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LING 200 Final

by: Angel Lee

LING 200 Final Ling 200

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Angel Lee
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one beautiful linguistics study guide!
Intro to Linguistics
Laura McGarrity
Study Guide
study, guide, ling, Linguistics, uw. ling, 200, final, UW, mcgarrity, notes
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angel Lee on Friday December 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Ling 200 at a university taught by Laura McGarrity in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views.

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Date Created: 12/11/15
LING 200 Final Study Guide I. Semantics: study of meaning in language A. Lexical Semantics: meaning of words 1. Referent v. Sense a. Referent: thing in the world that a word/phrase refers to b. Sense: mental conception of a word or phrase, independent of its referent Sense v. Reference Example Sense, but no referent The camel in LING 200, the greatest integer Referent, but no sense McGarrity, Lily Liu Same referent, but different senses The morning star/ the evening star One sense, but multiple referents Oscar winner, woman 2. Semantic relations between words a. Hyponymy/ hypernymy: X is s hyponym of Y is X’s set is contained in Y’s set and Y is a hypernym of X; hyponyms of a hypernym share semantic feature(s) b. Synonyms: words that have the same meaning c. Antonyms: two words that with opposite meanings; or words that differ in just ONE semantic feature  Complementary: if is it not X it implies Y  Gradable: meanings are at opposite ends of a continuum  Converses: opposites in the relation that they have with two opposing points of view d. Homophony: words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings 3. Lexical decomposition: analyzing a word’s meaning by breaking it down into its semantics components or features a. Evidence for semantic relations between words  Slips of the tongue/ performance errors – speakers store words in mental lexicons according semantic properties B. Compositional Semantics: how meanings of individual units combine to form the meanings of larger units 1. Principle of compositionality: the meaning of a sentence is determined by the meaning of its words in conjunction with the way they are syntactically combined a. Exceptions to Compositionality  Anomaly: when phrases are well formed syntactically but not semantically  Metaphor: use of an expression to refer to something it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity  Idioms: phrases with fixed meanings not composed of literal meanings of the words 2. Semantic relations between sentences a. Entailment: relationship between two sentences where the truth of one guarantees the truth of the other; A entails B b. Mutual entailment: when A entails B AND vice versa; A and B entail each other II. Sign Language A. Myth v. Fact Myth Fact Sign language is universal. There are about 200 documented sign languages. ASL encodes English into signs ASL has its own distinct grammar. Sign language is purely iconic Sign language contain arbitrary signs. Sign languages exhibit all the design features of language and use a visual-gestural, not auditory-vocal modality. B. Structure of ASL 1. Phonetics a. Parameters: discrete units of a sign  Handshape  Location  Movement  Palm orientation  Facial expressions or non-manual signals – carry linguistic meaning and can be used to form yes or no questions, WH- questions, and negation 2. Phonology a. Rules – Assimilation: when the next sign is influenced by the first sign b. Phonotactic constraints  Disallowed handshapes  Symmetry condition: if both hands move, they must be identical and if different handshapes, only dominant hand can move 3. Derivational Morphology a. Reduplication b. Reversal of orientation suffix for negation c. Agent suffix d. Numerical incorporation e. Compounding 4. Syntax a. Space is used to mark S, O, etc. b. Word order is fairly flexible. C. Commonalities with spoken language 1. Dialects, accents, 2. Critical period 3. Acquisition 4. Brain structure/ processing III. Language Acquisition A. Theories - Paradox of Language Acquisition: all children learn the same rules and arrive at the same unconscious grammar for this language, despite vastly different experiences and amounts of exposure Theories of Language Definition Issues/ Support/ Evidence Acquisition Imitation “Children listen to speech around them Issues and reproduce or imitate what they - children say things parents never say hear.” - children often