blame themselves By age 10, children feel pressure to take sides Degree of divided loyalty Longer term consequences are unclear How children react to divorce depends on several factors Economic standing of family the child is living with In some cases, negative effects of divorce are less severe because divorce reduces hostility and anger in the home o Single-Parent Families Rare cases-death is reason for single-parenthood More frequently-no spouse was ever present, spouses have divorced, or spouse is absent Vast majority of cases-single-parent=mother Economic status plays a role in determining consequences Living with single-parent is not invariably negative or positive Ultimate consequences depend on a variety of factors: Economic status of family Amount of time parent is able to spend with child Degree of stress in household o Multigenerational Families Children, parents, and grandparents live together Can provide rich living experience with influence of parents and grandparents Potential for conflict-several adults acting as disciplinarians without coordinating Prevalence greater among African Americans o Blended Families Blended families: remarried couples have at least one stepchild living with them Role ambiguity: roles and expectations are unclear Children may be uncertain about responsibilities, how to behave toward stepchildren and siblings, and how to make decisions that have implications for their roles in the family School-age children often adjust well to blended arrangements: Family’s financial situation is often improved after parent remarries More people to share burden of chores Increased opportunities for social interaction Disruption of routine, networks, and relationships can be difficult Most successful blending-parents create environment that supports children’s self-esteem and creates climate in which family feels sense of togetherness Younger the children, easier the transition o Race and Family Life African American families have strong sense of family Are frequently willing to offer welcome and support to extended family members Female-headed households o Need for social and economic support Children in grandmother-headed households are particularly well-adjusted Hispanic families stress importance of family life, as well as community and religious organizations Children’s sense of self becomes tied to family Families are larger Asian American families-little research Fathers are powerful figures, maintaining discipline Family needs have higher priority than personal needs Males are expected to care for parents throughout lifetime o Poverty and Family Life Fewer basic everyday resources and more disruptions in children’s lives Parents are less responsive to children’s needs and provide less social support At risk for poorer academic performance, higher rates of aggression, and conduct problems Linked to mental health problsts o Group Care: Orphanages in the 21 Century Psychological damage from abuse or other causes lead to high levels of aggression and anger-less likely to be adopted Group homes are not always able to provide support and love potentially available in a family setting Can be positive depending on staff-effective, stable, and strong bond Results can be harmful if child is unable to form a relationship Chapter 14 Lecture Notes o Chapter 14: Physical Development in Adolescence Adolescent growth spurt: period of rapid growth when body takes on adult proportions Females: o Start: age 10.5 Fastest for height age 12, weight 12.5 Finish: 16 o Develop more fat in breasts and hips; hips widen Males: o Start: 13 Fastest for height age 13.5, weight 14 Finish: 18-20 o Develop more muscle mass; broader shoulders Cephalocaudal principle reverses Face also takes on adult shape Puberty: biological change resulting in sexual, reproductive maturity Females: o Starts at 9-11: development of breast buds o Menarche (1 menstruation)-average in US=12.5 o Other changes: Hair growth Widening of hips; rounding of body Maturation of reproductive organs Males: o Begins at 11-12 with enlargement of testes Scrotum thickens; testes fully descend o Spermarche (initial ejaculation)- average age 13 o Sperm production-average age 14 o Other changes: Increase in muscle mass Hair growth Voice changes Sexual organs mature o Reactions to puberty Both positive and negative reactions More positive if prepared o Girls likely to tell mom/friend(s) o Boys likely to tell no one Gender differences in reactions to body image: Girls more negative-don’t like weight gain, hair growth, menstruation o Very few with positive body image, regardless of body shape o Focus on fat, leads to dieting Boys more positive-like increase in muscle, like hair o Negative body image if too skinny/overweight o Focus on muscle, leads to exercise and supplements Teens with very negative body images are at risk for depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and low self- esteem o Timing of puberty Mostly studied in girls Affected by: o Body weight, nutrition, and exercise More fat=early puberty o Heredity Identical twins start close together o Environmental factors: High levels of stress, harsh parenting, and parental separation are associated with earlier start of menarche Secular trend: shift in pattern of characteristics over time Secular trend in puberty: industrialized nations=earlier Precocious puberty: o Age 7-8 Delayed puberty in girls: o At 13-no breast growth o At 14-no pubic hair o At 16-no menstruation Delayed puberty in boys: o At 14-no testicle growth o At 15-no pubic hair