SOCY Study guide for the final
SOCY Study guide for the final SOCY 101 - 0201
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SOCY 101 - 0201
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Stavisky on Friday December 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOCY 101 - 0201 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Nancy Forsythe in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 164 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 12/11/15
FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE SOCIOLOGY Chapter 12 Global Stratification global stratification patterns of social inequality in the world as a whole Chart Determine a child39s chances of surviving to age 5 in lower income nations the percent of not surviving to age 5 is much higher ex Sierra Leone and Haiti 185 and 70 in higher income 20 135 nations the percent of not surviving to age 5 is 18 much lower ex US and Sweden 08 and 03 because of their social welfare systems that do not exist in lower 14 income nations Ln 1 CD lt E e D co 2 D 12 a 0 5 10 E E 6 8 J u 0 8 6 B C 4 m D 2 08 yo 0300 0 i l 1 l l l Sierra Haiti Mexico United Sweden Leone States Figure 121 economic development in relation to the odds of surviving until age 65 o if the economic development of the country is advanced they have a higher rate of surviving to age 65 Definitions of high middle and low income countries highincome countries make more than 12500 rich industrialized countries or quotFirst Worldquot 74 countries global north majority of the high income countries are above the equator per capita income population divided by GDP 0 GDP gross domestic product the value of all the goods and services produced in a country in a year 0 middle and low income countries depend on work that is quotinvisiblequot to the official global market middle income countries make more than 2500 but less than 12500 less industrialized socialist countries are labeled quotThe Second Worldquot 72 countries non industrialized poor countries are labeled quotThird Worldquot people leave south american countries because of low economic development and the high rate of violence El Salvador and Honoduras low income countries make less than 2500 a year 0 685 a day 0 49 countries global south majority of the low income countries are below the equator informal work work that happens under the table farming and goods made at home are not included in the national statistics rich countries have a larger income gap than the poor countries map measuring the relative position of countries in the global stratification system economic development of a country Modernization and Dependency Theory 39 modernization theory a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations 0 follows structural functional approach 0 focuses on technology as means of development most people who think about global stratification think in a modernization framework 39 there is a path to move to economic development and prosperity 39 tradition is the greatest barrier to economic development Rostow 1 Traditional Stage A Protestant Reformation created a culture that valued wealth and work over other activities a activities other than work family and religion b many countries do not develop a culture of valuing wealth and work over family and religion B also development of technology C in order to move on from these stages one must give up the traditional 2 Take Off Stage A greater individualism willingness to take risks and desire for material goods B market production that is export oriented specialization 3 Drive to technological maturity A benefits of industrial technology erodes traditional family and local community life poverty is reduced need for basic schooling women become equal to men 4 High Mass Consumption A the quotneedquot to produce goods 39 Examples of traditional societies 0 Afghanistan 0 Brazil take off Role of Rich Nations 1 Controlling population exporting birth control technology 2 Increasing food production high tech farming methods to increase agricultural yields Green Revolution 3 Introducing industrial technology encourage economic growth by introducing machinery and information technology to increase production and a shift from farming to skilled jobs 4 Providing foreign aid help poor countries buy fertilizer and build irrigation projects Criticisms of Modernization Theory 39 historical perspective 39 limited resources Dependency Theory 39 dependency theory model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones 0 follows social conflict approach 0 puts responsibility for global poverty on rich nations 0 interdependence between the rich countries and the poor countries gt limited poor countries way of engaging in modernization colonialism emerged as a form of human exploitation the international slave trade dominated the continent of Africa and left the continent underdeveloped England main proprietor of colonialism 0 created an empire gt they possessed land gt trade markets gt raw materials 39 Holland England and US 0 neo colonialism new ways to tie local economies to world economy exploitation ex foreign debt 0 manufacturing used to create lots of profit for the US 0 now if you have a manufacturing country you are considered a poor country due to outsourcing to poor countries with low wages and small economy 0 highest producing service service sector ITtech 39 Wallerstein39s quotcapitalist world economyquot prosperity of some nations and the poverty and dependency of other countries result from a global economic system 0 rich nations are quotcorequot of world economy O lowincome countries represent periphery of world economy supported rich countries by providing inexpensive labor and vast market for industrial products 39 Three factors 1 Narrow export oriented economies poor nations produce few crops to export to rich countries 2 Lack of industrial capacity count on rich