PSY150A1: Structure of Mind and Behavior
Study Guide #4
Chapter 16: Treatment of Psychological Disorders
• What is the difference between psychotherapy and biomedical therapy for psychological disorders? What does it mean to say that a therapist takes an “eclectic” approach? o Psychotherapy: interaction between therapists and persons with psychological difficulties, disorders
o Biomedical Therapy: meds and medical procedures that directly affect the nervous system
o Eclectic approach: doing many different types of therapies to try and get better results. Choosing between therapies depends on therapist’s approach training.
• Describe the basic goals and strategies used by each of the following psychotherapy approaches:
o psychoanalysis (include the terms “resistance” and “transference”)
▪ Created by Freud and focuses on disorders caused by unconscious pressure. • Resistance: unconsciously blocking anxieties from entering consciousness. (stuttering, forgetting what to say)
• Transference: Re-focusing strong feelings from early life (love, anger)
o humanistic therapy (include the terms “client-centered therapy” and “active listening”) Don't forget about the age old question of cse 3100
▪ connected to Carl Rogers. Emphasis on self-actualization (positive)
• client-centered therapy: create accepting, open environment to build
growth. “non-directive therapy”
• active listening: listening that involves mirroring back the feelings relayed by the client.
o behavioral therapy (include the terms “systematic desensitization” and “aversive conditioning”) If you want to learn more check out - How will you manipulate the independent variable between treatments?
▪ uses conditioning principles (classical and operant) to eliminate unwanted behaviors.
• Aversive conditioning: Pairing unpleasant stimulus with unwanted
behavior (bitter nail polish-reduces nail biting)
• Systematic desensitization: gradually pairing feared stimulus with deep relaxation.
o cognitive therapy (include the term “rational-emotive therapy”)
▪ illogical and irrational thoughts critical to many disorders. Teaches new, adaptive ways of thinking.
• Rational-emotive therapy: Albert Elis, confront irrational beliefs. ABC
model of Disorders.
o A: Adversity (“negative activating condition)
o B: Beliefs (irrational, self-defeating)
o C: Consequences (anxiety, depression)
• Describe the basic goals and functions of the following medications:
o antipsychotic medications: invented in the 1950’s and it changed mental health. ▪ Blocks dopamine receptors
▪ Used to treat schizophrenia (positive symptoms)
▪ Chlorpromazine, thorazine
o antidepressant medications: Used to treat depression We also discuss several other topics like jwwwn
▪ SSRI’s block serotonin reuptake
▪ Tricyclic’s: increase amount of norepinephrine.
▪ Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil
o mood-stabilizing medications: Used to treat bi-polar (mania)
▪ often paired with antidepressants
▪ benefits 70% of bi-polar patients… no idea why
▪ lithium (simple salt)
o antianxiety medications: used for variety of anxiety issues.
▪ Depresses nervous system activity
▪ Effective, but may mask actual issues
▪ Xanax, Valium
• Describe electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). What disorder do we usually use it for, and what are the possible risks and benefits?
o ECT: Electric shock therapy used to treat severe depression (usually if medications and therapies don’t help) We also discuss several other topics like the average victim of anorexia nervosa is ____ percent below normal body weight.
▪ Induces electrical seizures
▪ Usually 6-12 sessions, 2-3x per week
▪ Pros: high successful rate for difficult cases. Helpful for 50=% of ECT patients, No solid evidence of risk for brain damage.
▪ Cons: possible brain damage, short term memory issues around treatments, follow up treatment and medication are still needed
• What is a frontal lobotomy? Why did lobotomies fall out of favor in the medical community?
o A surgery to damage frontal lobe, to help make changes in someone’s behavior. It is intended to control emotional and violent patients. It only takes around 10 minutes. Only 1/3 of people improve after a lobotomy, 1/3 also gets worse. There are a lot of ethical objections to brain damage.We also discuss several other topics like psyc 320
Chapter 17: Social Psychology
• What do social psychologists study?
o Scientific study of how we thing about, influence, and relate to one another. Focuses on how we influence others, and person vs. environment interaction
• What is an attribution? What is the fundamental attribution error (FAE)? Why should we care about the FAE?
o Attribution: an explanation for someone’s behavior.
▪ Dispositional vs. situational attributions
o FAE: tendency to overestimate disposition, and underestimate situation when explaining others’ behavior. FAE leads to distorted perceptions of others and ourselves. Misunderstanding of motivations, goals, etc. Don't forget about the age old question of Wha is the cognitive dissonance theory?
▪ The quiz show study
▪ The Castro study
• Why is consistency such a powerful motivation for people?
o Consistency is critically important to social interaction. Shows reliability and predictability.
o What is the foot-in-the-door phenomenon, and how does it relate to the idea of consistency?