Nutrition=earlier puberty Early vs. On time vs. Late Boys: o Early maturation mostly advantageous More socially competent, confident, athletic, and leaders But more stress, depression, and problem behaviors Affected by how they are treated by adults o Late maturation disadvantageous More anxious, less athletic Lower scores on academic tests and lower educational aspirations Girls: Early maturation disadvantages o Less popular, less focused on academics o Higher risk of depression, anxiety, and problem behaviors Late maturation in girls-advantage Impact of timing fades somewhat but may still have effects into early adulthood Brain development o Continued pruning of unused synapses o Growth and myelination of stimulated neurons speeds up o Connections between areas of the brain strengthen o Maturation of the limbic system happens before maturation of the prefrontal cortex Emotional control not fully developed until early adulthood o Neurons become more responsive to excitatory neurotransmitters More sensitive to stressful, pleasurable, and/or novel stimuli More sensitive to oxytocin-may help explain self consciousness/desire to please peers Oxytocin=bonding Brain development: changing states of arousal o Circadian rhythm shifts-get sleepy later, want to wake up later Still need ~9 hours of sleep, but often don’t get that If sleep deprived: o Perform worse on cognitive tasks in the AM o Academic difficulties o Depression and emotional outbursts o More high-risk behaviors and auto accidents Delaying start of school can help, but not completely Motor development o Boys and girls are equal in improvements until puberty Then boys continue to increase in strength, skill, and speed; girls often level off or decline Why? Biological differences Gender role socialization Girls who participate in sports during childhood and adolescence: Increase in positive body image, perceptions of physical competence; positive “masculine” traits o Focus on what body CAN do o Assertiveness, leader, and confidence Correlated with high self-esteem Chapter 14 Book Notes Pg. 354-361 Physical Maturation Physical Maturation o Growth During Adolescence: The Rapid Pace of Physical and Sexual Maturation Adolescent growth spurt: a period of very rapid growth in height and weight On average boys grow 4.1 in a year, and girls 3.5 in a year Girls begin spurts around 10, boys start around 12 By age of 13, boys are usually taller than girls o Puberty: The Start of Sexual Maturation Puberty: period during which the sexual organs mature, begins when the pituitary gland in the brain signals other glands in children’s bodies to begin producing sex hormones, androgens (males) or estrogens (females), at adult levels Males and females produce both types of sex hormones, but males have higher concentration of androgens, and females have higher concentration of estrogens Pituitary also signals body to increase production of growth hormones that interact with the sex hormones to cause the growth spurt and puberty Hormone leptin appears to play a role in the start of puberty Puberty begins earlier in girls-around 11 or 12 Boys-13 or 14 Puberty in Girls Environmental and cultural factors play a role in when puberty starts Menarche: onset of menstruation and most obvious start of puberty in girls in poorer, developing countries, menstruation begins later within wealthier countries, girls in more affluent groups begin to menstruate earlier than less affluent girls who are better nourished and healthier are more apt to start menstruation earlier weight or proportion of fat to muscle in body play role in timing of menarche o obesity-increase in leptin production environmental stress due to parental divorce or high levels of family conflict can bring early onset reduced disease and increased nutrition-earlier puberty secular trend: pattern of change occurring over several generations o when a physical characteristic changes over course of several generations, such as earlier onset of menstruation or increased height that has occurred as a result of better nutrition primary sex characteristics: associated with development of organs and structures of the body that directly relate to reproduction o changes in vagina and uterus secondary sex characteristics: visible signs of maturity that do not involve the sex of organs directly o development of breasts (age 10), pubic hair (age 11) Puberty in Boys Penis and scrotum grow at an accelerated rate at around 12, and reach adult size 3-4 years later Enlargement of prostate gland and seminal vesicles-produce semen Spermenarche: first ejaculation, occurs around 13 pubic hair begins to grow at 12, followed by growth of underarm hair and facial hair voices deepen as vocal chords become longer and larynx becomes larger rapid swings in mood o boys-feelings of anger and annoyance o girls-anger and aggression o Body Image: Reactions to Physical Changes in Adolescence Girls tended to react to menarche with anxiety because Western society emphasizes more negative aspects of menstruation, such as potential of cramps and messiness Today-menstruation tends to be more positive; demystified and discussed more openly o Accompanied by increase in self-esteem, a rise in status, and greater self- awareness Boys rarely mention first ejaculation to parents or friends Indication of budding sexuality-quite uncertain and reluctant to discuss Girls-unhappy with new bodies Ideals of beauty in Western countries call for unrealistic thinness o Puberty comes with increase in amount of fatty tissue, as well as enlargement