cannot imitate adults - children create new sentences that they weren’t taught. Reinforcement “Children are praised or corrected when Issue: they use correct or wrong forms.” - parents rarely correct children’s speech. Active construction of “Children construct rules of grammar by Support: grammar analyzing language around them.” - overgeneralizations (when learned rules are applied incorrectly to irregular forms) - wug test – study that shows children can use correct plural allomorphs of nonsense words they’ve never heard before Innateness “Children are born with innate blueprint Support: for language and how it works which - universal stages of acquisition (all normal children go helps them acquire it so quickly, easily.” through same stages in same order, regardless of language) - critical period hypothesis (there is a critical period of time when children must be exposed to language, if exposure does not occur until after this period, normal language acquisition cannot take place; supported by feral and neglected children) B. Stages- Age at which they reach stage, rate of progression can vary •Crying (0-1 month): cries, burps, grunts •Cooing (2-3 months): vowel-like, coo/goo, gurgling, velar sounds, back vowels •Vocal play (3-4 months): raspberries, squeals, yells Prelinguistic •CV monosyllables (4-6 months): many labials, low vowels • Canonical babbling (7-10 months): repeated CVCV syllables Babbling • Variegated babbling (10-12 months): different CV syllables • One word stage/ holophrases: (1-1.5 years): lexicon <50 words, overlaps with babbling, simple phonology, first nouns, verbs, and other categories, and holophrases (one word sentences,expressing complex ideas) • Two word stage (1.5-2 years): lexicon > 50 words, 2 word combos that are semantically organized • Telegraphic speech (2+ years): can combine more than 2 words, speech contains content words rather than function morphemes, and syntactically organized. • Function morphemes (2+ years): acquired in consistent order and stages within stages Morphology, •-- Cases by case learning syntax •-- overgeneralization of rule •-- Mastery of exceptions •By age 6, children know 14,000 words •Overextension: when a child extends range of word's meaning beyond how used by adults Semantics •Underextension: when a child applies word's meaning to smaller set of objects that used by adults. IV. Neurolinguistics: study of language and the brain; seeks to understand the physical bases of language storage and processing using experimental methods A. Language and the brain 1. Brain is divided into two hemispheres and connected by the corpus callosum a. Contralateral control: each hemisphere controls opposite side of body b. Lateralization: brain is asymmetrical such that each hemisphere is specialized for certain cognitive functions Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere Analytical processing Holistic processing Language, speech sounds Nonspeech sounds Math Music Temporal relations Visual-spatial skills Intellectual reasoning Emotional reactions  Evidence – split brain patients or patients in which the corpus callosum is severed 2. Left Hemisphere: Language a. Aphasia: any language deficit cause by damage to the brain; almost always caused by left hemisphere damage Broca’s area: responsible for speech production, Wernicke’s area: responsible for speech articulation; controls use of inflectional, function comprehension, selection of words from mental morphemes lexicon Broca’s aphasia Wernicke’s aphasia Labored, halting speech Speech is fluent, but semantically incoherent General lack of inflections, function morphemes or Lexical errors, unnecessary words, nonsense words, telegraphic speech circumlocutions Comprehension is generally good Comprehension is poor B. Language and modality 1. ASL and the brain ASL Left Hemisphere Damage Broca’s area Wernicke’s area Slow, halting sings with improper inflection; good sign Fluent but nonsensical signing; poor comprehension comprehension ASL Right Hemisphere Damage Affected patients experience left neglect. BUT for signers, they can still - Neglect left side of body - See left visual field - Ignore left side of visual field - Use left side of body - Have impaired spatial understanding - Recognize/ use facial expression - Have impaired recognition/use of facial expressions … ONLY for signing and perceiving ASL syntax 2. Lateralization and Modality – left hemisphere specialization for language is independent of modality used to communicate! 