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CHEM 103 - 002
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ian Peck on Saturday December 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 20986 at University of Pittsburgh taught by James Lennox in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see The Nature of the Emotions in OTHER at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 12/12/15
Study guide Review of Darwin James Freud Cannon Dewey II Darwin What s a useful emotionexpressionaction according to Darwin Pg 58 Any of those things that serves a purpose is useful follows the first principle These things become so often used that become re ex and are passed on to our offspring List Darwin s 2rld principle and brie y explain it Situations that are demand a response opposite to those which we have found useful produce an opposite reaction and these are not necessarily useful to us According to the third principle what would the act of blushing be Some responses are entirely of our bodies own natural response the nervous system Can we really control our emotions according to Darwin What is so special about forming habits Pg 59 The formation of a habit can be passed on to later generations if it becomes re exive Fear is useful because it causes us to act in such a way to ensure our safety According to the second principle why does a dog show no fear around its master Pg 60 It is advantageous to show the opposite signs of fear because the master loves the dog To show violent or fearful expression would elicit negative feedback of some kind Which principle says emotions can be a nuisance rather than useful Pg 62 The third principle is all about physical responses to the excess work of the nervous system Trembling Darwin cites is one such emotion which serves no good purpose James 1 What is an emotion according to this theory Pg 65 A reaction to a bodily response that was brought on by something in our environment 2 How is this like Descartes theory how isn t it Emotions are bodily to a significant degree here but James had the advantage of actual scientific research such as Darwin s studies of emotion and physiology to work with and support his claims 3 Which comes first according to James the act of laughing or joy The laughter is what brings on the emotion of joy 4 What is it about these environmental stimuli that causes these bodily functions according to James It is all instinctual but James is vague about this explanation and never directly addresses it 5 What is the biggest criticism of James theory Pg 66 If the emotion comes after the physical stimulus then what compels a human to act See a snake body tenses fear is felt then ight from danger His theory does not answer why we ee it stops right before that and would have us merely standing in fear of the snake without ight 6 What doesn t the theory tackle that theorists today are concerned with James theory isn t concerned with what is considered to be sophisticated aspects of emotions or the differences between the many similar emotions like fear and anxiety or joy and happiness It ignores cognitive and behavioral elements as well making emotions out to be less thoughtful 7 James believes theorists during his time are dividing the brain into two areas in their studies what are they and what science inspired them Psychologists divided the brain into a two areas motor centers and sensorial areas perception and decisionmaking 8 What are two possibilities James sees with emotions Which does he choose He sees the brain either having its own area for emotions or that they result from the sensory and motor areas discussed above James sees the latter as being the truth 9 What are James standard emotions Why are they standard Emotions like surprise curiosity rapture fear anger lust greed and any other emotion that is brought on by obvious bodily reaction to environmental stimuli are standard If a bodily reaction is not discernible than it must be a bodily sensation or from ideational centers which have very little facial expression or bodily characteristics involved but revolve around pleasure and aversion 10 Why must our actions come after feeling something in our bodies Why can t we feel an emotion without the body The body to James actually produces the emotion Without our interpretation of the body s reaction to stimuli our actions would be purely of thought ie we would punish because it was righteous not because the injustice angered us Anger is felt in the ustering of the face as it muscles tense and blood ows then that feeling urges us to seek reparations 11 James cites Darwin s work as evidence for his theory s premises what about Darwin s discoveries supports James theory Pg 68 James sees the nervous system of all creatures having the conditioned re exive actions of generations imprinted within them so to speak Remember that all emotions are understood through their particular bodily response associated with the stimulating event These bodily responses are the re exive actions Darwin spoke of 12 What does James believe is the reason the physiology of the emotions is not easily perceptible to be the precursor to the emotions themselves Pg 69 Our understanding of this physiology is really limited James believes that the actual amount of processes occurring in the body s muscles skin glands heart and other viscera are too numerous to completely account for each 13 What is the one constant of all bodily changes James mentions with concern to our personality Pg 69 All the responses our bodies show to whatever they are reacting to characterize us such as a narrowing of the brow when compelled to deep thought 14 When we try to feel an emotion manually rather than naturally what happens Pg 6970 When we try to feel an emotion manually rather than naturally it doesn t work We cannot will any emotion such as joy when we feel sorrow or a lack of joy This is because there is no mindstuff to constitute this change James believes a physical response precedes all emotion so without that response no emotion can be perceived 15 How does James argue that there is no emotion without our bodies changes Pg 70 He requests the reader imagine what fear would be like if we did not