of hips and butt o The Timing of Puberty: Consequences of Early and Late Maturation Social consequences Early Maturation Boys-early=a plus o More successful at athletics-larger size o More popular o More positive self-concept o Downside: more apt to have difficulties in school More likely to become involved in delinquency and substance abuse Larger size makes it more likely that they will seek company of older boys o More responsible and cooperative o More conforming and lacking in humor Early girls o Feel uncomfortable and different from peers o Ridicule from classmates o Sought after more for potential dates o Popularity may enhance self-concepts o One on one dating situations may be psychologically challenging o Anxiety, unhappiness, depression o Girls who appear “sexy” attract both negative and positive attention Late Maturation boys fare worse than girls Boys who are smaller and lighter tend to be viewed as less attractive Disadvantage in sports Expected to be bigger than dates Grow up to have assertiveness, insightfulness, and they are more creatively playful Late maturing girls-positive o Overlooked in dating and mixed sex activities o Relatively low social status o Satisfaction with themselves and their bodies is greater than early maturers o Fewer emotional problems o Fit more with societal ideal of slender, “leggy” body type o Nutrition, Food, and Eating Disorders: Fueling the Growth of Adolescence Rapid physical growth is fueled by increase in food consumption Calcium and iron are essential Obesity 1 in 5 adolescents is overweight 1 in 20 are obese proportion of female adolescents who are classified as obese increases over the course of adolescence psychological consequences are particularly severe obesity taxes the circulatory system, increasing likelihood of high blood pressure and diabetes obese adolescents have 80% chance of being obese adults lack of exercise is one of main culprits o especially for older Black female adolescents o lack of organized sports or good athletic facilities for women lingering cultural norms about women in sports availability of fast foods significant amount of time spent watching tv, playing video games, and surfing the Web Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Anorexia nervosa: severe eating disorders in which individuals refuse to eat o Primarily affects women ages 12-40 o Those most susceptible are intelligent, successful, and attractive White adolescent girls from affluent homes o 10% of victims are males-associated with use of steroids Bulimia: bingeing, eating large quantities of food, followed by purging of food through vomiting or use of laxatives o Chemical imbalance can lead to heart failure Dieting often precedes development of eating disorder Feelings of control and success may encourage them to lose more and more weight Girls who mature earlier are more susceptible Adolescents who are clinically depressed It has been suggested that there is a genetic component o Hormonal imbalances Result of perfectionistic, over-demanding parents or by-products of family difficulties Found only cultures that idealize slender female bodies o Not prevalent outside US o Upper classes of Japan and Hong Kong- Western influences are greatest Anorexia is a fairly recent disorder Psychological therapy and dietary modifications are likely to be needed for successful treatment Hospitalization may be necessary Pg. 367-372 Threats to Adolescents’ Well-Being Threats to Adolescents’ Well-Being o Illegal Drugs Drug use has declined over last few years Reasons adolescents use drugs: Pleasurable experiences Escape pressures of everyday life Thrill of doing something illegal Alleged drug use of certain celebrities Peer pressure Addictive drugs: drugs that produce biological or psychological dependence in users, leading to increasingly powerful cravings for them Addiction causes physical and possibly lingering changes in nervous system Drugs can produce psychological addiction People grow to depend on drugs to cope with the everyday stress of life May prevent adolescents from confronting and solving their problems Casual users of less hazardous drugs can escalate to more dangerous forms of substance abuse o Alcohol Use and Abuse Binge drinking for men is defined as 5 or more drinks in one sitting; 4 drinks for women Adolescents start to drink for many reasons: As a way to prove they can drink as much as anybody Releases inhibitions and tension and reduces stress Assume everyone is drinking heavily-false consensus effect Alcoholics: those with alcohol problems, learn to depend on alcohol and are unable to control their drinking Genetics play a role o Tobacco: The Dangers of Smoking The proportion of girls who smoke is higher than the proportion of boys White children and children in lower SES status are more likely to experiment with cigarettes Significantly more White males of high school age smoke than African American males Smoking is seen as a right of passage, sign of growing up Seeing influential models smoking increases chance Nicotine can produce biological and psychological dependency o Sexually Transmitted Diseases AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-one of the leading causes of death among young people across the globe No cure Sexually transmitted infection: spread primarily through sexual contact African Americans and Hispanics make up 40% of the AIDS cases New infections are declining and there are fewer deaths AIDS and Adolescent Behavior Teens are prone to feeling invulnerable and are more likely