nations to buy their inexpensive raw materials and then try to buy from rich nations few expensive manufactured goods they can afford 3 Foreign debt unequal trade patterns plunged poor countries into debt Chapter 13 Gender Stratification Gender and Socialization 39 by age 3 kids have become quotgenderizedquot 39 women described as quotemotionalquot quotpassivequot and quotcooperativequot 39 men described as quotrationalquot quotactivequot and quotcompetitivequot o inaccurate because most people develop a mix of feminine and masculine traits 39 gender roles attitudes and activities that a society links to sex 39 boys favor team sports with complex rules and clear objectives always with a winner or loser girls play hopscotch jump rope or talk sing or dance few rules and victory is not the ultimate goal communication and cooperation 39 segregation in career paths and degree paths between men and women men paid more than women on TV 39 stereotype that women should measure their worth in terms of physical appearance increase in eating disorders Gender and Social Stratification 39 1900 20 of women and 80 of men in the US labor force now 47 of women and 53 of men work 0 factors encouraging this change decline of farming growth of cities shrinking family size and rising divorce rate 39 women dominated jobs secretaries dental assistants teachers child care workers and hairdressers cosmetologists 39 of 500 highest paid CEOs only 17 are women 39 the greater a job39s income and prestige the more likely it is to be held by a man unemployment rates for men and women rise and fall together 39 women earn 77 cents to the man39s dollar gender gap depends on occupation Causes of Gender Based Income Disparity 1 Women earn less because of the type of work they do clerical and service jobs 2 Our culture gives more responsibility on women raising the family A pregnancy and small children keep women out of the labor force 3 Discrimination against women 39 housework is considered women39s work 39 2010 women were a majority of students earning bachelor39s degrees 57 39 differences in men39s and women39s degrees have been smaller 39 a century ago no women held office in the US of could even vote women are somewhat more likely than men to favor liberal positions men favor conservative positions 39 white women do not think of themselves as minorities because white women are well represented at all levels of the class structure 39 there is a great deal of violence and sexual assaults against women 208987 rapes17 million simple assaults 39 10 20 of women experience rape or attempted rape o 90 knew their attacker 39 sexual violence is about power not sex 0 female genital multiliation is a form of sexual violence 39 sexual harassment comments gestures or physical contacts of sexual nature that are deliberate repeated and unwelcome 39 pornography is a power issue because pornography dehumanizes women depicting them as playthings Theories of Gender Structural Functional Theory 39 says gender serves as a means to organize social life 39 Parsons described gender in terms of two complementary patterns of behavior masculine and feminine 39 says gender is helpful gives men and women distinctive roles and responsibilities to help society operate smoothly 39 gender builds social unity as men and women form families SymbolicInteraction Theory says gender affects everyday interaction looks at the way that interpersonal dynamics effect social outcomes gender is part of the reality that guides social interaction in everyday situations gender is helpful and harmful helpful gender is one of the factors that helps us relate to one another harmful gender shapes human behavior placing men in control of social situations men initiate most interactions while Figure 13 2 HOUSEWORK WHO DOES HOW MUCH women act in a differential manner 0 On average women spend considerably more time doing housework than men SOCiaIConfliCt and 20 Intersection Theories 18 gwomen gm Engels described gender as the power of one sex over another gender interacts with class race and ethnicity to create disadvantage HARMFUL gender limits people39s 16 14 12 Hours of Housework perWeek 3 personal 0 development All Employed Emgrl zyed Emgrl39cayed gendef Mamed Msriglfd socrety by gIVIng ehIdren power to men to control women39s Regardless of employment or family status women do more housework than men What effect do you think the added burden of housework has on women39s ability to advance in the workplace lives the way existing social arrangements create inequality focused on social change intersection theory analysis of the interplay of race class and gender which often results in multiple dimensions of disadvantage o minority women face multiple disadvantages African American women experience quotdouble disadvantagequot because African American39s earn less than whites and women earn less than men Feminism feminism support of social equality for women and men in opposition to patriarchy and sexism 0 first wave in 1840s as women opposed slavery Five principles of feminism Taking action to increase equality Expanding human choice quotreintegration of humanityquot all individuals develop all human traits m Eliminating gender stratification throughout society 39 P PWNT Ending sexual violence Promoting sexual freedom birth control abortion Liberal feminism is rooted in classic liberal thinking that individuals should be free to develop their n talents and pursue their own interests support ERA 0 looks for equality and rights in an economic sense raise women and men to equal playing fields 0 want to keep the social structure the way it is within those institutions we want equality for men and women 0 original feminist movement gt associated with the women39s suffrage movements Socialist feminism supports an end to social classes and to family gender roles that encourage quotdomestic slaveryquot 0 large scale social