New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Final Psychology Study guide

by: Jianna LoCricchio

Final Psychology Study guide PSY 150A1

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Psychlogy > PSY 150A1 > Final Psychology Study guide
Jianna LoCricchio
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

BEFORE BUYING THIS PLEASE EMAIL ME AT JCLOCRICCHIO@EMAIL.ARIZONA.EDU FOR UPDATES AND SPECIAL RATES!!!! If you want to buy all four of my study guides to study for the final, please email me!!! I...
Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1)
Dr. Lazarewicz
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1)

Popular in Psychlogy

This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jianna LoCricchio on Friday December 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Lazarewicz in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 582 views. For similar materials see Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1) in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


Reviews for Final Psychology Study guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 12/11/15
PSY150A1: Structure of Mind and Behavior Study Guide #4 Chapter 16: Treatment of Psychological Disorders • What is the difference between psychotherapy and biomedical therapy for psychological disorders? What does it mean to say that a therapist takes an “eclectic” approach? o Psychotherapy: interaction between therapists and persons with psychological difficulties, disorders o Biomedical Therapy: meds and medical procedures that directly affect the nervous system o Eclectic approach: doing many different types of therapies to try and get better results. Choosing between therapies depends on therapist’s approach training. • Describe the basic goals and strategies used by each of the following psychotherapy approaches: o psychoanalysis (include the terms “resistance” and “transference”) § Created by Freud and focuses on disorders caused by unconscious pressure. • Resistance: unconsciously blocking anxieties from entering consciousness. (stuttering, forgetting what to say) • Transference: Re-focusing strong feelings from early life (love, anger) toward psychoanalyst. o humanistic therapy (include the terms “client-centered therapy” and “active listening”) § connected to Carl Rogers. Emphasis on self-actualization (positive) • client-centered therapy: create accepting, open environment to build growth. “non-directive therapy” • active listening: listening that involves mirroring back the feelings relayed by the client. o behavioral therapy (include the terms “systematic desensitization” and “aversive conditioning”) § uses conditioning principles (classical and operant) to eliminate unwanted behaviors. • Aversive conditioning: Pairing unpleasant stimulus with unwanted behavior (bitter nail polish-reduces nail biting) • Systematic desensitization: gradually pairing feared stimulus with deep relaxation. o cognitive therapy (include the term “rational-emotive therapy”) § illogical and irrational thoughts critical to many disorders. Teaches new, adaptive ways of thinking. • Rational-emotive therapy: Albert Elis, confront irrational beliefs. ABC model of Disorders. o A: Adversity (“negative activating condition) o B: Beliefs (irrational, self-defeating) o C: Consequences (anxiety, depression) • Describe the basic goals and functions of the following medications: o antipsychotic medications: invented in the 1950’s and it changed mental health. § Blocks dopamine receptors § Used to treat schizophrenia (positive symptoms) § Chlorpromazine, thorazine o antidepressant medications: Used to treat depression § SSRI’s block serotonin reuptake § Tricyclic’s: increase amount of norepinephrine. § Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil o mood-stabilizing medications: Used to treat bi-polar (mania) § often paired with antidepressants § benefits 70% of bi-polar patients… no idea why § lithium (simple salt) o antianxiety medications: used for variety of anxiety issues. § Depresses nervous system activity § Effective, but may mask actual issues § Xanax, Valium • Describe electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). What disorder do we usually use it for, and what are the possible risks and benefits? o ECT: Electric shock therapy used to treat severe depression (usually if medications and therapies don’t help) § Induces electrical seizures § Usually 6-12 sessions, 2-3x per week § Pros: high successful rate for difficult cases. Helpful for 50=% of ECT patients, No solid evidence of risk for brain damage. § Cons: possible brain damage, short term memory issues around treatments, follow up treatment and medication are still needed • What is a frontal lobotomy? Why did lobotomies fall out of favor in the medical community? o A surgery to damage frontal lobe, to help make changes in someone’s behavior. It is intended to control emotional and violent patients. It only takes around 10 minutes. Only 1/3 of people improve after a lobotomy, 1/3 also gets worse. There are a lot of ethical objections to brain damage. Chapter 17: Social Psychology • What do social psychologists study? o Scientific study of how we thing about, influence, and relate to one another. Focuses on how we influence others, and person vs. environment interaction • What is an attribution? What is the fundamental attribution error (FAE)? Why should we care about the FAE? o Attribution: an explanation for someone’s behavior. § Dispositional vs. situational attributions o FAE: tendency to overestimate disposition, and underestimate situation when explaining others’ behavior. FAE leads to distorted perceptions of others and ourselves. Misunderstanding of motivations, goals, etc. § The quiz show study § The Castro study • Why is consistency such a powerful motivation for people? o Consistency is critically important to social