EXAM3 STUDY GUIDE
EXAM3 STUDY GUIDE ISS 310
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Torres on Friday December 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ISS 310 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Lucero Radonic in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 160 views. For similar materials see People and Environment (I) in Social Work at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 12/11/15
EXAM 3 Commons and Commodities. Use value: As the words imply, it is the use that an object has. (For example, the use value of a fork is that we can eat with it.) Exchange value: Is the value we give in terms of the standardized and common medium of exchange. (Basically how much money something costs) So every object has use value. The use value is the usefulness that this object represents to us. On the other hand, the exchange value is a value that we give to an object. For example, let’s say that I have a chair and a very luxurious piece of jewelry. We can say that both the chair and the piece of jewelry have use value because I use the chair to sit, and I use the jewelry as part of my outfit. Even though the chair may seem more useful than the jewel, the exchange value (the price) will most likely be higher than the chair, because this is a value we assign to the object. Commodity: An object that only had use value, and acquired exchange value. It is an object that was brought into the market. For example: I just wrote a book. This book has a use value because I can read it. Tomorrow, I decide to sell my book, so I put a price on my book and it acquires an exchange value. Now, my object became a commodity because I brought it into the market and it has an exchange value. Commons- Goods or services like oceans, irrigation systems. Difficulty of exclusion. Meaning it is hard to enclose or exclude. (hard but not impossible) Substractability. If one user uses the resource, it reduces the availability of the resource to the rest of the people. The resources are finite. The thing about commons is that these resources are not owned by private companies, but locals (like indigenous people) have the right to make use and administrate them. Meaning that these commons are an open resource for a community. Again, commons should not be used for privatization. The tragedy of the commons: The pastor (metaphor). Rational individuals benefit from exploiting a common resource, while costs are distributed across the group. Lack of communication produce problems in the distribution of resources. Solution? Private properties- Privatization via enclosure of the commons “open access” resources must be bounded and given over to individual owners or strong state management agencies. Assumptions: Rational individuals are selfish There is no social learning. Lack of communication between individuals Resources are open access with no rules or norms in place. Criticism to the pastor metaphor Total absence of rules would mean degradation and destruction, but there is not a total absence of rules. We need to understand them. What Heardy was describing was not open resources it was an open access scenario. He oversimplified the system He overgeneralized. There are more than just the two solutions that he stated. Environmental commons are not open access, free to all resources with no management rules. Most environmental common are common pool resources, meaning that they are common property. Environmental commons are not free but governed by rules and norms that constrain behavior and encourage cooperation. We have 3 main types of property. 1. Group common property- The resource’s rights are held by a group of users that can exclude people. 2. Individual property- Resource rights that are owned by individuals or corporations. (They can exclude others) 3. Government or state property- Resource rights are held by the government, they regulate how and who uses the resources. Examples: Mongolia- Worked in group common property- this allowed mobility. Less resource degradation. Russia- State property- Less mobility- More degradation of resources. China- Private property- Even less mobility- bus environmental impact. Commons management include Restriction of access. Implementation of incentives to invest in resources instead of overexploiting them. Proportionality. This means that whatever you invest, you need to also obtain equal benefits. Collective choice- The locals need to be engaged, because they know the land. This has been passed generation by generation. (just orally) The tragedy of commodification Issues with the management of resources and how the market manages resources too. Environmental Ethics, Environmental justice and social movements. Preservationist philosophy- The management of the environment for its protection against human use Conservation movement- The movement that we saw emerging in early 1900 Movement towards the conservation of habitat New environmental movement- Look at the environment from a different perspective. Environment is more than wilderness. More intimate connected environment. We need to protect environment. We need to realize that environment can also hurt us. If we do not take care of the environment can hurt us. Relationship between health and environment 1. DDT and Silent Spring- Rachel Carson (1962) In this book she explains two decades of research on DDT (chemical that is used to kill insects). DDT was used to help the soldiers in war to prevent malaria, but they did not take into consideration that the chemicals can harm people. They noticed that fish had mutations and discovered that DDT can cause cancer and other diseases in people. 2. The love Canal (mentioned in the video we saw last week) - Chemical waste was thrown. People from different social groups and races where exposed differently to toxic chemicals. Environmental Justice Movement= Social justice + Environmental movement Using nature: Transformation of nature to property through labor. Utilitarianism- The value of nature comes from the usefulness to humans. Henry Thoreau- Psychological and spiritual value of nature. Places that help people to cultivate their spirit. Naturestrengthsthebodyandimagination.Hewantedtoturnsocietyintoamuchmorecreative society. (Nature as a tool) Nature have to be preserved for its own right (Preservationist view) Pinchot “Conservationist philosophy” Scientific forestry Nature as natural resources (Utilitarian values) Conservation: The efficient and sustainable use id natural resources for the greatest good of the greatest number for he longest time (influenced by utilitarianism) Pinchot- forest services Muir- Non- governmental conservation Another example of conservationism: Aldo Leopold- Ecologist (1887-1948) Humans are part of the environment, and we need to survive. Land ethic Echo centric perspective- “The land ethic” Understand how our use of the resources will affect the ecosystem. Use the land but guided by ecological connections and health. Anthropocentric perspective- It centered in humans. It states that the land should be just used only depending on the human needs. Environmental Justice argument- All communities are created equal. Environmental protection agency: The right of people to be involved with the development, implementation and enforcement of laws that shape the environment. (EPA2013) 1. Everyone has the right to live in a healthy environment regardless of gender, race, class or nationality. 