ANSC 22100 Final Exam Study Guide
ANSC 22100 Final Exam Study Guide ANSC 221: Animal health and Nutrition
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gayatri on Saturday December 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANSC 221: Animal health and Nutrition at Purdue University taught by Forsyth in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 306 views. For similar materials see ANSC 221: Animal health and Nutrition in Animal Science and Zoology at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 12/12/15
ANSC 22100 Final Exam Study Guide new material What are the differences between grasses and legumes I Grasses Provide bulk Grow under lots of conditions tougher Less nutritive value than legumes except at maturity Palatable when immature I Legumes Richer in CP Minerals Vitamins than grasses More digestible when young less at maturity Get Nitrogen from air use microbes Higher FV but not energy I Both have same TDN CF Fat and P Common Grass forages I Range or Prairie Grasses Big Bluestem Indian grass Switchgrass Side oats gramma Bufallograss I Cool Season Perennial Grasses Kentucky blue Reed canarygrass Smooth brome Perennail ryegrass Orchardgrass Sorghum sudangrass Timothy Sudangrass Fescue Legumes I Alfalfa I Clovers Red white alsike ladino sweet I Bird s foot trefoil I Lespedeza I Crownvetch I Soybean I Cowpea I Peanut Characteristics of pastures silages hay forage feeds I Variable protein I Low energy high ber I Higher Ca and trace minerals than most grains I Better source of fat soluble vitamins I Add bulk needed to maintain rumen function also by horses for proper digestive system function Principles regarding how silages are made I Need to be packed well I Spoilage layer on outside inside is preserved well I Stored in upright structures 9 silos I Better structure glasslined silos oxygen limiting I Also stored in plastic bags better for small producers temporary storage Most important factor for making and preserving good silage keeping it free of oxygen Additives I Ground corn adds DM energy I Molasses I Sulfuric Dioxide I Microbial Cultures I Limestone I Urea Anhydrous NH3 raises protein content I Formic acid Mineral acids Methods of determining ber content besides crude ber developed by D Van Sost I NDF Neutral Detergent Fiber I Represents cell wall function contains cellulose hemicellulose lignin pectins I Related to feed intake DM intake BW 120NDF I ADF Acid Detergent Fiber I Remaining fraction with lignin cutin silica I Related to ration digestibility Factors that affect the quality of forages I Palatability Adding molasses fat or water can increase intake I Composition I Digestibility If ground too ne decreases digestibility I Species I Chopping 2 I Grinding 1 Can increase feed intake average daily gain Works better on poor quality than high quality hay May not be worth the 38 Animal Nutrient Requirements I Highest at lactation I Moderate at growth nishing I Lowest at maintenance Choosing Feeds Wisely I Corn used to add energy in ruminant and nonruminant diets Dairy cattle when milking up to 60 concentrates corn SBM Finishing cattle Starting calves on feed if milk alone is not enough to get proper gain Cows sparingly only if hay or silage is not enough I Corn silage roughage high in energy low in protein Ca other minerals Dairy cows and beef cows for their winter energy needs Most other ruminants but with an intake limit I Pastures grass legume or mix Beef cattle Sheep 0 Horses Some portion of dairy ration Young growing calves Low quality forage mature grass hays Animals with low requirements such as those not giving milk or growing very fast or not close to calving in breeding season High quality forage palatable and high in protein eg legumes alfalfa clovers Young calves Dairy cows SBM used to add extra protein Fed to any animal Substitutes are protein feeds peanut meal linseed meal sun ower copra etc Crop residue feeds low quality low energy low protein Sheep and cattle in early or mid gestation Ration Balancing Method 1 2 basal feeds and minerals xed amount of DDG Given weight in pounds of ration protein as well as DDG and other criteria Start with protein and set it equal to protein amounts times protein in each one for corn DDG SBM Then phosphorus calcium others etc 1 ton 2000 lbs Method 2 Amount of NutrientDay Method Given BW to feed for specific weight of animal Calculate hay first then add in corn and SBM as needed for TDN and CP If requirements are met do not need corn and SBM Dry matter 9 As fed divide DM by DM content As fed 9 dry matter multiply as fed by DM content Balancing a ration by algebraic methods There are two unknowns that are the two main ingredients usually corn and SBM and you leave 3 or 4 for Vitamins and Minerals Balancng a ration for a total amount 1002000 lbs There are three unknowns and three equations one for each amount energy and CP Determining the nutrient content of a ration Multiply of the nutrient present in a specific ingredient times the amount of ingredient What percent is 100 ppm 100 1000000 01 Feeding horses Nonruminant herbivores with a small stomach and a large coloncecum Consume forage Very susceptible to digestive upset 9 colic Cannot use NPN but can break down cellulose Specif1c differences to be aware of when feedings cats High protein requirement I Limited ability to regulate catabolic enzymes of amino acid metabolism Inability to synthesize niacin from tryptophan due to very active degradative pathway Inability to convert carotene 9 Vitamin A cannot get Vitamin A from plants Inability to synthesize taurine from cysteine I Taurine is an essential AA Benzoic acid is very toxic Sensitivity to arginine need Felinine I Sbearing AA in cat urine I High requirement for SAA No salivary amylase along with decreased activity of pancreatic amylase I Can digest carbs but not in large amounts Attracted to animal product fat meat avors Camitine vitamin like substance that enhances weigh loss is synthesized in kidney Metabolic differences I Minimal hepatic glucokinase nonadaptive I Minimal hepatic glycogen synthetase use fat and gluconeogenic amino acids for energy instead of starch I No fructokinase High need for