3. Production errors: systematic mistakes in a speaker’s ling performance that inform us about process, planning of speech production Type of Production Error Definition Example Metathesis When two elements are switched Bedbugs -> budbegs Anticipation When a later sound replaces earlier sound Hiring of faculty -> firing of faculty Perseveration When an earlier sound replaces later sound Phonological rule -> phonological fool Addition When a sound is inserted Lacking -> slacking Deletion When a sound is omitted Plants -> pants V. Sociolinguistics: study of language variation and attitudes A. Language variation Language = a continuum of dialects Dialect = a continuum of idiolects Dialect: language variety, share by a community, characterized by systematic linguistic features distinguish it from other varieities of that same language Dialects of the same langauge are mutually intelligible. Mutually intelligible: when speakers of different language varieties can understand each other Idiolect: speech variety of an individual Factors that contribute to variation: 1. Social Situation -> Speech Style 2. Occupation -> Jargon 3. Age -> Slang 4. Geography -> Regional Dialect 5-7 Gender, Social class, ethnicity -> Social dialects B. Speech style: linguistic variety appropriate to a particular social context depending on topic, setting, addressee  Usually reflects registers or level of formality  Different languages have different ways of marking styles  Style shift: automatically adjust from one speech style to another 1. Lexical Markers of style a. Slang: words and expressions used in very informal settings (common slang) to indicate membership in a particular social group (in-group slang)  Usually has a short lifespan b. Jargon: specialized vocabulary of a profession or group 2. Style variation a. Lexical b. Phonological c. Morphological d. Syntactic C. Regional Dialects: dialects defined by geographic factors - Isogloss: line on a map marking boundaries between where particular linguistic feature(s) are used - Eastern differences can be traced to dialects of British English during European settlement of America in 17 , 18 centuryh - Dialect leveling: “canceling out” of dialect differences due to intermingling North South Midland West Phonetic/ - New England: /r/- - [ɪ] -> [æ] - [a] v. [ɔ] distinction - (CA) fronted /u/: phonological lessness - Monopthongization - l-vocalization: [l] -> dude, move - Northern Cities of [aɪ] -> [a:] [w] - /ɪ/ -> [i] __η Vowel Shift - /ԑ/ -> [ɪ]/ __ [n] - “creaky voice” - Appalachia: [f] -> [p]; stress on the first vowel Morpho- - V+P ending: “Do you - Multiple negation: “I - “Anymore (=these - Discourse markers: syntactic want to come with?” don’t got no money.” days) I take the bus.” like, all - “The car needs - Double modals: - “The car needs washing.” “might could, use’ta washed.” - New Eng: “We waited could” on line for a ticket.” - A-prefixing: “a- huntin” Lexical - North: roly poly; NE: - Roly poly - Pop - Hella (= very, many) pill bug - Coke - Potato bug - Soda (CA), pop (WA) - North: pop; NE: soda D. Standard v. nonstandard - Attitudes – linguistically speaking, no dialect is better, more correct, more systematic or more logical than any other 1. Standard dialect: ‘prestige dialect’ that is typically used by political leaders, upper classes, media; taught in schools a. Standard American English: characterized primarily by syntactic features, rather than phonological features 2. Non-standard dialect: any dialect not perceived as standard E. Overt v. covert prestige 1. Overt prestige: attached to standard dialect; defines how people should speak to gain status in community at-large a. Hypercorrection: producing (prescriptively) nonstandard forms by mistake (often to achieve overt prestige of standard) 2. Covert prestige: attached to nonstandard dialect; defines how people speak to be seen positively by members of that particular group F. Social dialects – defined by ethnicity, gender, and social class 1. Ethnicity a. African American English (AAE): a continuum of speech varieties spoken primarily by African Americans b. AAE structure  Multiple negation  Absence of ‘to be’ rd  Absence of 3 person sg. –s 2. Gender a. Biological differences: male v. female – men’s voices have lower pitch than women’s b. Social differences: masculine v. feminine –  women tend to raise pitch more than what biology dictates  women use standard forms more than men  ling between social cultural norms for speech and gender is arbitrary 3. Social class a. William Labov NYC study: interviewed salespeople at 3 dept. stores; concluded that pronunciation is directly correlated with socioeconomic class and there is considerable intra-speaker variation VI. Language