change Radical feminism supports an end to the family system Class Notes Liberal feminism started in the 16th century feminist simply asking for equality with men right to vote 1920s 0 1950s and 60s right to work right to equal wages right to education Socialist feminism wanted to change the way society worked and wanted to change the social positions between men and women 0 critique of liberal feminism women will never gain equality with men with the current social system 0 wanted to change social institutions they reproduce inequality Radical feminism argued that men were oppressors focused on gender relations specifically the more men and women interacted more gender inequality more women and men separated the more freedom that women had to do their own thing 0 saw men as the problem 0 critiqued liberal and socialist feminism Black feminists all the feminism movements did not speak to the experience of black feminists 0 said that white women were dominating the movements and not giving black women a voice intersection theory convinced black feminists to look at the intersection of class race and gender 0 influenced in the US by the UN conferences and black feminism 1970 UN held first conference on women held in Mexico City white women from rich countries dominated it 0 white women39s issues on the agenda reproductive rights 0 women from other countries had other concerns they weren39t as rich to be worrying about reproductive rights 1980 UN meeting moved to Nairobi o rebellion women from the poor countries got to be recognized and change the feminist agenda 0 influenced the United States to see that intersection was important lntrapersonal racism the impact of racism on the inside of the person quotinternalized racismquot 0 ex self fulfilling prophecy stereotype threat colorism Interpersonal racism quotmicro aggressionsquot racial slurs when people experience racism outwardly 0 ex teacher expectations the racist comments of Judge Anthon Scalia made about AA students only being able to go to slow colleges Institutionalized racism racism due to social institutions 0 Too Important to Fail the abilities and cultural capital that the students posses cannot be recognized by the system Power Point on Gender on Elms amp Catalyst Graphs Occupational Segregation Wage Gap Women39s Professions in Comparison to Men Tell what the chart is about and then analyze the data Pay attention to the year Review the videos discussion guide and article on o How racism affects pregnancy outcomes 0 Three levels of racism definitions above Chapter 20 Education Education A Global Survey Asian Americans who benefit from higher family income and cultural capital that encourages schooling are more likely to attend college 60 education the social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge including basic facts job skills and cultural norms and values schooling formal instruction under the direction of specially trained teachers extent of schooling in society is tied to its level of economic development low and middle income countries teach young people important knowledge and skills for survival and getting a job formal schooling for wealthy people who may not need to work and can pursue personal enrichment not a lot of schooling in poor nations India 92 of children complete primary school very crowded with very few teachers 63 of children go on to secondary school 18 go to college 13 of India39s people cannot read or write schooling of girls is seen as expensive family already has to pay for the girl39s dowry if she gets married and there is not enough incentive to pay for girls to go to school and less invested in only 60 of girls reach secondary school and most girls work in factories to make their families money instead of going to school Japan 96 of men and women graduate from high school 51 of high school graduates enter college Japanese students rank 4th in the world in science and reading and 7th in mathematics United States one of the first countries to set a goal of mass education 87 of US adults have completed high school and 30 have a college degree Education system based on high standard of living young people don39t have to work and democratic principles schooling should be provided to all schooling tries to promote equal opportunity educational system stresses practical learning knowledge for future jobs instead of progressive education schools making learning relevant to people39s lives The Functions of Schooling Structural Functional Theory 1 97 Socialization more complex technology trained teachers to develop and pass on more specialized knowledge that adults will need in the workforce Cultural lnnovation research to lead to discovery and changes in our way of life Social lntegration school molds a diverse population into one sharing norms and values Social Placement schools identify talent and match instruction to ability Latent Functions of Schooling provides child care occupies young adults in college who would otherwise be looking for jobs in a limited job market brings people together of marriageable age US schools are based on inequality means that you deserve where you are smarter kids with more abilities rise to the top they39re also normally white and have a lot of money teachers give special attention to those students who they think they39ll do the brightest People that rise to the top have high social and cultural capital based on their backgrounds Schooling and Social Interaction Symbolic Interaction Theory self fulfilling prophecy people who expect others to act in certain ways often encourage that very behavior Schooling and Social Inequality Social Conflict Theory school is a way of controlling people reinforcing acceptance of the status quo biases of class race or ethnicity will always exists in standardized tests or formal testing explains that social institutions are mechanisms where inequality is reproduced