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Study Guide for Final Exam!!!

by: Tram Anh Ton Nu

Study Guide for Final Exam!!! PSYC

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > PSYC > Study Guide for Final Exam
Tram Anh Ton Nu
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Basic Concepts in Psychology
Dr. Renshaw
Study Guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tram Anh Ton Nu on Friday December 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC at George Mason University taught by Dr. Renshaw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Basic Concepts in Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 12/11/15
PSYCH 100 Study Guide for Final Exam Know the 8 areas of psychology we went over in class, and what each area focuses on Clinical/Counseling: mental illnesses, promotion of well-being School/Education: learning problems Developmental: people’s developmental process over their lifetime Social: how people interact with each other Industrial/Organization: work environments Health: how mind and body influence health behavior Cognitive/Neuroscience: memory, thought processes, critical thinking Biology: hormones, brain, nervous system Know difference between internal validity and external validity Internal validity: how much control you have over a research External validity: how much your data represents the real world Example: experiments in a lab tend to have high internal validity (researchers are in control) and low external validity (people might act unnaturally in a lab, so the results might not be exactly like the real world). Be able to distinguish case study, descriptive/correlational design, and experimental design Case study = focusing on one person in great detail Observational = observing people Naturalistic = watching and tracking people in a natural setting Laboratory = watching people in a controlled lab Survey/interview = asking people directly about things Correlational = finding a relationship between two things Experimental = manipulating one variable to see how the other changes Know advantages and disadvantages of each of these types of design Case study = pros: a lot of information; learn about a rare condition / cons: can’t generalize Observational Naturalistic = pros: represents the real world / cons: no control over situation Laboratory = pros: researchers can control situation / cons: not like real life PSYCH 100 Survey/interview = pros: easy and cheaper than other methods / cons: people can life Correlational = pros: easy to do / cons: can’t infer causation Experimental = pros: a lot of control; can infer causation / cons: expensive; not always natural Correlation coefficient (know minimum/maximum, how to interpret values) Correlation coefficients: a number that shows how two things are related From -1 to 1; the closer the number is to 0, the less related two variables are The positive and negative sign show the direction of correlation (positive correlation = when one variable goes up, the other goes up / negative correlation = when one variable goes up, the other goes down) Know two requirements of experimental design and what they mean Independent variable: the variable that is being changed Dependent variable: the variable that will change as a result of what happens to the independent variable Know experimenter bias and participant bias Experimenter bias: when the experimenter has certain outcomes they expect and that influences how they run the experiment Participant bias: when the participant acts according to how they think the experimenter expects them to act Know double-blind study Double-blind experiment: when neither the participants nor the experimenters know what group the each participant belongs to Know what informed consent and debriefing are Informed consent - people must be informed of what the experiment is all about before they can choose to participate Debriefing - process after the experiment is over when researchers fill participants in on everything that went on as well as the findings of the experiment Know that informed consent and debriefing are required for experiments PSYCH 100 Know how neurons transmit information Neurons send messages in electrical charges What happens inside a neuron when it fires When a neuron is at rest, nothing happens. If there is a big enough stimulus, the neuron can be stimulated and a signal can be sent along. Know what neurotransmitters are At the synapse, electrical pulses are converted into chemical substances called neurotransmitters How information is transmitted from one neuron to another (synaptic transmission) At the synapse (gap between two neurons), neurotransmitters are released. Some make it to the dendrite of the other neuron while others are absorbed back into the axon terminal of the original neuron (process called reuptake). Know difference between central nervous system and peripheral nervous system Central Nervous System = in the center of your body; includes brain and spinal cord Peripheral = communicates info from CNS to the rest of the body Know the 4 lobes of the brain: where they are and what they are responsible for Frontal: muscle movement, “executive functions” (eg., logical reasoning, planning) Parietal: balance, touch, spatial tasks Occipital: vision Temporal: hearing Know what plasticity means Plasticity: brain functions are