▪ Tendency for people who first agree to small request to later comply with large requests (start small and build up) This is very important because you can get people to do more for you when you as them to do little things.
o What is a social role, and how does it relate to the idea of consistency? Use the Stanford Prison Experiment as your example.
▪ Social role: norms for how a person in a certain social position should act. ▪ Phil Zimbardo: Stanford Prison Experiment: shows how easily someone will conform to a role and how they can turn into different people. Prisoners because passive, withdrawn and depressed, guards became cruel, abusive and violent.
o What is cognitive dissonance, and how can people go about reducing dissonance? What does dissonance predict about the influence of rewards/punishments? ▪ Cognitive dissonance: discomfort due to inconsistencies between thoughts, behaviors, values, attitudes and beliefs. You are motivated to reduce dissonance. ▪ Dissonance prediction: smaller rewards for a behavior means you are more liking of that behavior.
▪ Principle of insufficient justification: when there is little/no external justification for behavior, we find internal justification.
• The dollar bill study
• The Forbidden Toy Study
• What is social facilitation?
o The presence of other facilitates well learned, practiced, easy, familiar behaviors. The presence of others interferes with unfamiliar or difficult behaviors.
o When people are watching you, you are more likely to feel pressured and screw up.
• What is conformity? Describe the differences between informational social influence and normative social influence.
o Conformity: matching thoughts and behaviors to group norms.
o We don’t know what to do so we look to others for information. WE also want to fit in (normal social influences)
o Describe Solomon Asch’s (1950) famous conformity study (“the Line study”).
▪ The line study was where they put a bunch of people in a room (all were plants except for one). They showed a picture of three lines, and you had to match which two were the same. All of the plants would pick the line that obviously wasn’t right, and then they would see if the participant would conform to the group to fit in, or if they would stick to the obvious right answer.
• Describe Stanley Milgram’s (1965) famous obedience study. Why was the Milgram study so important in psychology?
o Recruited participants for a “learning study” they had a teacher (a real participant) and a learner (confederate). The teacher was instructed to deliver shock to the learner if they get a question wrong. Every wrong answer, they are instructed to induce a higher voltage shock to the learner. If the teacher protests, the experimenter gives orders to continue. The leaner moans and screams, but 65% of teachers continued all the way to the end even when they didn’t hear the learner screaming anymore.
o This showed the power of authority.
• What is the bystander effect? What is diffusion of responsibility?
o Bystander effect: the more people present at an emergency, the less likely that anyone will help.
o Diffusion of responsibility: the idea that someone else will help.
o Kitty Genovese-mugged and stabbed to death, many people heard the situation, but non helped.
• Describe the relationship of aggression to each of the following
o Aggression: verbal or physical behavior aimed at causing pain
o physiological states (especially testosterone)- genes (animal breeding), neural systems (amygdala activity), Biochemistry (drugs and alcohol), Testosterone (predicts aggression for males and females of multiple species. It is positively correlated with criminal behavior, drug abuse, bullying, irritability and impulsiveness.
o Culture: evidence that aggression is learned. There is variation between cultures.
o frustration & social cues: if you are blocked from a goal, you a ready to become aggression. Can be cued by simple things in the environment. It can also be cued by unpleasant situations like physical pain, traffic, heat, foul orders, and personal insults.
• Describe the differences between stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. Why do social psychologists think that these things happen?
o Stereotype: beliefs about a group ant it’s members (cognitive component) o Prejudice: negative attitude toward a group and its members (emotional component) o Discrimination: negative behavior toward a group and its members (behavioral component)
• What are the three major reasons that we are attracted to some people more than others? o Proximity: greater availability. The more you see them, the more you become attracted. o Physical attractiveness: are you attracted to what they look like?
▪ Halo effect: physically attractive people are typically seen as having other positive qualities. (they are attractive, so they must be successful, healthy, happy, smart) o Perceived similarity: attracted to others who are similar to us. (beliefs, attitudes, hobbies, age, religion)
▪ Implicit egotism: self=good. Therefore, things that are connected to self=good. Letters in name, birthdate, etc. Has major impact on life decisions.
• Describe Sternberg’s (1988) stage model of relationships. How does he say that relationships change over time?
o 1) romantic love: intense longing for the other person. Passion and intimacy (emotional intense longing for, and self disclosure)
o 2)companionate love: intimacy and commitment (long-term determination to sustain relationship)
▪ reduces passion, which can be a problem
▪ but more intimate, committed trusting and tolerant.
o 3) consummate love: passion, intimacy and commitment
▪ requires consistent effort to reintroduce passion, excitement.