to engage in risky behaviors Short of abstinence, there is no certain way to avoid AIDS Other Sexually Transmitted Infections 1 in 4 adolescents contract an STI before graduation Most common STI=human papilloma virus (HPV) o Transmitted through genital contact without intercourse o Can produce genital warts and can lead to cervical cancer Trichomoniasis=infection in the vagina or penis caused by a parasite o Initially-no symptoms o Can eventually lead to painful discharge Chlamydia-bacterial infection o Initially-few symptoms o Later can cause burning urination and discharge from penis or vagina o Can lead to pelvic inflammation and even to sterility o Treated successfully with antibiotics Genital herpes-virus not unlike cold sores o First symptoms-small blisters or sores around genitals, which may break open and become painful o Infection recurs after an interval, and cycle repeats itself o No cure for infection o When sores reappear-it is contagious Gonorrhea and syphilis-recognized for longest time o Both can be treated today Chapter 15 Lecture Notes Chapter 15: Cognitive Development in Adolescence Stages of cognitive development: Formal Operations (12 and older) o Can mentally manipulate abstract objects/concepts Develop hypotheticodeductive reasoning: can make hypotheses about objects/events that aren’t real Bigger picture approach; what could be o Develop inductive reasoning: ability to go from specific observations to broad generalizations Pendulum problem Implications of formal operations o Ability to think abstractly and increases in metacognition (thinking about thinking)=broader changes: Richer understanding of people Ability to form identity Increased complexity of thought Ability to imagine hypothetical versions of reality can lead to confusion and rebellion against “illogical rules”; idealism o Adolescent egocentrism: state of self-absorption in which the world is viewed from one’s own point of view Imaginary audience: belief that everyone around is as interested in their thoughts and behaviors as they are Personal fable: part of adolescent egocentrism that involves feeling special, unique, and invincible Promotes risk taking behaviors o Research indicates that not all adults reach formal operations Ability to use formal operations is tied to schooling Most likely to show abstract thought on areas that are interesting/relevant to your life Argues against stages/biological influences All adults likely have the ability to use formal operations, but may have to learn to do so through experience Piaget-once we get to formal operations, we no longer develop cognitively Postformal thought: Emerging Adulthood and Beyond o Ways of thinking that are more complex than formal operational thinking Relativistic thinking: realizing knowledge is subjective and relative Teens are absolutists: there is only 1 truth/correct solution Adults may be relativists Students get more relativistic during college years Moral Development: o Moral reasoning: thinking process that occurs then we decide what is right or wrong o Kohlberg tested people by asking how they would respond to moral dilemmas Actual decision isn’t as important as reasons why they made decision Reason why is what determines stage o Developed stage theory of moral development Level 1: Preconventional Morality o Rules are external rather than internalized Punishments/rewards; not conscience o What is right is what you can get away with; what is personally satisfying Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment Orientation o Characterized by desire to avoid punishment o Intentions are ignored Stage 2: Instrumental Hedonism o Characterized by desire to gain rewards or satisfy needs o Matters only if someone sees you Level 2: Conventional Morality o Guided by internalized morals o Punishment rewards become more abstract Ex. Are other people going to think I am a good person? o Typically reached in early adolescence Most adults stay at this level Stage 3: “Good boy” or “Good girl” Morality What is right pleases others o “meaning well”/being nice is valued intentions now considered seeking approval/ avoiding disapproval reinforces factor Stage 4: Authority & Social-Order Maintaining Morality Morality is associated with following the “will of society” reflected in the laws, social norms Rigid sense of right and wrong based on law adopted Conforms to rules of authority (laws), concerned with upholding social order and doing one’s own duty Level 3: Postconventional Morality o Develops broadly defined ethical principles not set by authority Recognizes laws are not always moral Looks beyond authority to take perspective of all, instead of one social group Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation One’s conduct is defined according to a “social contract”: should be linked to common good, not just focusing on benefit to self People have basic rights that we must protect Laws should be democratic; maximize welfare of all If laws compromise basic human rights, have moral obligation to change law Stage 6: Morality of Individual Principles of Conscience “right” and “wrong” based on self-generated principles principles adhered to regardless of consequence to individuals put lives on the line for principles o value principles more than their own lives so rare and hard to determine, Kohlberg stopped looking at it Is moral reasoning related to moral behavior? o Not in early childhood o Moderately related after early childhood Kohlberg used dilemmas to determine level of morality of students Then tempted them