2. Equitable distribution of environmental goods between people. Environmental racism- Any policy of practice that differentially affects individuals or groups based on racial and ethnic minority status. Institutional racism- Patterns through which racial inequality is structured through key cultural institutions,policiesandsystems.Example:NativeAmericansintheUS.JimCrow/expropriation of lands because they were considered racially different. Environmental injustice- Cases when you have a minority group that is disproportionally close to unhealthful and dangerous conditions. When inequitabledistribution istheresultofone group limitingornegatively impacting another group’s ability to access and manage a healthy environment. Example: NJ took 50M away from child protection lead (disease that affects the brain) fund. People in these area where black, meaning that they unconsciously harmed them because they were not considered a priority. Thereisanassociationbetweenraceandthelocationofhazardouswastefacilities,even after considering variables. Models about environmental injustice 1. Intentional Bias Model- Deliberate racial and social policy in LULU siting. California WASTE Management board, target communities that are not going to complain. 2. Institutional Bias model- Rules, procedures and policies are biased against poor and minorities. 3. Neighborhood transition Model- Poor and minorities arrive after environmental hazard because they can’t afford expensive houses. Agency -Potential power of individuals to contest existing structures and change power relations, norms, values, laws. Agency keeps cultures changing. Collective organization main power in agency SocialMovements-Collectiveactionsthatwanttomakeadifference.ExampleElChicoMendez, strikes, etc. CHARACTERISTICS OF A SOCIAL MOVEMENT 1. Recognition of commonalities. Why are we working together? Example: Shared identities. What makes a group want to protest? 2. You need to have an adversary. Meaning that you need to have someone who wants access to the same thing you need. Example industries and people who protect trees. “Definition over the same values.” 3. Social movements engage in many different action in order to achieve what you want. Political disobedience. You go against the main political process. Sometimes you start as a non- political process, but you end up dealing with politicians. Water development and nature Hydraulic era- The control of river. • Create dams • Manage electricity • Reservoir capacity around the world Global water development- 20th century. • Modifying rivers for irrigation. • After world war two, there is an increase of global development (100 years) • More than 50,000 dams around the world. • 60% of the largest rivers have been heavily altered. • 25% of the rivers are dry before they reach the ocean. (Like the one we saw on the documentary last class) • Reservoirs take 5.5% of the fresh water available. This makes 20% of the total water surface area. President Roosevelt: We need the dams for development Candidate Goldwater: At first we thought that we need dams for development, but then he changes his mind and decided that we should be against the dams because we lose an important part of the environment. • Take into consideration the importance of the wellbeing of fish and other natural resources for human survival. Use of the rivers • 20% of global electricity is provided by hydropower. • Irrigation Storage. • Transportation, like the Panama Canal. • Flood and drought risk moderation. STUDY THE GRAPHS ON THE READING FOR LECTURE 21. LOOK FOR THE READING ON D2L • Natural dynamic habitats are lost if you control the natural flow of the river. • Evolution of species become interrupted when you modify the natural flow of the river. Large scale impacts. • People who depended on foraging and hunting end up being homeless. • Loss of livelihoods. • Loss of the benefits that the rivers give us. Like flood mitigation and floods that can be good for the environment. Post-Hydraulic era • In developed countries we are in a post hydraulic area. Example the US has stopped building dams • It is not a reality for every country in the world. Other countries are still building dams. Example: The Colorado river. NEW VIDEO: Renewal What is minute 319? Bilateral agreement between Mexico and the US to save the Delta Colorado River. March 2014- Started the process of renewal for the river. What is a Pulse Flow? The release of natural water in way that mimics the natural flow of water. How does it reflect a paradigm shift? World Commission on Dams (1998-2000) • Group of scientists that choose 100 dams in 79 countries and research them. • Dams helped development. • “In too many cases an unacceptable an unnecessary price was paid for the dams” Too many people lost their livelihoods and the ecosystem was destroyed. • Free, prior and informed consent: The agreement that if you want to build a dam you need to know what are the affected parts and the affected people. You need to consults the parties that are affected. • Manage downstream impacts • Share benefits with the affected people. • Consider the removal of existing dams • Dams have a 50 tear life expectancy. DAOCUMENTARY: DAMNATION What are the uses, benefits and impacts? Dams: • Electricity • Jobs • Bombs for World war 2 • Impact: Affect the salmon • Elmer Crow- He used to survive form the falls. Elders saw the “river de” What were the shifts in water development? What are different environmental perspectives? John Miur Environmental justice? Environmental justice issue: They take away rights of native Americans. They interrupt their livelihoods. The salmon was connected to their cultural identity. Water access Overview: Over 1.2 billion people lack Access to safe water 2.5 billion People lack access to sanitation services. And 5 million people die from water born disease. Things as simple as diarrhea. By 2025 2.5 bullion people will