flexible and the brain can compensate for damage to some areas PSYCH 100 Definition of sensation and perception Sensation = input that comes in from your senses (sight, taste, hearing, etc) Perception = how your brain interprets the input (Not everything you sense will be perceived by the brain) Know what sensory adaptation is (you do NOT need to know examples) Sensory adaptation = when sensory receptors change their sensitivity to the stimulus Top-Down processing vs. Bottom-Up processing Top-down processing: using prior knowledge and heuristics to make sense of things (ex: when you’re working on a jigsaw puzzle that you’ve already done before, you can use prior knowledge of it to complete the puzzle) Bottom-up processing: using sensory input to make sense of things (ex: when you’re working on a jigsaw puzzle you’ve never done before and you don’t have a picture to look at, you have to rely on your senses and piecing things together) Influences on perception Expectations - what we expect to experience can affect our perception Context Gestalt principles (what perceptual tendency they refer to) - we tend to perceive things as whole and complete. Know stages of sleep; REM vs. NREM (Stages 1-4) Stage 1: Light, falling asleep Stage 2: transition stage Stage 3-4: slow-wave, deep sleep; hard to wake up from REM: stands for rapid eye movement; similar brain waves to when you are awake PSYCH 100 Which stages are “slow wave sleep”? Stages 3-4 When do dreams occur? REM Know what encoding, storage, and retrieval are Encoding (actively putting things into memory) Storage (holding info in memory) Retrieval (recalling information) Know levels of processing (shallow vs. deep) Shallow: basic (eg., simple repetition, sound, basic shape) Deep: richer (eg., mnemonic, meaning, categorizing) Know the 3 systems model of memory and how they differ Sensory memory: memory of sensory input stored. Large capacity, but only lasts a few seconds Short term memory: information transferred from sensory memory. You need to pay attention to the things in your sensory memory in order to transition it into short-term memory. Short-term memory has a small capacity and usually lasts 20-30 seconds unless you refresh it often. Long term memory: information transferred from short-term memory that has been elaborated on or used frequently. Know Network Activation Model of memory and priming Network Activation Model says that memory is a bunch of nodes connected to each other Priming: activation of one node makes a related node more accessible (example: thinking of the word school might trigger similar topics to appear) Primacy effect, recency effect Primacy effect: more likely to recall things we encounter at the beginning of a list Recency effect: more likely to recall things encountered at the end PSYCH 100 Recall vs. recognition (what are they, which is easier) Recall is when you have to think of the answer to something. Recognition is when you simply have to recognize the correct answer. Recognition is easier than recall. Know mental set and functional fixedness Mental set: a way of thinking Functional fixedness: stuck in thinking about an object’s function as only one possibility (example: a lot of people will simply see a paper clip as something that keeps paper together. However, it can also be used for many other things, like picking lock and creating jewelry.) Normal distribution of intelligence – what it is Tests like the IQ test take the average score for each age group and set that as the norm. 0 is the norm and the average. As you get further from the average, you will find less people. 99% of people are within 3 standard deviations from the average. How genetics and environment probably interact to influence intelligence They both play a role in determining someone’s intelligence. Genetics give a range and environment determines where in that range a person ends up. PSYCH 100 Know examples of IQ tests (Wechsler scales) Stanford-Binet: measures mental age as intelligent quotient Wechsler scales: measures verbal IQ and performance IQ (the former is related to being able to use knowledge while the latter is related to creative thinking and logic) Know what attachment is and be able to identify types Attachment: bond between baby and caregiver People measure types of attachment by doing experiments where moms leave their babies with strangers. Secure: baby a little upset when mom leaves, but then they are happy again Anxious (Avoidant): no reaction to mom leaving or returning Anxious (Ambivalent): extremely upset at mom leaving; happy and angry when mom returns Disorganized: miscellaneous reactions Know that Erikson developed a theory of social development that covers entire lifespan and that the stages go in order (ie, you must complete each stage before moving onto the next one) You do not need to know the different stages and info about them, but I will leave the chart here anyway to remind you of what this is all about. Stage 1 Trust vs. mistrust (1 year old) Is the world predictable and supportive? Can you trust others to fulfill your needs Related to attachment Stage 2 Autonomy vs. shame/doubt (1-2/3 years old) Am I capable of doing things myself? Kids are now asked to control their actions (walking, potty training, etc) Stage 3 Initiative vs. guilt (2/3 – 5/6 years old) Is it okay for me to do things independently? Start