B vitamins Less sensitivity to thirst canned food increases water intake and prevents urolithiasis but also increases dental tartar and periodontal disease Can utilize high fat diets Cats cannot change the quantities on enzymes involved in their metabolic pathways and therefore have more stringent nutrient requirements Differences are there between large and small breeds of dogs diet is the same very little difference in digestion and absorption of nutrients only feeding amount is relative to size Dog food ingredients 50 cooked cereal grains Meat and cheese meals dried skim and buttermilk SBM dried brewer s yeast fish meal wheat germ 9 protein and avor 15 iodized salt l2 bone meal limestone trace mineral mix Corn gluten meal wheat middlings Tomato pomice carotene Vitamin E pectin 9 keeps stools consistent Toxic foods for dogs Chocolate Coffee tea Grapes raisins Onions Walnuts macadamia nuts Mushrooms Toxic substance for cats benzoic acid a food preservative Cats have a very high protein requirement because they have limited ability to regulate catabolic enzymes of amino acid metabolism Feeding horses cats and dogs and people vs feeding pigs and cattle Companion animals are not raised for efficiency or productivity Focus is on good health and longevity No uniformity in breeding and selection individual needs are more emphasized 0 TERMS I creep feeding a method of supplementing the diet of young calves by giving them feed when they are still nursing usually beef calves I stocker cattle animals which you can add value to I backgrounding intermediate stage comes after weaning and before going out to the feedlot I compensatory gain accelerated growth of the animal after a period of slow development as a result of nutrient deprivation I quothot rationsquot high energy rations for ruminants based on lots of grain I f1nishing ration used before the animal is sent to slaughter I brood cow cow with a calf I ketosis occurs when there are too many ketone bodies in the blood which form from using body fat for energy mainly affects cattle sheep I acidosis results from excess of lactic acid in the body acids produced by rumen exceed animals ability to buffer and metabolize them I displaced abomasum occurs as a result of too much graincom silage in dairy cattle abomasum is displaced folded can result in blockage I colic severe pain in abdomen caused by intestinal gas or obstruction common in horses I founder caused by overeating especially grain results in pain swelling of hooves found in horses cattle I liver abscesses necrotic liver is present in tissues surrounded by pus occurs because of fusobacterium necrophorum in rumen I fat cow syndrome occurs as a result of too much concentrate fed to dry cows results in fat accumulation in the liver Colostrum the first substance released from the mammary glands after an animal gives birth 0 Must be given to the calf as soon as possible because it is rich in antibodies Boars must get highest CP and lysine levels to maximize their muscling Gilts need more protein than barrows for maximum carcass value and feed efficiency Gilts and boars must be fed more protein because they are reproducing animals Growingfinishing pigs are limit fed in some other places in the world not here we usually feed them adlib to improve feed efficiency and leanness Feed given to gilts and sows should be limited because otherwise they will continue to eat without stopping even when their needs are met Methods of limiting feed in gestation 0 Individual feeding o Bulky low energy feeds 0 Interval feeding every 3rd day 0 Selflimiting diets Pregnant sows are fed to maintain condition and develop pigs Lactating sows are fed for milk production and lactation What are the reasons for a different set of considerations for feeding horses from those used for beef cattle and hogs I Horses are nonruminant herbivores I Not bred for uniformity I Individual needs must be met rather than generalizing Compare and contrast feeding sheep vs feeding beef cattle I Similarities Both need A D E Vitamins Both need Ca P Mg Na Cl Nutrient needs are in uenced by age body size body condition stage of production milk production and weather Both have energy problems Sheep can have too little or too much energy Beef cattle tend to run out of energy before protein I Differences specific to sheep Copper is very toxic to sheep Ca P ratio is much more important Twinning is common so providing enough energy can be difficult Ketosis is common Gestation is shorter Maintenance is longer They handle water differently General requirements for feeding each animal I Beef crop residues can be used and generally meet all needs I Dairy have high energy demands no more than 60 concentrates an be fed and lower quality forages are restricted to maintenance only I Sheep forage can often meet needs but sheep near lambing and after it will need supplementation with grain I Horse mostly forages some grain is fed I Swine generally fed concentrate diets high energy but not too much fat I Poultry mostly concentrate diets to meet energy needs I Cats high protein diets true carnivores I Dogs complete commercial diet is best amount based on size of breed Bone meal is a mineral supplement not a protein supplement meat and bone meal is the proper name of a protein supplement Which is more important for high milk production in a dairy cow maximum digestibility or maximum dry matter intake I Maximum dry matter intake because as long as cows know how to eat a lot and have the genetic ability for high milk production outcome is good Vitamin is synthesized in metabolism of all of our farm animals Vitamin C Vitamins are always added to pig poultry and dog diets Vitamins A B D E K Vitamins are always needed in the diets of ruminant animals Vitamins A D B We do not feed hay to pigs because they cannot digest cellulose Do we ever feed dairy cows nearly all corn 90 com No no more than 60 of ration can be concentrates 40 forages Do we expect steers to grow fast and fatten when fed diets of corn stover or corn cobs No Good pasture meets needs for horses beef cows sheep and dairy cows when they are not lactating
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