Contact: when speakers of different languages come into contact (directly or indirectly) as a result of geography, conquest, migration, trade, globalization, etc. - Languages are constantly changing. - Language change is normal A. Ad-/super-/substrate languages 1. Adstratum: languages in contact with equal prestige/power a. May lead to language convergence 2. Superstratum: language of dominant group 3. Substratum: language of subordinate group a. May lead to language shift or language death B. Results of Language Contact 1. Borrowing a. Lexical: borrowing of words and phrases; results from low intensity contact between languages  Loanwords: often borrowed with new concept, when no native term exists  Certain words are NOT typically borrowed such as core vocabulary and grammatical function words.  Calques: loan translations b. Structural: borrowing of linguistic structure; requires high intensity contact, bilingualism  Phonological: /ʒ/ in prestige; /k/ -> [s] (electri[k]/ electri[s]ity); /t/ -> [ʃ] (create to creation)  Morphological: Latin plural: datum to data, alumnus to alumni; affixes: -ible/-able 2. Pidgins: develop from speakers in contact with no common language, but who have a need to communicate; usually not the primary language of their speakers a. Structure – simplified, with a mix of elements from the languages in contact  Lexicon from superstrate  Phonology is simplified, usu. from substrate(s)  Syntax is simplified, usu. SVO but often variable  Affaxal morphology is almost entirely lacking; other morphological processes may be used for derivation (rarely, for inflection) b. Lexicon – small lexicon with extended meanings and use of compounds to form new words c. Phonology – simplified, usually with fewer sounds d. Morphology – near absence of affaxal inflectional morphology; use of reduplication to avoid homonymy, to indicate plural, etc 3. Creoles: often arise from pidgins acquired as first or native language; serves a primary means of communication a. Structure – have fully-formed, complex, stable grammars; show remarkable structural similarities, regardless of super-/substrate b. Derek Bickerton’s Bioprogram: similarities between creole languages come from innate properties of human mind that children draw on during acquisition within critical period C. Diachronic v. Synchronic language change 1. Synchronic variation: language variation at a single point in time 2. Diachronic variation: language change over time (historical linguistics) 3. Causes of language change a. Language contact b. Children can introduce innovations c. Geography (isolated groups develop separately) d. Optional rules may become obligatory (or vice versa) D. Brief history of English 1. Old English (449-1066) 2. Middle English (1066-1500) 3. Great Vowel Shift (1400-1700): long vowels shift upward in height (with high vowels becoming diphthongs) 4. Early Modern English (1500-1800): Shakespeare E. Types of Language Change 1. Sound change: a change in pronunciation over time a. Conditioned v. unconditioned  Conditioned: sound changes only in certain environments  Unconditioned: all instances of a sound change regardless of environment b. Phonetic v. phonemic  Phonetic change: affects allophones/ pronunciation of sound(s) (not phonemic inventory)  Phonemic change: change in phoneme inventory 2. Morphological change a. Proportional analogy: a form changes to be more like another, usually to make a pattern more regular b. Back formation: the creation of a new base form by removing a misanalysed affix 3. Lexical/semantic change: change in meanings of words a. Extensions: meaning includes more referents b. Reductions: meaning narrowed to fewer referents c. Elevations: meaning becomes more positive d. Degradations: meaning becomes more negative 4. Syntactic change VII. Sapir-Whore Hypothesis A. Linguistic determinism (strong version): language determines the nature of thought 1. Evidence a. Piraha (Brazil) - a lack of words for numbers causes the inability to count b. Doll with marble experiment – deaf children with hearing parents answer incorrectly because they lack cognitive skill due to a lack of complex language B. Linguistic relativity (weak version): language influences and affects how we think and perceive the world 1. Evidence a. Color terms – the way our language slices up the color spectrum influence how we categorize and remember colors  Adults process colors with left hemisphere  Babies process colors with the right hemisphere b. Spatial orientation  English use relative terms  Mayans use absolute terms


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