Chapter 13: Communication
Chapter 13: Communication BIOL 515
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erica Leonard on Friday December 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 515 at Kansas State University taught by Eva A Horne in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Ecology in Biology at Kansas State University.
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Date Created: 12/11/15
Chapter 13 Communication Communication 0 intentional transfer of information from 1 individual sender to another receiver that alters behavior of receiver for sender 0 Benefits to sender o Receiver responds in a positive way 0 Benefits to receiver 0 Responds to sender because it I chances of choosing a positive response 0 Signals of communication 0 Trait posture movement sound or chemical 1ith specific meaning 0 Types of signals 0 Discrete signal I Single all or none signal 0 Graded signal I Signals that vary in intensity along a gradient of some kind 0 Stereotyped signals I Signals that must behave same meaning within a species Channels of Communication 0 What evolves depends on physiology amp anatomical advantages amp habitat of species senses 0 Slow transmission rate 0 Fast visual auditory tactile electrical 0 Slow chemical 0 Vision 0 Advantages I Sender easily located I Signal rapidly sentended I Very variable color posture brightness etc o Disadvantages I Easily blocked by obstacles I Bad at long distance 0 Color changes I Chromataphores o Pigment cells with attached muscle amp nerve cells I ridophores 0 Structural blues amp greens from reflective proteins 0 Ex similar to feathers of a bluejay I Leucophores 0 Structural whitereflects anyall colors I Nocturnal displays 0 Display at dusk amp dawn display towards dull colored intruders bright colors more offspring 0 Sound 0 Advantages O I Transmitted over long distances I Signals are sent amp ended rapidly I Rapidly modified I Very variable Disadvantages I Short lived I Difficult to localize 0 Chemicals scenttaste O 0 Touch Advantages I Transmitted over longer distances I Signals last longer I Avoids obstacles Disadvantages I Signals last longer I Difficult to locate Properties I Large molecules 0 l variety less volatile limited distance 0 Territorial markers amp sex attractants I Small molecules 0 1 variety short lived greater distance 0 Alarm call Kairomone I Affectbenefit individuals of another species intercepted I Where to forage avoid predators find prey etc Allomone I Affects individuals of another species but benefits sender I Warn off predator cockroach produces allomone that repels predatory ants Pheremones I Affects conspecifics same species amp benefits sender I Releasers 0 Have immediate effect on recipient s behavior I Primer o Alter physiology of recipient 9 slow changes in behavior Advantages I Sent quickly I Easy to locate Disadvantages I Don t last as long I Don t go as far of distances 0 Touch amp auditory 0 Seismic signals I Vibration of ground or water surface I Travels farther than normal touchauditory signals I Ex Kangaroo ray drumming his foot 0 Electrical fields 0 Advantages I Rapidly initiated amp ended I Provides individual amp species id I Works well in murky waterdarkness o Disadvantages I Can only travel short distances 0 Communicates I Threats submission courtship territory boundaries etc 0 Multiple channels 0 Send more information with an I certainty message is received Functions of Communication 0 Species recognition 0 Avoid wasted time amp energy defending territory against nonthreats amp while courting the wrong species 0 Ex fiddler crabs each species has unique claw waving display small claw used for feeding and large claw used to displayattract females 0 Courtship 0 Identification I Species sex breeding conditions 0 Assessment I Female uses male signals to determine his quality 0 Coordination of reproductive efforts I Behavior amp physiology 0 Maintenance of bond I Prevent attack on males amp l cooperation in offspring production 0 Maintenance of other social bonds 0 Reaffirms who belongs to what group 0 Allogrooming I Individuals of a group grooming each other 0 Alarm 0 Specific alarm different alarms and response for different predators o Similarity alarms soundsmell is the same between species 0 Agnostic displays aggressionsubmission 0 Resource holding potential RH P things directly related to fighting abilities 0 Recruitment of others 0 Calling other members of group to help fight transport food etc o Tandem running I Guiding others by physical contact 0 Odor trails I Leaving a chemical trail for others to follow 0 Recruitment of bees to food I Round dance waggle dance direction of dance direction of food from sun 0 Sharing information 0 Individuals quottellquot each other what they are likely to do next 0 Honest signals I 4 fitness ampor survival I Id self amp intentions to potential mate spiders I Coordinate group activities food location 0 Advantages to lying I Exaggerate RHP in defense of territory 0 Manipulating others I Individuals get others to act I a beneficial way to them Honesty in signaling 0 Factors that favor honesty 0 Signal associated with AP bluffed physical trait size 0 Stable social until w cooperation same individuals that live in longterm associations 0 Factors that favor dishonesty o Receivers may go along w dishonest signals because of ignoring it could be great 0 Ex mantis shrimps bluff w threat displays when newly molted opponents back off Signal evolution 0 Ritualization 0 Over time cues become less flexible lose original function amp become stereotyped o Inadvertent cues signals I Intention movements 0 Characteristics motion beginning some functional behavior pattern 0 Ex Gulls open mouth before biting 9 open mouth as threat display I Autonomic response 0 Unconscious bodily functions 0 Urination amp defection 0 Loss of control during stressful encounters of territorial markers 0 Vasodilation o Enlargement of blood vessels causing size color change 0 Respiratory changes 0 Inflation of body parts with air 0 Thermoregulatory response 0 Fluffing feathershair heat conservationrapid cooling Process of Ritualization o Formalization of movements exaggeration of all or part of an animal 0 Intensity of movement duration rate of normal movement rhythmic repetition change of behavior components o Emancipation I Behavior no longer triggered by original stimulus I Ritualized version has no relation to original purpose 0 Development of conspicuous structures I Colors or others structures are selected to emphasize the behavior I Ex long canines fancier fins brighter colors longer feathers From Receiver s Point of View 0 Sensory exploitation o Sender uses some sensory bias in receiver as base for signal 0 Ex males base calls on components that females like Selective Forces Leading to Signal Evolution 0 Anatomy and Physiology 0 Dictate type of signal is most easily exploited o Sensory drive I Predicts ability to detect a signal amp its environment constrained by environment 0 Behavior 0 Some behaviors cannot be stopped in order to communicate 0 Characteristics of subject vary to match signal 0 Environmentalcharacteristics o Bioluminescent amp sound in dark environments I Fireflies emit yellow at dusk green at dark and blue if marine 0 Influence on form of signal I Honey bee waggle dance distance of each second of waggle dance I Different climates have different dance rates
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