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by: N3koKikyu


Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > 70782 > FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
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Social Psychology
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by N3koKikyu on Friday December 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 70782 at George Mason University taught by Riskind in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.




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Date Created: 12/11/15
Friday, December 11, 2015 Social Psychology FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Chapter 1 - Social Psychology— the study of how people influence each others thoughts, emotions and actions. FOCUS ON THE INDIVIDUAL. - KURT LEWIN= father of psychology. - Fundamental Attribution Error— The tendency to underestimate the power of social situations/oversimplify complex situations/ decrease understanding of true causes. - GESTALT PRINCIPLES: perceive things as a whole - Figure/Ground—> see things as something is the focus and then something in the background - Closure—> if things have holes/breaks in them our brain will fill it up - Illusory Contours—> our Brain will put imaginary boundaries on things if it has holes - Similarity—> objects look similar to one another so the Brain perceives them as a group or pattern - Continuation—> eye is compelled to move through one object and continue to another object - Proximity—> when elements are placed close together they are perceived as a group - Construal — the way we see the world, is shaped by 2 motives: • 1. to be accepted, and feel good about ourselves. • 2. the need to be accurate. - Self-Fulfilling Prophesy— a prediction that directly/indirectly causes itself to become true. (Rosenthal & Jacobson) - Naiive Realism— the idea that we think we see reality as it is. Types of Research - Observational method 1 Friday, December 11, 2015 • to carefully observe and describe social behavior. - Correlation method • How two things relate - Experimental method • participants are chosen at random and assigned to different conditions. - Hindsight Bias— The tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome after knowing that it occurred. - Mundane Realism— the extent to which an experiment is similar to real-life Situations. - Psychological Realism—Extent to which psychological processes triggered in an experiment are similar to those in everyday life. Chapter 3 - System 1 VS System 2 • list examples of automatic thinking (system 1) • list examples of system 2 (controlled thinking) • Change Blindness—> we are not able to see large changes that would normally be clear - Schemas— belief systems and framing that builds our internal framework for the world. Organizes everything our mins know or believe about the world. - 6 Types of Heuristics 1. Judgemental • • 2. Cognitive • 3. Availability • 4. Representativeness • 5. Anchoring & Adjustment • 6. Framing 2 Friday, December 11, 2015 - Priming—implicit memory effect in which exposure to a stimulus influences response to a later stimulus. • when you watch a scary movie at night and then hear a noise, your mind has been primed (by the movie) to think it is a killer/monster. Chapter 4: Self Perception - Blended emotions—> two or more emotions occur simultaneously. - Micro-expressions—> very brief facial expressions, last less than a second, occur when you unconsciously conceal a feeling. - Relationship between Mirror Neurons and Empathy • mirror neurons allow us to relate to others. - EX: sitting in a theater watching a sad movie and the person on the screen starts to cry and you may start crying to because mirror neurons activate and we relate/ mimic the emotion. • think “Monkey see monkey do” - Implicit Personality Theory— the specific patterns and biases an individual uses when forming impressions based on a limited amount of initial information about an unfamiliar person. - Heider’s Theory of Attribution • There are two causes effecting our attributions Internal vs. External - Internal—> inside the person - External—> outside - Jones & Davis’s Correspondent Inference Theory • we pay attention to intentional behavior • understanding the process of making an internal attribution when we see a correspondence between motive and behavior - EX: when we see a correspondence between someone behaving friendly and being a friendly person - Kelley’s Covariation Model 3 Friday, December 11, 2015 • 3 types of information to help us decide on internal vs. external attributions - 1. Consensus—> extent of other people behave in the same way in a similar situation - 2. Distinctiveness—> when a person acts different than others - 3. Consistency—> persons consistency behaves in the same way toward the same stimulus over time (doesn’t change) - Correspondence Inference Theory Says that when we first form an impression (caused by