to cheat o Preconventional morals: 70% cheated o Conventional morals: 55% cheated o Postconventional: 15% cheated Criticisms of Kohlberg o Western bias Democratic laws o Gender bias Towards men Thinking logically; abstract principles Ways men reason Chapter 15 Book Notes Pg. 386-396 Schooling and Cognitive Development Schooling and Cognitive Development o The Transition From Elementary School to Middle School Middle school Rather than spending day in self-contained classroom, students move from one class to another Demands of different teachers + different classmates in each class Classmates may be more heterogeneous and diverse Bottom of hierarchy Middle schools are larger Students do better, academically and psychologically, in smaller, less bureaucratic educational settings th More than ½ of 8 graders don’t achieve proficiency in reading, math, and science according to national stats Proportion of middle schoolers who suffer from emotional problems is higher in US Higher rates of depression, disengagement with school, and grater desire to drop out Middle schools often don’t prepare students for rigor of high school Socioeconomic Status and School Performance o Middle and high SES students on average earn higher grades, score higher in standardized tests, and complete more years of schooling o Children living in poverty lack many advantages Nutrition and health may be less adequate Crowded conditions Attend inadequate schools Few places to do homework Homes may lack books and computers o Ethnic and Racial Differences in School Achievement African American and Hispanic students tend to perform at lower levels, receive lower grades, and score lower on standardized tests Asian American students tend to receive higher grades Much of difference is SES: More African American and Hispanic families live in poverty Members of certain minority groups may perceive school success as unimportant Hard work in school will have no payoff Members of minority groups who enter a new culture voluntarily are more likely to be successful in school Process of involuntary immigration leaves scars, reducing motivation to succeed in subsequent generations o Part-Time Work: Students on the Job Working offers several advantages: Funds for recreational activities Helps students learn responsibility Gives practice with ability to handle money Can help teach workplace skills Develop good work habits that may help them do better academically Participation in jobs and paid internships can help students understand nature of work in specific employment settings Drawbacks: Many jobs available to high school students are high on drudgery and low on transferable skills May prevent students from participating in extracurricular activities School performance is negatively related to the number of hours a student works Primary orientation model=students who work a great number of hours are more psychologically invested in their work than school Pseudomaturity=unusually early entry into adult roles before developmentally ready o Dropping Out of School Consequences: High school dropouts earn 42% less than graduates Unemployment rate is 50% Males are more likely to drop out than females Hispanics and African Americans are more likely to leave high school Asians drop out at a lower rate than Caucasians Students from lower income households are 3x more likely to drop out o College: Pursuing Higher Education Who Goes to College? In US, college students are primarily White and middle class Overall proportion of the minority population that does enter college has decreased over the past decade-changes in availability of financial aid Only 40% of those who start college finish 4 years later with a degree National dropout rate for African Americans is 70% Gender and College Classes in education and social sciences typically have a larger proportion of women Classes in engineering, physical sciences, and math tend to have more men The more prestigious the institution, the fewer the proportion of women who have attained the highest rank Men more likely to think of themselves as above average in overall academic and mathematical ability, competitiveness, and emotional health Professors call on men more frequently and make more eye contact Male students are more likely to receive extra help Male students receive more positive reinforcement for their comments Rate of participation and success of women in sciences is greater at women’s colleges o Also show higher self-esteem o Receive more attention o More female professors at women’s institutions-role models o May receive more encouragement for participation in nontraditional subjects like math and science Academic Performance and Stereotypes Reason behind declining levels of performance for women and African Americans =academic disidentification (lack of personal identification with an academic domain) o For women-math and science o For African Americans-more generalized Negative social stereotypes produce a state of stereotype threat-members of a group feeel that their behavior will indeed confirm the stereotype o Stereotype threat may be more severe for better, more confident students, who have not internalized the negative stereotype to the extent of questioning their own abilities If women can be convinced that societal stereotypes regarding achievement are invalid, their performance can improve African Americans may disidentify with academic success by putting forth less effort on academic tasks ad generally downgrading the importance of academic achievement o Such