exploring, asserting self PSYCH 100 Stage 4 Industry vs. inferiority (5/6 – 12/13 years old) Am I competent? Kids now asked to do things deemed worthwhile by society (school work, for example) Stage 5 Identity vs. role confusion (Adolescence) Who am I? Stage 6 Intimacy vs. isolation (Young adulthood; 20s-30s) Do I want to share my life with someone else? (Doesn’t necessarily have to be romantic) Stage 7 Generativity vs. stagnation (30s-70/80s) Will I leave something meaningful behind (children, career, etc)? Stage 8 Ego integrity vs. despair (Elderly years) Was my life worthwhile? Know that Piaget developed a theory of cognitive development You do not need to know the different stages and info about them, but I will leave the chart here anyway to remind you of what this is all about. Stage 1 Sensorimotor stage (0 to 2 years old) Experiencing the world through senses and action; able to recognize that they can have an effect on things around them Developing object permanence PSYCH 100 (understanding that if something exists, it continues to exists even if we can’t see it) Stage 2 Preoperational stage (2 to 7 years old) Symbolic thinking develops; understanding language Might develop egocentrism (difficulty seeing things from another person’s perspective) and not understanding conservation (mass is still conserved even if you change its shape) Stage 3 Concrete operational stage (7 to 11 years old) Think logically about concrete events and analogies Stage 4 Formal operational stage (11 years and up) Able to think about abstract thoughts and do deductive reasoning Know that Kolberg developed a theory of moral development and know how stages are determined Again, you do not need to know the specific stages, but here they are nevertheless: 1. Preconventional level · People decide things based on overt consequences (if people could get caught and punished, it’s wrong) 2. Conventional level · Reasoning based on societal norms, not necessarily rules 3. Postconventional level · People develop their own code of ethics that is flexible PSYCH 100 They’re basically determined by how people react to moral dilemma. Know what traits are according to the Trait Theory Personality traits are - Consistent over time - Organized and coherent (people usually aren’t nice and hostile at the same time) - Affect behavior Know difference between the beliefs of trait theorists, situationists, interactionists Trait theorists – behavior is determined by the traits we have Situationists – behavior is determined by the situation we are in Interactionists – behavior is determined by interaction of both traits and situation Freud’s theory of conscious, preconscious, unconscious: know what they are - Conscious: what we’re thinking about at the moment - Preconscious: things that can easily be called into your awareness - Unconscious: hidden thoughts and feelings (not easy to bring into conscious because your mind has buried them deep) Id, ego, superego: know what they are - Id: entirely in unconscious; goal of id is to feel good and fulfill basic desires and pleasure - Superego: our conscience (morals and values) - Ego: balances id and superego; acts according to reality Know what self-actualization is, according to humanism Self-actualization: people have innate tendency to grow and become the best they can be Know that Carl Rogers was a prominent humanistic psychologist PSYCH 100 Know that Maslow had theory based on hierarchy of needs You do not need to know exactly what his theory consists of, but here is the chart anyway. Know difference between projective tests and empirical tests Projective tests are based on the idea that you project how you’re feeling onto an ambiguous image and it shows what is in your unconscious. Empirical tests are based on a set of data with clear criteria on how to score someone’s answers. Know examples of projective and empirical tests Projective Roschach ink blot test Thematic apperception test (TAT) Empirical Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) NEO Myers-Briggs PSYCH 100 Know that behaviorism focuses on only observable behavior (not thoughts, feelings, etc.) Know the 4 elements of classical conditioning, and be able to identify them from an example  Unconditioned stimulus  Unconditioned response  Conditioned stimulus  Conditioned response An example we can look at is one of Pavlov’s dogs Ivan Pavlov’s experiment with feeding dogs is a famous example of classical conditioning. Before giving the dogs food, Pavlov would ring a bell. Upon seeing and smelling food, the dogs would begin salivating. After repeating this process many times, there came a time when the dogs would salivate just at the sound of the bell, even when food was not present. Food given to dogs = unconditioned stimulus Salivating at food = unconditioned response Bell = conditioned stimulus Salivating at bell = conditioned response (Unconditioned and conditioned responses are often the same. They only differ in what they are responding to) Understand generalization and extinction Generalization: when conditioned response extends to other stimuli (ex: if Pavlov’s dogs salivate not only when they hear the bell, but when they hear similar tones as well) Discrimination: when conditioned response is differentiated from dissimilar stimuli (ex: the opposite of generalization—if Pavlov’s dogs respond only to the bell and not