System 1) it is colored by • the fundamental attribution error **If we see someone behaving nice we assume that they are nice vs. if we see someone who is stuck up** - Corresponding Bias— people assume that a person’s behavior makes up their personality. - The Two-Step Process of Making Attribution • 1. when we analyze another’s behavior we make an internal attribution automatically • 2. then we think about possible situational reasons for behavior - Actor/ Observer Bias - as observers, we make fundamental attribution error with others, and view behaviors as caused by traits - as actors, we see the same behavior our own situation has caused Chapter 5: The Self (part 1) - The Nature of the Self • William James—> self concept: knowledge and self awareness: thinking about ourselves • What was the mirror test? 4 Friday, December 11, 2015 - (Gallup) it dealt with self recognition. The experiment took 2 year olds and put blush on their faces and placed them in front of a mirror. The children rubbed it off because they knew that it was not what they looked like. - Functions of Self 1. Organization • - Self Schemas—> structures that help us organize our knowledge about ourselves • 2. Self-Regulation: The Executive Function - Self Control is a limited resource and people have limited amount of energy to devote to self control • EX: think of a cell phone battery it gets depleted after frequent use - BEM’s Self-Perception Theory we develop our attitudes (when there is no previous experience) by observing our • own behavior and concluding what attitudes must have caused it. - Self Awareness Theory • we are often thinking about things or objects outside of ourselves - attention can be self-focused - this can lead to judging/critiquing yourself • enhance good feelings when good things happen and sad/bad feelings when bad things happen • we evaluate and compare our behavior to internal standards and values - discrepancies: psychologically uncomfortable : the idea that WE DON’T MEASURE UP - Baumeister’s “Escape from Self” Theory • when discrepancies happen we engage in activities to escape them - positive activities: exercise, meditation - negative activities: eating disorders, drug abuse, alcohol, self-harm, risking sexual relationships —Ultimate escape being Suicide 5 Friday, December 11, 2015 • does more harm than good “Boomerang effect” - Intrinsic Motivation vs Extrinsic motivation • we engage in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting • we engage in an activity because of external reasons, not because we enjoy it or find it interesting - Over Justification Effect—> when extrinsic reasons are compelling we attribute behaviors to them (work becomes fun) and vice versa Chapter 5: The Self (part 2) - Stanley Schater’s Two Factor Theory of Emotion • Pysiological Arousal—> seek an appropriate explanation—> label that experience with an appropriate emotion depending on the situation. - Impression Management • Ingratiation—> flattering/praising strategy • Self- Handicapping—> giving oneself excuses for failure EX: Even when I study I’ll still do bad So…”what’s the point in studying? My friend really needs my help tonight” **not putting yourself down. Blame the situation** Chapter 6: Self Justification and Dissonance - Festingers Cognitive Dissonance Theory • when we choose to do something that conflicts with our prior beliefs we create tension or cognitive dissonance - we are motivated to reduce tension by: changing the belief or behavior - Internal Justification • Changing your attitudes or behaviors to make them consistent 6 Friday, December 11, 2015 - What are the ways to reduce dissonance? • 1. change behavior • 2. justify behavior • 3. add a new cognition - **Self-Affirmation** —> how individuals adapt to information/experiences that are threatening to their self-concept. - Impacted Bias: people who become good at reducing dissonance start to overestimate their feelings • Post-Decisional Dissonance—> spinning the decision to put ourselves in a positive light so that we feel better about our decision that we made - similar to Naiive realism • “Free Choice” Dissonance—> in any decision, the alternative one chosen is seldom entirely positive and the rejected one is seldom entirely negative. - EX: choosing cars, colleges, lovers, ect • Ben Franklin Effect—> when you do a favor for someone you dislike. You reduce dissonance by adopting a more positive attitude towards the other person - Justification of Effort —> the tendency for individuals to increase their liking for something they have worked hard to obtain - Minimal Sufficient Justification —> when someone does something and there is minimal justification for them doing it (creates more dissonance) Chapter 7: Attitudes - Persuasive Communication— a person is deliberately trying to change your attitude (advocating a particular side of an issue) - Elaboration Likelihood Model—specifies when people will be influenced by what the speech says and when they will be influence by more superficial characteristics. • Centrally—When people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments. (System 2 route). • Peripherally—When people do not pay attention to the arguments, but rather to the surface characteristics. (System 1). 