teacher39s expectations influence children39s success in the classroom tracking assigning students to different types of educational programs 0 ex general education college prep classes or vocational and technical training Kozol sees tracking as an example of quotsavage inequalitiesquot kids from privileged backgrounds get into higher tracks students from disadvantaged backgrounds get put into lower tracks higher tracks encourage high self esteem lower tracks encourage low self esteem 90 of primary and secondary students attend public schools 10 attend public schools 40 of private school students attend one of 6800 parochical schools operated by the Catholic Church 38 of private school students attend 15000 non Catholic religious schools 22 of private school students attend 10000 non religious private schools come from wealthy families modeled by prep schools research shows student in private schools outperform students in public schools on standard measures of academic success 0 Advantages of private school smaller classes more demanding coursework and greater discipline there are inequalities in public schools differences in resources average teacher39s salaries differ by 35000 in different states 0 more affluent communities have better public schools because of racial segregation and residential segregation the government will only fund schools in poor minority neighborhoods is if white children from richer areas attend Coleman even if school funding was the same everywhere students who benefit from more cultural capital parents who value schooling read to their kids and encourage imagination would still perform better college is expensive 0 44 of families enrolled in college make 75000 annually richest 30 46 of families make between 20000 to 75000 middle and working class and 10 of families make less than 20000 a year lower class income gap demonstrates why the education gap between whites and minorities widens at the college level higher education is a good investment 4706 colleges and universities in the US 2968 four year institutions and 1738 two year colleges Community Colleges Benefits 1 low tuition makes them affordable 2 special importance for minorities 39 of African Americans and 51 of Hispanics attend community college 3 attract students from all over the world 4 top priority for community college faculty is teaching not research schooling transforms social privilege into personal merit Schooling people with Disabilities 64 million children with disabilities in the US 60 of children with disabilities attend public schools and spend 80 of their time in general classes mainstreaming integrating students with disabilities or special needs into the overall education program 0 inclusive education works best for kids with physically impaired disabilities children are less likely to be stigmatized as quotdifferentquot if they are included in regular classrooms Review videos quotToo Important to FailII Four followup questions for this video Is the US public school system a meritocracy What is the role of education in the US What changes would we have to make to make the school system equal Why do Americans care so little about the failures of the US school system Chapter 21 Health and Medicine Opening Graphic Obesity by Health and Medicine 466 451 quot0 39000 50 2157 20 o 1 NonHispanicWhite 10 Mexican American African American Percentage of US Adults Age 20 or Older Who Are Obese 1988 2002 2006 2010 What is Health health a state of complete physical mental and social well being 0 patterns of wellbeing and illness are rooted in the organization of society Cultural patterns define health Cultural standards of health change over time A society39s technology affects people39s health Social inequality affects people39s health Health A Global Survey severe poverty cuts off life expectancy World Health Organization reports that 1 billion people in the world suffer from serious illness due to poverty 0 poverty accounts for 70 of all illness industrialization improved by providing better nutrition and safer housing to people PPM 0 medical advances began to control infectious diseases Health in the US although the US spends more on healthcare per person than any other high income nation we have higher rates of disease least likely to live to age 50 and die sooner than other people in high income countries 39 social epidemiology the study of how health and disease are distributed throughout a society39s population Age and Gender 39 young people fall victim to accidents and AIDS women have better health than men 39 males more aggressive and individualistic more likely to have four times the risk of suicide and five times the risk of dying from a homicide more likely to die from heart disease Social Class and Race with higher income and greater wealth boosts people39s health by improving their nutrition enabling them to get better health care and allowing them to live in safer and less stressful surroundings poverty for African Americans shapes why black people are most likely to die in infancy to suffer effects to high blood pressure and heart disease Smoking 39 smoking is most common among working class people than among those with more income and education Eating Disorders eating disorder a physical and mental disorder that involves intense dieting or other unhealthy method of weight control driven by the desire to be very thin 0 ex anorexia nervosa bulimia 39 among teenagers girls are three times more than boys to be affected by an eating disorder women are three times more likely to suffer from anorexia and five times more likely to suffer from bulimia than men results in low self image 39 for women US culture equates slimness with being successful and attractive to men Obesity 39 for the world the average person weighs 137 pounds for the US the average person weighs 180 pounds 196 lbs for men 166 lbs for women 39 64 of