interaction. Shows reliability and predictability. o What is the foot-in-the-door phenomenon, and how does it relate to the idea of consistency? § Tendency for people who first agree to small request to later comply with large requests (start small and build up) This is very important because you can get people to do more for you when you as them to do little things. o What is a social role, and how does it relate to the idea of consistency? Use the Stanford Prison Experiment as your example. § Social role: norms for how a person in a certain social position should act. § Phil Zimbardo: Stanford Prison Experiment: shows how easily someone will conform to a role and how they can turn into different people. Prisoners because passive, withdrawn and depressed, guards became cruel, abusive and violent. o What is cognitive dissonance, and how can people go about reducing dissonance? What does dissonance predict about the influence of rewards/punishments? § Cognitive dissonance: discomfort due to inconsistencies between thoughts, behaviors, values, attitudes and beliefs. You are motivated to reduce dissonance. § Dissonance prediction: smaller rewards for a behavior means you are more liking of that behavior. § Principle of insufficient justification: when there is little/no external justification for behavior, we find internal justification. • The dollar bill study • The Forbidden Toy Study • What is social facilitation? o The presence of other facilitates well learned, practiced, easy, familiar behaviors. The presence of others interferes with unfamiliar or difficult behaviors. o When people are watching you, you are more likely to feel pressured and screw up. • What is conformity? Describe the differences between informational social influence and normative social influence. o Conformity: matching thoughts and behaviors to group norms. o We don’t know what to do so we look to others for information. WE also want to fit in (normal social influences) o Describe Solomon Asch’s (1950) famous conformity study (“the Line study”). § The line study was where they put a bunch of people in a room (all were plants except for one). They showed a picture of three lines, and you had to match which two were the same. All of the plants would pick the line that obviously wasn’t right, and then they would see if the participant would conform to the group to fit in, or if they would stick to the obvious right answer. • Describe Stanley Milgram’s (1965) famous obedience study. Why was the Milgram study so important in psychology? o Recruited participants for a “learning study” they had a teacher (a real participant) and a learner (confederate). The teacher was instructed to deliver shock to the learner if they get a question wrong. Every wrong answer, they are instructed to induce a higher voltage shock to the learner. If the teacher protests, the experimenter gives orders to continue. The leaner moans and screams, but 65% of teachers continued all the way to the end even when they didn’t hear the learner screaming anymore. o This showed the power of authority. • What is the bystander effect? What is diffusion of responsibility? o Bystander effect: the more people present at an emergency, the less likely that anyone will help. o Diffusion of responsibility: the idea that someone else will help. o Kitty Genovese-mugged and stabbed to death, many people heard the situation, but non helped. • Describe the relationship of aggression to each of the following o Aggression: verbal or physical behavior aimed at causing pain o physiological states (especially testosterone)- genes (animal breeding), neural systems (amygdala activity), Biochemistry (drugs and alcohol), Testosterone (predicts aggression for males and females of multiple species. It is positively correlated with criminal behavior, drug abuse, bullying, irritability and impulsiveness. o Culture: evidence that aggression is learned. There is variation between cultures. o frustration & social cues: if you are blocked from a goal, you a ready to become aggression. Can be cued by simple things in the environment. It can also be cued by unpleasant situations like physical pain, traffic, heat, foul orders, and personal insults. • Describe the differences between stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. Why do social psychologists think that these things happen? o Stereotype: beliefs about a group ant it’s members (cognitive component) o Prejudice: negative attitude toward a group and its members (emotional component) o Discrimination: negative behavior toward a group and its members (behavioral component) • What are the three major reasons that we are attracted to some people more than others? o Proximity: greater availability. The more you see them, the more you become attracted. o Physical attractiveness: are you attracted to what they look like? § Halo effect: physically attractive people are typically seen as having other positive qualities. (they are attractive, so they must be successful, healthy, happy, smart) o Perceived similarity: attracted to others who are similar to us. (beliefs, attitudes, hobbies, age, religion) § Implicit egotism: self=good. Therefore, things that are connected to self=good. Letters in name, birthdate, etc. Has major impact on life decisions. • Describe Sternberg’s (1988) stage model of relationships. How does he say that relationships change over time? o 1) romantic love: intense longing for the other person. Passion and intimacy (emotional intense longing for, and self disclosure) o 2)companionate love: intimacy and commitment (long-term determination to sustain relationship) § reduces passion, which can be a problem § but more intimate, committed trusting and tolerant. o 3) consummate love: passion, intimacy and commitment § requires consistent effort to reintroduce passion, excitement.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.