Homeostatis PSY 2501 - 002
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PSY 2501 - 002
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Upasana Raja on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2501 - 002 at Temple University taught by Sheree Logue (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 04/02/16
Chap13- Homeostasis: Active Regulation of Internal States Redundancy: The property of having a particular process, usually an important one, monitored and regulated by more than one mechanism Homeostasis: Referring to the active process of maintaining a particular physiological parameter relatively constant Set Point: The point of reference in a feedback system; example: setting of a thermostat Set Zone: The range of a variable that a feedback system tries to maintain Endotherm: An animal whose body temperature is regulated chiefly by internal metabolic processes; example include mammals and birds Ectotherm: An animal whose body temperature is regulated by, and whose heat comes mainly from, the environment; example include snakes and bees Metabolism: The breakdown of complex molecules into smaller molecules Kilocalorie (kcal): A measure of energy commonly applied to food; formally defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree centigrade Brown Fat a.k.a. Brown Adipose Tissue: A specialized type of fat tissue that generates heat through intense metabolism Shivering: Rapid involuntary muscle contractions that generate heat in hypothermic animal Spinal Animal: An animal whose spinal cord has been surgically disconnected from the brain to enable the study of behavior that do not require brain control Dehydration: Excessive loss of water Intracellular Compartment: The fluid space of the body that is composed within cells Extracellular Compartment: The fluid space of the body that exists outside the cells Aquaporins: Channels spanning the cell membrane that are specialized for conducting water molecules into or out of the cell Osmosis: The passive movement of molecule from one place to another Solute: A solid compound that is dissolved in a liquid Osmotic Pressure: The tendency of a solvent to move through a membrane in order to equalize the concentration of solute Osmolality: The number of solute particles per unit volume of solvent Isotonic: A solution with a concentration of salt that is the same as that found in interstitial fluid and blood plasma Hypertonic: A solution with a higher concentration of salt than that found in interstitial fluid and blood plasma Hypovolemic Thirst: A desire to ingest fluids that is stimulated by a reduced volume of extracellular fluid Osmotic Thirst: A desire to ingest fluids that is stimulated by loss of water from extracellular compartment Baroreceptor: A pressure receptor in the heart or a major artery that detects a fall in blood pressure Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP): A hormone secreted by the heart that normally reduces blood pressure, inhibits drinking and promotes the excretion of water and salt at the kidneys Diabetes Insipidus: Excessive urination, caused by the failure of vasopressin to induce the kidney to conserve water Angiotensin II: A substance that is produced in the blood by the action of renin and that may play a role in the control of thirst Circumventricular Organ: An organ that lies in the wall of a cerebral ventricle and monitors the composition of the cerebrospinal fluid Subfronical Organ: One of the circumventricular organ Osmosensory Neuron: A specialized neuron that measures the movement of water into and out of the intracellular compartment Aldosterone: A mineralocorticoid hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex that promotes conservation of sodium by the kidneys Nutrient: A chemical that is neglected for growth, maintenance, and repair of the body but is not as a source of energy Digestion: The process by which food is broken down to provide energy and nutrient Basal Metabolism: The consumption of energy to fuel processes such as heat production, maintenance of membrane potentials, and all other basic life-sustaining functions of the body Trophic Factor: A substance that promotes cell growth and survival Glucose: Am important sugar molecule used by the body and brain for energy Glycogen: A complex carbohydrates made by the combining of glucose molecules for short-term store of energy Glycogenesis: The physiological process by which glycogen is produced Insulin: A hormone, released by beta cells in the islets of Langerhans that lowers blood glucose Glucagon: A hormone released by alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans that increases blood glucose Glycogenolysis: The conversation of glycogen back into glucose triggered when blood concentrations of glucose drop too low Lipids: Large molecules consisting of fatty acids and glyrecol that are insoluble in water Adipose Tissue: Tissues made up of fat cells Gluconeogenesis: The metabolism of body fats and proteins to create glucose Ketones: A metabolic fats source liberated by the breakdown of body fats and proteins Glucose Transporter: A molecule that spans the external membrane of a cell and transports glucose molecules from outside the cell to inside the cell Glucodetector: A cell that detects and informs the nervous system about levels of circulating glucose Vagus Nerve: Cranial nerve X which provides extensive innervation of the viscera; the vagus both regulates visceral activity and transmits signals from the viscera to the brain Solvent: The liquid (often water) in which a compound is dissolved Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (NST): A complicated brainstem nucleus that receives visceral and taste information via several cranial nerves Diabetes Mellitus: Excessive glucose in the urine, caused by the failure of insulin to induce glucose absorption of the body Satiety: A feeling of fulfillment or satisfaction Hunger: The internal state of an animal seeking food Bariatric: Having to do with obesity Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH): A hypothalamic region involved in eating and sexual behavior Lateral Hypothalamus (LH): A hypothalamic region involved in control of appetite and other functions Aphagia: Refusal to eat Hyperphagia: Excessive eating Arcuate Nucleus: An arc-shaped hypothalamic nucleus implicated in appetite control Leptin: A peptide hormone released by fat cells Ghrelin: A peptide hormone emanating from the gut Binge Eating: The paroxysmal intake of large quantities of food, often to poor nutritional value and high calories Bulimia a.k.a. Bulimia Nervosa: A syndrome in which individual periodically gorge themselves, usually with "junk food" and then either vomit or take laxatives to avoid weight gain Anorexia Nervosa: A syndrome in which individual severely deprive themselves of food
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