tremble tense or show any other such physical response in the face of danger There would only be cold intellectual perception that there was danger This is proven by the very act of suppressing them does James mean when he says some emotional responses In suppressing these bodily changes trying not to shake when nervous or afraid are we not also verifying the effects they have on our emotional state 16 What would James say of the Stoics What would he say of Plato The Stoics and their continued endeavor to control their emotions by denying them was pointless as they couldn t prevent the nervous system s natural responses to stimuli then they couldn t prevent the emotion All they could do was decide whether or not to act on the emotion but they could not stop themselves from initially feeling it However James does admit that to refuse to express a passion will eliminate the emotion Such as counting to ten when angry And Plato though he desired a world free from physical limitations would be utterly without affections without a body 17 When don t physical responses precede an emotion Pg 71 Only when some amount of education must be experienced so the individual can be conditioned into the proper physical response presenting itself with exposure to the same scenario in the future So objects that are novel to us cannot force a response until we have some idea about it 18 Does cognition play any part in our emotional process Pg 72 74 Only in the way that an emotionally charged idea can elicit a bodily response or that our conscious effort to calm ourselves or revert to a less emotional state requires some thinking When we feel the pain of dread James says it is a very upper repertory feeling of pain that our bodies seem to produce To stop that pain we just need to calm ourselves 19 What happens when we feel sad but act in a way that denotes happiness Pg 73 This kind of behavior such as smiling or being friendly while actually feeling the contrary emotion will actually begin to brighten our moods On the other hand some people are preconditioned to gushing or overexpression of what they truly feel and this cannot be avoided 20 What does James say about emotions that are not standard Pg 74 75 III His dissenters will cite these as proof that emotion can be felt immediately without the body s precedence James argues that with these cases such as immediate approval of music as good music there is more cognition involved than emotion 21 What does James say of the critic Pg 75 The critic who cares nothing for the human endeavor that went behind the making of some piece of art judges whether it is good or bad and nothing more Therefore whether something is pleasing or not is not a question of whether it excites pleasure but more a judgment thought Critics are further support against nonstandard emotions disproving his theory 22 What could prove or disprove J ames s theory Pg 76 If a body s functions could be repressed but strong emotions still expressed then he would be wrong With the reverse he would be right Freud Pg 98109 1 How is Freud inconsistent with his theory of the unconscious with regard to emotions Pg 9899 Freud believed emotions were conscious and described them in terms of consciousness affects felt feelings the conscious subjective aspect of an emotion But Freud would also describe in terms of unconsciousness unconscious guilt repressed hostility 2 Explain Freud s three components of emotions Pg 99 Instinct unconscious inherent response Idea the instinct is unconscious but is accompanied by a conscious thought Affect an emotion is a conscious affect 3 Freud gives several pieces of evidence for the unconscious Which does he call incontrovertible proof Pg 100 When unconscious processes help explain what conscious ones have so far not been able to that is solid justification for the theory 4 There is an objection to the theory of unconsciousness where anything unconscious is regarded as no longer psychical or of the mind How does Freud disagree Pg 101 10 Freud sees the majority of knowledge to be latent rather than at our immediate disposal but there is a disagreement that such latent memories are still of the mind Freud believes they are residually of the mind and so can become psychical processes once more How are latent states similar to conscious states Pg 101 Freud says all the categories that are under consciousness are applicable to the unconsciousness ideas purposes resolutions and other things along those lines Freud thinks the only real difference between the latent and conscious is actually just the fact one is conscious and the other isn t What does Freud mean when he says the unconscious is perfectly plausible because in postulating it we are not departing a single step from our customary and generally accepted mode of thinking Pg 101 The theory of consciousness itself is based solely on the assumption that the consciousness we feel is universally felt by other humans such a thing cannot be proven as we cannot ever know another person s thoughts as we can our own The theory of unconsciousness is based on the same assumption and so changes nothing in adapting it to the theory of consciousness Freud has many justifications and pieces of evidence supporting his theory of the unconscious The weekly courseweb response questions for Freud asked you to give and explain a few do you remember them Pg 100102 Anything that initiates an emotional response Freud might call an affect What happens to affects when a process of the mind becomes unconscious Pg 103 Repression is the process which nullifies the affects of emotions Repression is what allows for unconscious processes to develop What is the difference between fear anxiety and fright according to Freud Pg 106 Fear is associated with an object Fright occurs in the presence of danger without warning and without anxiety Anxiety is actually a means of overcoming fright as it prepares one for fight or ight Remember that birth is the prototype of anxiety The feelings and bodily responses associated with anxiety are in Freud s opinion all first felt at birth These same feeling are then felt later under similar conditions Pg 106 IV 11 Remember also that anxiety is only useful in its way of preparing