US adults are overweight BMI between 25 29 10 30 lbs overweight 39 36 are clinically obese BMI over 30 30 lbs overweight 39 cost of treating diabetes is 147 billion every year 0 Social causes of obesity 0 1 Transition from physical labor to sitting watching TV and computer screens 0 2 Diet people eating more salty and fatty foods 39 obesity problem is high among minorities because of lower income Sexually Transmitted Diseases STD 39 251000 cases of gonorrhea and 13350 cases of syphilis most cases contracted by 66 of African Americans 21 of whites and 11 of Latinos 39 25 million in the US are infected by genital herpes 39 AIDS is cause by HIV 15529 AIDS deaths were in the US in 2010 African Americans account for 43 of people with AIDS Latinos represent 20 of people with AIDS 39 AIDS is a disease of the socially disadvantaged Global Map 21 1 If one39s household income is high then they are more likely to live past age 65 in the United States Health Video in Textbook 39 social inequality has a major impact on health less access to resources 39 issues of inequality medical care and technological advances help health outcomes 39 increasing early detection of disease 39 school aged kids are mostly affected by the disease 39 sociologists measure many factors The Medical Establishment holistic health care systems emerging in the United States 39 Western health care systems study the body independently and fix what39s wrong in those parts of the body 0 surgery or drugs used to fix these aliments 39 Structural Functional Approach to Sickness sickness is apart of society there are certain roles that people possess when they are sick or doctors to help people get well 39 How is medical care paid for government funded vs market quotdirect feequot government funded health care the assumption is that there should be universal health care for all citizens 39 Medicare health care to those 65 years and older 0 covered 15 of expenditures 39 Medicaid aid program to those who are in poverty 0 covered 17 of expenditures 39 4 of Veterans are covered with health care 39 in total the US government covers 36 of health care expenditures Theories of Health and Medicine Market Driven Health Care vs Government Funded Health Care StructuralFunctional gt Role Analysis 39 medicine is society39s strategy to keep its members healthy 0 illness is dysfunctional because it undermines peoples abilities to perform their roles 39 sick role patterns of behavior defined as appropriate for people who are ill 0 sick role releases people from normal obligations such as going to work or attending classes 0 but people must look the part of this sick quotillquot role to take advantage of this privilege 39 physician39s role evaluates people39s claims of sickness and helps to restore the sick to their normal routine Symbolic Interaction gt The Meaning of Health 39 health and medical care are socially constructed in everyday interaction 39 our response to illness is based on social definitions 0 ex people living with AIDS are forced to deal with prejudice that has no medical basis 39 how people define a medical situation may affect how they feel 39 how people define their own health affects how they actually feel psychosomatic conditions SocialConflict Theory gt Inequality and Health 39 access to care is a serious problem in the US because we don39t have a universal medical system 39 most people who do not have access to health care have low to middle incomes and cannot afford it 39 capitalist medical care places profit over the needs of people 39 scientific medicine downplays the social causes of illness including poverty racism and sexism Chapter 23 Collective Behavior and Social Movements Studying Collective Behavior 39 Sociologists have to differentiate between social groups collectivism and social movements Social Movements 39 social movement an organized activity that encourages or discourages social change the factors that influence the four types of social movements 0 how much change does this social movement create limited or radical 0 who is changed specific individuals or society 39 Alternative Social Movement limited change and affecting individuals subgroup 0 ex Mothers Against Drunk Driving 39 Redemptive Social Movement radical change affecting specific individuals subgroup 0 ex Beyond Scared Straight Alcoholics Anonoymous Reformative Social Movement limited change affecting everyone 0 Minimum Wage Change Education Law Revolutionary Social Movement radical change affecting everyone a change in government 0 ex communist revolutions apartheid in South Africa Life of a Social Movement 0 Stage 1 Emergence gt Recognizing the Problem Uproar and Calling Attention to It gt BLM after the acquittal of George Zimmerman for the murder of Trayvon Martin 0 Stage 2 Coalescence gt Strategies and Approaches to the Problem Popularization of the Problem gt BLM the hashtag Ferguson 0 Stage 3 Bureaucratization gt When a social movement organization centralizes and organizes into a staff of people a hierarchy might emerge into a political party gt BLM no organization called quotBlack Lives Matterquot that one can join identifying with the movement leaders of the movement are not necessarily heading all of the small organizations happening around the country 0 Stage 4 Decline for the following reasons gt Success Failure due to organizational weakness or internal strife Cooptation of leaders Repression Establishment within mainstream New social movements are more likely to resist this pattern of a life of a social movement 39 New Social movements after 1968 0 Race civil rights gender environment 0 Adopting a new set of themes quality of life not anymore focused on class and nation 0 Adopted new structures and new ways of implementation 0 Localized Video quotBlack Lives Matter Movement is Much Older Than You ThinkII WATCH THIS on ELMS
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