similar tones) Know the 4 types of consequences for operant conditioning  Positive reinforcement (adding something good)  Negative reinforcement (removing something bad)  Positive punishment (adding something bad)  Negative punishment (removing something good) PSYCH 100 Identify examples of them Examples of each in rewarding or punishing a child Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement - Giving them candy - Letting them skip out on chores for - Giving them praises good behavior Positive punishment Negative punishment - Sending them to timeout - Taking away electronics Know about intermittent reinforcement and continuous reinforcement Intermittent reinforcement = reinforcement occasionally when something happens Continuous reinforcement = reinforcement every time something happens Know what observational learning is Observational learning: when you learn to do something by watching someone else do it Know what vicarious reinforcement is Vicarious reinforcement is seeing reinforcement happen to someone and wanting it to also happen to you (ex: a student sees that their classmates who are in a study group tend to get high grades on tests, so that student might join a study group in hopes of getting high grades). Know what the DSM is DSM is the American system of classifying mental disorders Know that DSM is categorical and uses behavioral criteria to categorize disorders PSYCH 100 Know the theoretical perspectives and what each one says causes symptoms Cognitive perspective  Disorders caused by maladaptive thought patterns Behavioral perspective  Disorders come from maladaptive learning patterns (ex: wrong model, bad reinforcement, etc) Psychodynamic perspective  Disorders come from unconscious conflicts Biomedical perspective  Disorders caused by biological dysfunction (ex: activities of neurotransmitters)  Disorders caused by biological Biopsychosocial dysfunction + internal psychological processes + social environment Be able to identify the following disorders from an example Panic Disorder – person has panic attacks Obsessive compulsive disorder – person is obsessed with doing certain things and has rituals Posttraumatic stress disorder – after experiencing a traumatic event, person has flashbacks, has trouble sleeping, and tries to numb their emotions Major depression – person is sad and hopeless for a long time Bipolar disorder – person experiences episodes of mania followed by depression Dissociative identity disorder – person has multiple different personalities Schizophrenia – person has psychosis, hallucinations, and delusions Know general symptoms of depression Being sad for a significant amount of time, appetite and sleep are affected significantly (increase for some people, decrease for others), negative thinking and behavior. Know difference in rates of diagnosis for men and women Women are 2x more likely to be diagnosed PSYCH 100 Know the difference between positive symptoms and negative symptoms Positive symptoms: things there are a lot of Negative symptoms: things there are not a lot of Know about the dopamine hypothesis Psychologists believe schizophrenia/psychosis is caused by the brain having too much dopamine Know 3 basic dimensions of attributions Internal/external – behavior comes from within person / from situation Stable/unstable – behavior consistent over time / not consistent over time Controllable/uncontrollable – person can control their behavior / person can’t control their behavior Know actor/observer bias and self-serving bias, and be able to apply them to an example Actor/Observer bias: when you are the actor in a situation, you tend to think your behavior is attributed to some external influence, not consistent over time (unstable), and is uncontrollable. When you are observing another person in a situation, you tend to think their behavior influenced by internal factors, stable over time, and controllable. Self-serving bias: when you have success, you attribute it to internal, stable, and controllable behavior. When you have failure, you attribute it to external, unstable, and uncontrollable factors influenced by the environment. Know what happened in Asch’s famous experiment on conformity Asch’s experiment looked at conformity. A participant sat in a group and the group members gave wrong answers to a set questions. A fair number of people went against their own beliefs and gave wrong answers to fit in with the group. Know what happened in Milgram’s famous experiment on obedience Milgram’s experiment tried to see if people would be willing to give dangerous shocks to another person if someone of authority (a researcher in a lab coat) told them to. The majority of people obeyed the researcher. PSYCH 100 Know what happened in Zimbardo’s famous prison experiment Zimbardo’s experiment involved setting up a mock prison at Stanford with some students assigned as prisoners and others given authority as guards. It went awry because the “guards” were psychologically and physically abusing the “prisoners.” Know bystander effect and diffusion of responsibility Bystander effect: the more people there are when something bad happens, the less likely anyone will do anything Diffusion of responsibility: explains the bystander effect; no one in particular feels like they are responsible End of study guide.


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