suffer from shortage Hydraulic State Complete water resource development control. The state controls the water. (Public is another way to talk about the state), therefore water is a public good rather than a tradable good. When the gov. controls the water, they hold it in order to suppli the citiens. It belongs to every individual Water provision is a service of the state rather than business. It is not meant to create profit. The government should provide enough water for people not go thirsty or unhealthy WB & IMF- They give money to countries to control water. (National banks) o These companies pushed dams in the past. Even though this is not real anymore, they want to privatize water. They want to make profit with the water. Privatize resources, like the case of gold and oil. Article: Water Wars in Bolivia. o Aguas del Tunari: Got the right on the water. (Private Corporation. Said they were going to expand the system. Many people in Bolivia there was a lot of areas with not public infrastructure for water. The company offered to expand the system. o Water worked as commons. People used their own rules over water. o Then, using the water as commons become illegal becomes property of “Aguas Tanuri” o The coordination of land and water: “La cordinadora” Question to consider: 1. Who? 2. What? Their objective was to cancel the privatization of water. 3. How? Protesting. Originates as anon violent protest and then it became violent. They started taking the street but people was prosecuted. Finally, they won and a new law put in Bolivia. Government needed to respect the commons. Question: How is la cordinadora a social movement? Marketization of water? Commodification of water. A good becomes a commodity. Structural adjustments: Withdraw of the state, opening of market, privatization of utilities. Privatization: Shift of the control and ownership form the public to the private. There are different forms of privation. 1) Private public partnerships. Private companies manage responsibility for water supply infrastructure on behalf its public owner. They decide where they will put the infrastructure, but the ownership remains with the state. (Most common tipe of privatization) o Commercialization: Introduction of markets to allocate water. This is a business, they want to make profit. Two ends of the spectrum in terms of marketization: a) Public non-commercialized b) Private commercialized. (There are many arrangements in between a and b) With the idea of privatization the service of water stops being a service of the government and becomes a business. DISCUSSION PART ONE First perspective: Water is a public good because it is a right. Users and seeing as a collective of citizens. Governments should serve the people depending of the ability to pay) People who have more money should pau more for water. Their goal is to have social equity. Second perspective: Water equals economy. A good like water is a commodity Users are individual consumers Water is not a right for people. We need to create a profit making system and they need to charge people depending on their willingness to pay. Water is vital, therefore they will charge them. If water is a business and not a service, there is economic efficiency. Commodity vs Community perspective: Community perspectives of water Values that cannot be expressed in economic terms Environmental values Cultural vales Spiritual values. Water as a public good, does nor equal free for everyone. (compare to the tragedy of the commons and tragedy of commodification) Water development New Legal frameworks Endangered species act. United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples US Constitution. We have more scientific information We know about water scarcity and ecosystem health. 20 century- hydraulic era o Engineer supply- There was this emphasis in this large scale physical infrastructures to manage water. Example dams o Water was associated with economic development, but the need for water was unseen. (need from the nature and need form the humans) (example from the videos seen last class) How do we keep on our systems if water is a limiting resource? First, we have high water consumption, population keeps growing and people need more water. Water is also used for agriculture and industry development. The production of our commodities, food and energy requires a lot of water On the other hand, we have water scarcity because we have over used water. There are growing conflicts over water. The 21fst century The soft path- we don’t want to build more infrastructure like dams. o Integrated water resource management (IWRM) o Flow restauration and Nature’s economy o Engineering demand- We used to build water supply, now they want to figure out ways to change people’s water demand. Part one: IWRM- 1992. Objective: Have a coordinated management of water land and resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare without damaging the ecosystem. 3 Pillars ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY - EQUITY - ENVIROMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY They want to find a balance between the three pillars. o Water is a finite and vulnerable resource. o Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach. Before making aqueducts, you need to ask the people. Including small farmers. This includes every water user, policy makers, planers and experts on the issue. o In developing countries, women are the ones who provide water to the house. This is unfair and unhealthy for them. Consider the gender dimension o Water has an economic value. It should be recognized as an economic good. Since water is a limited resource, it becomes a commodity. Part two: River restauration and dam removal o The economy of nature. Health as integral to water development and management. World Commission on Dams. o Their objective was to study 1000 dams in 79 countries. o Conclusion: Dams contributed to human development, but there were a lot of environmental impacts. o 40-80 million people displaces and species lost. (review lecture 22) o If someone wants to build a dam, the dam has to benefit people who is been displaced. Additionally, the dam need to be approved and consulted. o Example: The Elwha River Watershed. Par three: Engineering demand. o We are running out of the traditional option to supply water, but we were always to find a way to supply. o Today, we consider that if we were so creative to provide water, we should be as creative to make people demand less water. o We have lost federal subsidies. o Conflict among water users. o Recommendation: Use less water in a more efficient way. THE END
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