one for action In over abundance it ruins one s ability to act Feud calls this dread Pg 105 Cannon 1 What is the theory of Homeostasis Pg 76 The body s processes are always at work to maintain its systems in this theory 2 What kinds of intense emotions does Cannon consider What are their function essentially Rage fear and pain hold some sort of selfpreservation value to individuals to Cannon 3 Cannon is an opponent to the James Lange theory What are some points to Cannon s argument Pg 78 He sites that Lange s theory held emotions depended on the vasomotor center and then reports experimentation with cats and dogs revealed after disconnecting their vasomotor centers These extensively disturbing operations had little if any effect on the emotional responses of the animals Because both James and Lange thought no emotion would be left without the physiological aspect of the emotion they are both proved wrong by these experiments Pg 79 4 What would Cannon say about goosebumps or erect hair Pg 80 He would say they are just as easily brought on by cold and not necessarily by an emotion like fear or rage 5 Hypothetically in openheart surgery without anesthesia would you feel a doctor poke your heart What does the answer to this question mean to Cannon Pg 81 Other theorists believe that sensation becomes stronger the more internal we go but we would not feel any touch of the heart or other organs for they are without nerves 6 What does it mean that visceral changes occur slowly What does that affect Pg 82 It means they cannot in uence emotion Emotions are often perceived quickly how can the body alert us to emotion if it is finishing its change after we have perceived the emotion 7 Cannon mentions how an observation of students injected with Adrenaline showed a state coldly appreciated and without real emotion Why does he say this Pg 82 Once again to disprove the fact that physiological responses denote emotion Adrenaline mimics the effects of intense emotion so the student observation proves yet another false correlation V Dewey Pg 8597 1 What is connecting Darwin s theory to James according to Dewey Pg 85 The two theories have a very close tie with the teleological having to do with its purpose aspect of emotions Darwin pays close attention to the expressions of emotions what is characteristic of a particular emotion James considers the expression to be the emotion Obviously there is a clear connection 2 After reading page 85 what do you think a smile is to you when your friend smiles What is it to your friend To an onlooker expressions are indicative of particular emotions however the person who is expressing the emotion is receiving these same signals and messages they know what they are feeling or do not without need to reference their own expressions The emotion is present to them regardless 3 What does Dewey think Darwin was most concerned with when he studied the emotions Pg 86 As communicated in Darwin s phrase serviceable associated habits it is clear Darwin had little concern for emotions and more for the aspects of the emotions that were of some survival or evolutionary value 4 Dewey believes that infants actually teach is an important aspect of laughter what is it Is laughter the expression of happiness Pgs 8687 Laughter to infants is a way to communicate their approval of something just as crying signifies their disapproval with something like pain Laughter signifies happiness at a certain level of happiness but the emotion can be felt at varying levels Therefore laughter is not prerequisite to joy 5 What are idiopathic discharges Give some examples Why are they important with regard to Dewey Pg 88 An idiopathic discharges is something which are not adjusted movements They are things like trembling or goosebumps which are not always indicative of emotion Therefore those things which are adjusted movements must be emotional expressions 6 That which is not serviceable to us is not useful and James would say without an object Why would Dewey disagree Pg 88 From its own perspective the action is not useless it has an object even if it does not succeed in rectifying the situation that induced it 7 How do you tell the difference between a serviceable associated habit and an idiopathic discharge Pg 8899 Idiopathic discharges will not involve coordination of muscle the respiratory system nutritional processes and circulatory systems like serviceable associated habits do 8 Can you find a statement that draws the connection between Darwin s second principle and idiopathic discharges Pg 89 idiopathic cases as a rule are to be conceived of as the starting of activities formerly useful for a given end but which now for some reason fail to function and therefore stand out in consciousness apart from the needed end 9 Why is Darwin s principle of antithesis so difficult for Dewey to accept Pg 90 It makes sense that an organism should develop over time an expressive response for certain situations but for those same situations to inspire without development opposite expressions for equally opposite situations seems like a stretch 10 How did James fail to adequately deal with emotions Pg 92 He would not explain the emotions themselves but always the feeling associated with them This is not a serious enough handling of emotions for Dewey He wants to know the whole condition associated with a particular emotion 11 What scares us the bear the idea of the bear or the act of seeing the bear Why Pg 94 According to Dewey seeing the bear is what scares us It wither because we inherited something to induce this response or we acquired something Either way the foundation necessary to react as we do is already present and the bear itself is not the object of our fear The scenario is what we are afraid of 12 Dewey really stresses the idea towards the end of his paper that the object and affect of an emotion are important Why Pg 96 The status of these two things working together is important to the expression of the particular emotion at hand For example if the affect coordinates with the object then a seizure of emotional expression is not displayed When the two are not in coordination there is such a display
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