disidentification may act as a self- fulfilling prophecy, increasing chances of academic failures Chapter 16 Lecture Notes Chapter 16: Social and Personaliy Development in Adolescence o Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Identity vs. role confusion (teens-early 20s) Identity: mature self-definition, sense of who one is, where one is going, how one fits into society Identity crisis: a time of uncertainty, anxiety about identity Unsuccessful at developing identity=aimless, directionless, may adopt socially unacceptable behaviors o Identity development James Marcia identified 4 identity statuses based on: Level of commitment to a particular aspect of identity Time spent exploring options regarding that aspect of identity 1. Identity diffusion- not committed, haven’t explored options 2. Identity foreclosure-commit to aspect of identity without exploring options 3. Identity moratorium-experience crisis/exploring options; not committed 4. Identity achievement-explore options; commit o Was Erikson correct about identity development? Timing: Believed “identity crisis” was resolved by end of high school (15-18) o Research does not support this: Males aged 12-18: most in foreclosure or diffusion 21 and up: most in moratorium or achievement women similar, but place more emphasis on gender roles, sexuality, and balancing careers/kids may go back into moratorium or other stages later development is uneven: may be in different stages for different aspects of identity Is development crisis-like? Erikson believed teens would experience anxiety, confusion, and pain o Research does not support this: Teens in moratorium are happier, more hopeful than those in diffusion or foreclosure o But Erikson was correct that having Achievement identity is healthy: Achievement=closer relationships, higher self-esteem, achievement motivation, and moral reasoning Diffusion=increased depression, low self-esteem, academic problems, anti-social acts, and drug abuse Foreclosure=happy, but greater need for social approval, dogmatic/ inflexible thinking style o Factors that influence identity development Cognitive development Mastery of formal operations Relationships with parents Long-term diffusion correlated with being neglected or rejected Long-term foreclosure correlated with very close, rigid, and controlling parents Reaching achievement quickly is correlated with affection, feelings of unconditional support Scholastic influences Attending college: o Faster achievement of occupational identity o Slower achievement of political and spiritual identity Exposed to wide variety of people; concentrate on other things Broader social and historical context: culture plays a role in formation of identity Marcia’s model=Western view of identity o Individualism o Self-concept Becomes even less concrete, more abstract More self-aware: see self from own and others’ perspective More multifaceted: have different “selves” for different situations Age 13, 15, 17-asked what they were like in different situations o 13-had inconsistencies; didn’t notice and weren’t bothered o 15-had inconsistencies; noticed, were bothered, especially if engaging in false- self belief (goes against who you think you are) o 17-had inconsistencies; noticed, weren’t bothered realized it’s normal/okay o Self-esteem Further differentiate self-esteem, evaluating different aspects of self separately Relational self worth: self-esteem in particular relationship contexts o influenced by gender girls find close friendships to be more important; higher self worth when liked/accepted boys-having influence over friends; attracting romantic partners self-esteem may show temporary declines during transitional periods, but generally increases over adolescent years much individual variation, however o more likely to show decline if undergoing many transitions at once early adolescent girls-slightly lower, more fragile self- esteem more concerned with appearance, more negative body image after puberty concern with social success can conflict with concern about academic success higher SES=higher self-esteem for racial/ethnic minorities, strong/positive racial identity=higher self-esteem African Americans and Latinos-highest, then Caucasians, then Asian Americans o Gender development During early adolescence: Gender Intensification Increased stereotyping about gender, movement toward more traditional gender identity Declines by mid-late adolescence o Relationship with parents Teens strive for independence, autonomy Shift focus from family to peers Cognitive development and older appearance=more freedom, responsibilities De-idealize parents At/after puberty, parent-child conflict increases in number and intensity o Typical arguments are over everyday issues o More tension between daughters and parents than with sons Girls start puberty earlier Push for independence sooner Parents give greater freedom, less restrictions to sons o Parents own development adds to tension Reaching middle age, menopause, retirement o 20% of families have very rough time during children’s adolescence good parent-child relationship=extremely important for teens o most consistent predictor of teen mental health must balance warmth, control, and increasing independence o be supportive and accepting o monitor activities with tend willingness/participation o democratic decision-making, discipline with explanation o provide needed information; remain open and honest coercive, controlling parents=more likely to have negative
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