7 Friday, December 11, 2015 - Central Route vs Peripheral Route • Central— when people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments. • Peripheral— when people do not pay attention to the arguments, but are motivated by superficial things. - Fear-Arousing Communications—Persuasive messages that attempt to change people’s attitude by arousing their fears. • Heuristic-Systematic Model of Persuasion— An explanation of the two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change. • Subliminal Messages— Words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but may nevertheless influence people’s judgements, attitudes, and behaviors. - Attitude Inoculation— Making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments agains their position. - Reactance Theory— The idea that when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened, as unpleasant state of reactance is aroused, which they can reduce by performing the threatened behavior. Chapter 8: Conformity - Conformity— the change in one’s behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people. - Two Types of Conformity • 1. Informational Conformity— people conform to others because they may not know what to do in a confusing or unusual situation [How do I act?] - Informational Social Influence—The influence of other people leads us to conform because we see them as a source of information to guide our behavior. - SHERIF STUDIES— 1936 put people in a dark room alone, participants estimated how much light 15 feet away moved Autokinetic Effect— caused the illusion of motion, so the light did not really • move • 2. Normative Conformity— The reason people conform is because they want to avoid ridicule or rejection. 8 Friday, December 11, 2015 - ASCH STUDIES—had participants guess which line in the right box is the same length as the line on the left. almost everyone go it right—when alone. • Contagion— the rapid spread of emotions or behaviors through a crowd - 1998, school in Tennessee was evacuated after a teacher reported smelling gasoline in her classroom. 170 student, teachers, and staff reported symptoms. Nothing was found wrong in school. • Mass Psychogenic Illness— The occurrence in group of people, of similar physical symptoms with no known physical cause. - “Dancing Manias” middle ages example. - Normative Social Influence— The influence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them. - Social Norms—The implicit or explicit rules a group has for the acceptable behaviors, values, and beliefs of it’s members. Chapter 9: Group Processes - Social Facilitation— The tendency to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when in the presence of others and when individual performance can be evaluated. Norman Tripplett (1898)— children were faster widing up fishing line on a reel when • in the presence of other children, than when by themselves. • Robert Zajonc (1965)— The presence of others increases physiological arousal. Makes it easier to do something simple or well-learned but harder to do a less practiced or new response. - Social Loafing— The tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks BUT better on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated. - Social Facilitation vs Social Loafing • SF— the presence of others puts the spotlight on you, making you energized and aroused • SL—when being with other people means our efforts often cannot be distinguished from those of other people, making us more relaxed. 9 Friday, December 11, 2015 - Group Cohesiveness—Qualities of a group that bind members together and promot liking between members. - Group Decisions—groups do better than individuals when making decisions - Groupthink—A kind of thinking which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner. • Irving Janis Theory (1972)— groupthink is most likely to occur when the group is highly cohesive, isolated from contrary opinions, ruled by a directive leader. - Avoiding the Groupthink Trap • 1. Remain impartial • 2. Seek outside opinions • 3. Create subgroups • 4. Seek anonymous opinions. - Deindividuation— The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can’t be identified (such as when they are in a crowd), leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts. - Theories of Leaderships • Trait Model: “born leaders” the great leader theory • Situational Model: the theory of Leo Tolstoy (forces of history makes leader) • Interactional Model: it all depends on the leader, followers, and the group situation • “Great Man” Theories: (Gandhi, Lincoln, Napoleon) - Personal Characteristics • Intelligence and degree of social skill, expertise, skill, and experiences, level of participation in discussion: the “babble effect” (the more they speak the more likely they will be seen as a leader) - Green light, red light study— when the green light went on they should speak, red light stop speaking, and then had group rate each other for leadership. Those who had green light more frequently were chosen as leaders. • Implicit Leadership Theories (ILTs)—members general beliefs about the qualities of leaders. 10 Friday, December 11, 2015 - Two Broad Types of Leaders • 1. Transactional Leaders—Leaders who set clear, short-term goals and reward people who meet them. • 2. Transformational Leaders—Leaders who inspire followers to focus on common, long-term goals. • Contingency Theory of Leadership—The idea that leadership effectiveness depends both on how task-oriented or relationship-oriented the leader is and on the amount of control and influence the leader has over the group. - Task-Oriented Leader—A leader concerned more with getting the job done than with workers’ feelings and relationships - Relationship- Oriented—A leader who is concerned with workers’ feelings and relationships. Prosocial Behavior - In-Group— The group with which an individual identifies as a member. - Out-Group— Any group with which an individual does not identify. - Effects of Mood: Alice Isen’s Study • Feel Good, Do Good: 84% of people who found coins helped a man pick up paers. Only 4% of those who did not find coins helped. - Negative-State Relief Hypothesis— The idea that people help in order to alleviate their own sadness and distress. - Urban Overload Hypothesis Theory— people living in cities are constantly being bombarded with stimulation and that they keep to themselves to avoid being overwhelmed by it. - The Bystander Effect— the greater the number of bystanders who observe an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help. Aggression - Aggression— Intentional behavior aimed at doing harm or causing pain to another person. 11 Friday, December 11, 2015 - Hostile Aggression—Aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain. • sometimes you just want to hurt someone because you are angry. - Instrumental Aggression—Aggression used as a device to obtain some other goal. - Relational Aggression—Caused through damage to relationships or social status within a group rather than by means actual or threatened physical violence. - Thomas Hobbs—“Life in a state of nature was solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short” - Expanding circle/Peter Singer— evolutions bequeaths humans within a sense of empathy, an ability to see others as having interests/feelings comparable to own. Unfortunately, by default, only applies to our own limited circle, or own friends and family or even our friends alone. - Humans at more aggressively when exposed to: • Pain, heat, humidity, air pollution, offensive odors. - Frustration Aggression Hypothesis—when someone is feeling frustrated, that frustration can lead them to lash out in aggression. Social Learning Theory— The idea that we learn social behavior by observing • others and imitating them. What is Prejudice? - Prejudice— An assumption made about before having adequate knowledge to be able accurately make that judgement. - Stereotype Threat— fear that one will confirm the stereotypes that others have regarding some salient group of which one is a member. • Clark and Clark (1947): the majority of children (all races) chose to play with a white doll (not the black doll). They said the white doll was prettier. • Goldberg (1968): female college students read scholarly articles (one by man, one by woman) they rated the article higher when it was written by a man. - Discrimination— An unjustified negative or harmful action toward the members of a group simply because of their membership in that group. - Motivational Sources of Prejudice 12 Friday, December 11, 2015 • The scapegoat Theory— People are prejudice toward a group in order to vent their anger. They use the group they dislike as their target for all of their anger. • Social Identity Theory— feeling superior to others: ingroup bias, need for status, self-regard, and belonging. - Jane Elliot • Grouped children into her class into groups based on eye color, blue eyed children were called superior, they formed an in-group VERY quickly (saw the brown eyed children as inferior). • Ingroup Bias— Positive feelings and special treatment for people in our in-group and negative feelings and unfair treatment for in the out-group. - Robber’s Cave Study • Sherif (1954) divided 22 12 year old boys up into two groups. Didn’t know of each other’s existence at first, created their own names, and within days both gropus developed social hierarchy. • Three Stages - 1. In-group formation - 2. Friction Phase • introduced groups to each other. • had to be terminated because it got so violent. - 3. Friction Reduction 13


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